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Content Analytical Study of the Twitter Handle of Selected Celebrities As a Tool For Mobilizing #EndSARs Protesters

Content Analytical Study of the Twitter Handle of Selected Celebrities As a Tool For Mobilizing #EndSARs Protesters

Chapter One/Introduction

This thesis analyzes a compilation of tweets from a specific digital social movement, #EndSARs. This campaign was an instance of hashtag activism to end police brutality that appeared on Twitter following series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.The protests which takes its name from the slogan started in 2017 as a Twitter campaign using the hashtag #ENDSARS to demand the disbanding of the unit by the Nigerian government. After experiencing a revitalisation in October 2020 following more revelations of the abuses of the unit, mass demonstrations occurred throughout the major cities of Nigeria, accompanied by vociferous outrage on social media platforms.

Background to the Study

Social media platforms are a means for online socialization, as well as the ease of communication, particularly between individuals who are physically apart.  In bridging potential physical gaps, these digital spaces allow individuals to come together virtually to share information and discuss ideas. The primary requirement for participation in these spaces is Internet access via a computer or smartphone. The specific function and content of a conversation may vary – from a discussion of common interests or the expression of random thoughts to engagement in debate and, even, individual attempts to spark social change that, together, can resemble a social movement.

This thesis focuses attention on a specific instance of activist campaigning that took place on social media in order to present an understanding of how individual communicators, known thus forth as rhetors, can use the rhetoric of personal experience to politicize a conversation.  These platforms generally have a broad reach, and thus allow individuals from various backgrounds to meet in a common virtual space. Without the exclusion of physical rhetoric that occurs in face-to-face conversations, like facial expressions and gestures that can allow a person to better understand another’s message, discussions on social media platforms must rely largely on the written word and often involve users contributing personal narrative to clarify and justify a position within a larger conversation.

Twitter is a micro-blogging social media platform that allows users to express small blurbs of information to their followers; it is a broad social media platform that allows participants to share messages within an online community. At the time of my research, the site saw nearly 330 million active accounts publishing an average of 500 million tweets a day (Aslam, 2017). This form of social media is accessible to users through its website, www.Twitter.com, or smartphone app; its primary function is to allow users to express thoughts and ideas within an online community through a limited statement, known as a ‘tweet.’ Anyone may participate in this community of digital sharing as long as they open an account with Twitter using a legitimate email address and establish a selected username and password of the individual’s choice.

Tweets may be accompanied by photos or video, and they were initially limited to 140 characters in length. Twitter raised the limit to 280 characters in November of 2017, however this thesis focuses solely on tweets published in 2014 when the limit was restricted to 140 (Tsukayama, 2017). The use of limited characters per tweet often caused Twitter users to practice concision when delivering messages; they were forced to craft messages in the clearest and most efficient phrasing in order to get their meaning across.

Tweets are also often characterized by what is known as a ‘hashtag.’ This is a key word or phrase that allows a particular tweet to be part of a larger conversation on the platform and easily accessed by users, while also influencing its content. In order to use a hashtag, a user must tweet a certain word or phrase un-spaced and precede this with a number symbol (“#”). Individuals may use hashtags to join a conversation or to simply emphasize a message. Hashtags are helpful in categorizing large amounts of information on Twitter, so it is important to recognize that “public tweets from individual users containing a hashtagged phrase can be easily aggregated and retweeted, circulating messages to people outside of the original tweeter’s personal network and allowing for virality” (Boyd, et al., 2010).  In other words, tweets within a hashtag will now be linked to one-another, regardless of the user who originally tweeted them, so tweeting within a hashtag allows users to easily access related information expressed by other people. Additionally, the use of a hashtag allows participation from theoretically all members of a social media community within a single, larger conversation. Hashtag use thus creates the potential for users to develop an online community of likeminded individuals.

Communication practices on Twitter involve different conventions than other types of interactions. For instance, users have limited use of characters, forcing them to be succinct with their messages. Additionally, due to its micro-blogging nature, Twitter users typically share all sorts of information – ranging from daily observations to news items to random thoughts to political commentary. Thus, it is common for interactions to occur between individuals who do not know each other in the physical world. Such instances often involve one user responding to a specific tweet communicated by another, often entering a conversation with a reply that solely relates to the content of the conversation instead of giving any type of introduction prior to inserting oneself into an interaction. As Twitter is a broad platform, users are able to seamlessly join a conversation, particularly when tweets are being classified with a hashtag.

Users typically engage in communication that stands apart from normal everyday conversation and does not follow the conventions for standard interactions. Although users have the opportunity to participate in conversations with other users on the platform, and they often do so, the features of such interactions differ from communication that takes place through other channels. More standard interactions, such as face-to-face discussions or telephone conversations, typically follow various conversational rules. For instance, when encountering an old friend on the street, a person will usually communicate some sort of greeting, such as “hi” or “hello,” often followed by some iteration of “how are you?” Although such an exchange is common in the physical world, interactions on Twitter rarely occur in a similar manner with users often inserting commentary into a stranger’s conversation with little or no introduction.

Hashtag activism, or the use of a hashtag for some form of activism, has become increasingly common on social media platforms. The use of a hashtag to raise awareness of and combat various social issues has been particularly prevalent on Twitter.






The Nigerian press has seen different kinds of ownership ranging from missions, groups, and individuals to governments. Yet ownership of some newspapers remained obscure and a subject of speculation. Beyond the traditional functions, Nigerian newspapers have served purposes that diverged from their professed philosophy or ideologies. The total population for the study is 200 staff of guardian and pointer newspaper. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up clearing officers,direct sales reps,senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies. 


Background of the study

The media is an important social mirror. It sets social, political and economic agenda and amplifies development. The media is one of the most powerful institutions because of the control it exercises over the information transmitted to the masses. Its role in shaping public opinion cannot be underestimated. A strong, fair, objective and independent media helps in development of vibrant democracies and progressive societies.

Alger (1998) asserts that the media are crucial to the development of stable and functioning democracies and mature societies. He contends that one of the factors that determine the efficiency of the media in fulfilling their socio-political role is how they are owned and controlled. For a media to effectively succeed in its role there must be editorial independence.  Editorial independence is defined as the decision making freedoms that editors enjoy without interference from the media owners.  Editors gain freedom when they detach themselves from   their preconceptions, biases, prejudgments and external influence (Bagdikian, 1997). The detachment helps them to develop trustworthiness and moral fibre that helps them uphold the truth and stand for what is right. However, the relationship between editors and media owners has a significant impact on editorial independence.  The goals of the media owners often affect the decision making ability of editors in a media house. In most cases, it is almost impossible for editors to publish or broadcast without reference to the goals of the media house owner.

There are few media owners who believe unequivocally that total editorial independence is the only way to command respect and maintain integrity. Editors should always base their decisions on the importance their content to the public and not on the commercial success of the media house (Bogart, 1995). On the other hand, media owners should never interfere with the selection, evaluation and editing of content. Clear contracts that define editorial independence are nonexistent in many media houses (Gaziano, 1989). Furthermore, there are no established mechanisms that govern the relationship between editors and media owners. Therefore, in many countries, editorial independence exists until editors cross a certain line.

Editorial  freedom  or  independence  is  the  concept  that editors-in-chief should have full authority over the editorial content  of  their  journal.  Like individual and national freedom or independence, it is a rhetorical concept whose realization flows from internal achievement as much as it depends  on  external  validation.  From  cover  to  cover, editors have the right “to decide what is published, what is not published, when items are published, and what (if any) amendments are made prior to publication,” but they are constrained to “work within social, legal and ethical frameworks that circumscribe their freedom” and make them accountable, “in different but interlocking ways, to their  publishers,  readers  and  contributors and  also  to more abstract overseers: the medical profession, science and society.” This   freedom   entails   roles   and   responsibilities (response-ability;  the  ability  to  respond)  embodied  in specific codes of practice for editors, such as the guidelines espoused  by  the  International  Committee  of  Medical Journal  Editors  (ICMJE)  and  the  World Association  of Medical Editors (WAME). The calling to embody these guidelines  makes  editing,  in  effect,  a  vocation a  term that aptly describes burning both the “midnight oil” and the “candle at both ends” that all too familiarly mark the professional and personal life of any editor worth his or her salt. It also involves burning bridges, as the following lines convey: “journal editors walk a fine line.  They must aspire to impartiality, open-mindedness, and intellectual honesty. They must try to select material for its merit, interest to readers, and originality alone. They also want their journals to have a voice and a personality.  If  they  are  doing  their  jobs  well,  they should  give  no  favours,  and  they  should  have  no friends”. Thus, in its purest sense, true editorial independence demands isolation and distancing, as “editors who make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal, professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might judge.”   This self-imposed separation and solitude involves bracketing one’s biases, prejudgments and preconceptions to enable evaluation of the material at hand. With such detachment (contra attachment) comes real freedom; to the extent that the editor is not beholden to person or power, office or opinion; he or she is free. Such freedom requires a moral fiber and trustworthiness that upholds truth and right, whether in full view of public scrutiny, or in the aloneness of private secrecy. “Because   medical   editors   bear   some   of   the responsibility for the reliability of published research and,  in  turn,  for  the  care  of  patients,  the  health  of the public, allocation of resources, and standards of medical  ethics  and  professional  behavior,  editors must be trustworthy. To preserve this trust, an editor must avoid giving favors, must not be beholden to any special-interest group, and must be willing to publish articles on controversial subjects, even if they involve the organization that owns and publishes the journal”. The media play a central role in promoting freedom of thought and expression in every society. They offer opportunities for citizens to access information on relevant political, economic and cultural information. This information in turn becomes critical for the growth, development and prosperity of a nation as an informed citizenry is more apt to contribute to national development. Public service media constitute one of the key agents for providing citizens with information, education and entertainment that is free of commercial, State or political influences and biases.However, in most African countries, public service television has been transformed into State broadcasting where the State has exerted full control and influence on all aspects of the working of the national broadcaster. This has significantly restricted the freedom of national broadcasters in their programming, reporting and operations. In order to ensure that a public service broadcaster does not function as a State broadcaster, it is essential to guarantee the editorial independence of national broadcasters. However, through both overt and covert means, many governments have controlled television for promoting their own political and economic interests. Another recent trend, among most national broadcasters, has been to seek funding through commercial revenue and advertising. This has also diverted these public service and State broadcasters from their original mission and mandate. In Nigeria, there are three main types of media ownership namely, Government ownership, Private ownership and mixed ownership. In the case of government ownership, the media house is established, controlled and financed by the government, which the private ownership is when an individual or a group of persons establish, finance and control the media house. That of mixed ownership is when both government and private individuals are into some sort of partnership regarding establishing, financing and controlling the media house.The researcher agrees with the ideas of NnanyelugoOkon and Ben Agbo authors of “writing for the media society”. They wrote that “it is obviously true that mass media owners exert a threatening control medium is managed by a board of directors appointed by private owners or by a public cooperation established by the government .This work will go further to elaborate on media ownership influences on editorial policies in the chapters ahead.We should understand that, media ownership influence is exercised through financial control, appointment of principal staff, and government legislative decrees. In this circumstance, the media in question are either print or electronics and taking cognizance of the fact that the nature of ownership of any medium lies as the determining factor on how the medium shall operate. It is therefore worthy to note that this ownership pattern will no doubt influence the editorial policies of such a medium.In agreement with the dictum that he who pays the piper, dictates the fone. The media house whether owned by government, individuals or both would no doubt be made to propagate and promote the ideas, personalities and projects of the owners and it can also be achieved through the house styles and editorial policies of the media house.Editorial policies can be said to be those plans of actions meant to control the editorial matters of the media house, adopted by the board Directors and endorsed by the publisher(s) or owner(s). According to Ben Agbo and NnanyelugoOkon in their same text, Editorial policy is the path a newspaper elects to follow as it answers the two basic questions:

What shall we publish?

How shall we publish?

Worth reference to my case study, “Announcer Newspaper” which qualifies as a print medium following the characteristics of newspaper laid down by Nkem Fab Ukozor and Ben Agbo, authors of Mass communication purpose, principles, and practice. They wrote quoting a German Schokr, OttaGrota for determining a true newspaper are as follows:The newspaper must be published regularly at least once a week. That the newspaper must be mechanically produced, be available to any price.Vary in content such that the content will interest the larger audience, be published at specified times.The publisher of “Announcer newspaper”, Dr. Ezeani has appointed a board of Directors whose duty is to formulate editorial policies as they (eie those policies) suit him. He established the newspaper sometime in 2003.As a politician, (ie the publisher) such editorial policies have been formulated to favour his political structure and ideas so as to project him to higher political positions. The publisher of the announcer newspaper has employed the services of an editor, who maintains the house style of the newspaper and operates within the editorial policy limits as formulated by the board.Still on the “Announcer Newspaper”, the editor is answerable to the Editor-in-chief who is there to see that the newspaper operates according to the laid down (editorial) policy. The editor is expected to resign and leave if he is no longer disposed to such editorial policies of this paper and not to bend it. Every Monday morning, there is usually an editorial board meeting at announcer newspaper conference hall. The meeting is an avenue uses to make appraisals on the current edition and to resolve on the news to use for both front and back pages, (lead stories) etc for the next edition.The Editor will only make his professional input but must dance to the tone of the publisher though the Editor-in-chief in terms of editorial matters.In “Announcer Newspaper”, the editor will be asked to write the views and ideas of the publisher inform of editorial and or comments, which stands out invariably to represent as the voice of the newspaper on any particular issue. Surprisingly, the editorial or comments may not even be the ideas of the writer (Editor) but he must do it as directed or he resigns or gets sacked. The announcer newspaper editorial policy as it concerns stories on governments ate not static. The newspaper criticizes government when it sees negative things and turns to praise the same government if it sees positive approaches.In order words, balance, fairness and facts can still be associated with the Announcer Newspaper, but not when it has anything to do with the individual owner. In this case, selfish motives overweigh decisions and judgments. This has necessitated a research on the topic media ownership and its influence on editorial policy with a case study of Announcer Newspaper.The Announcer Newspaper has reached some understanding with both state and local governments of Imo state in such a manner that the medium can be getting some adverts from these quarters and in this circumstance, the newspaper will no longer hit hard at the afore- stated in order not to destroy the mass media rapport. Nevertheless, Editorial policy, determinants are the nature of readership, proprietorship, competition/lack of if, Geographical location, economic interest and political outlook, just like I said earlier, editorial policy is all about what shall be published and how it shall be published. There editorial policies are often expressed through the following:

News-stories the paper carries.

Cartoons the paper carries

The paper’s slogan (motto), which is often carried in the nameplate or below the mast- head.The platform code where the paper enumerates the number of projects or principle for which it stands.All Newspapers has editorial policies, which are however influenced by the ownership of the Newspaper. “Announcer Newspaper”, my case study has its own editorial policy which are highlighted in the paper and how the ownership of the media has house is also being influenced is highlighted in the paper.


Based on the research made, sponsorship of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff have formed the influential factors consequent upon the editorial policy of the media house since the owner(s) of the media house usually does or do the afore-stated factors. The media ownership have therefore in some ways influenced the editorial policy and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade.In this case, the editorial writing has to function with the policy framework and editorial principles. Nothing runs the editor down as having the option of either doing it the way the policy dictates or he resigns or otherwise sacked.Influence of media ownership on editorial policy has made many newspapers to collapse in operations and have also made them to lose their readership grip. In the case of Announcer Newspapers, as a privately owned Newspaper, if dies not have so many policies that usually affect its readership except that its front and back page stories are centered on Imo state. Often times, it faces the stiff competition of the national and other local newspapers.Again, people from other state would always see the purchase of the newspaper as a waste since it does not usually spread its tentacles.According to the staff of “Announcer Newspaper”, the publisher (owner) brings to production room when it is already time for production. This delays production of the paper.


In summary, this research work is a comparative analysis of Pointer and guardian newspaper on newspaper ownership and editorial independence, and to study the correlation between Pointer and guardian newspaper. Other research objectives are listed below as follows:

  1. This work is aimed at highlighting on ways by which newspaper ownership manages its editorial policy.
  2. To give some information on the extent (based on research influence) an editorial policy has gone in destroying journalistic principles. Vis-à-vis the consequences of such cases
  3. It would also act as a meditating factor and would go as much as proffering solution forwards checking these excesses.


For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H1: Newspaper ownership does not influences editorial independence and policy of aneditor.

H0: Newspaper ownership influences editorial independence and policy of aneditor.

H2: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper house cannot be guaranteed.

H0: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper housebe guaranteed.

H3: Ethics of journalism can be used to check the influence of the Newspaper ownership on editorial policy.

H0: Ethics of journalism cannot be used to check the influence of the Newspaper ownership on the editorial policy.

Significance of Study

This research work will present in a precise manner, newspaper ownership and editorial independence on writing and publishing. It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the effects of newspaper ownership and editorial independence in publication. It is also expected that the study will benefit newspapers owners, editors, researchers and the society in general.The findings of the study should be useful to editors. It is expected that the findings will expose the editorial independence in publication and writing and the right to their selves. By this exposure the editors could acknowledge the limits to their boundary and judiciary. It is possible that by this outcome the editors would realistically adjust to the application and policy of their independence. Subsequently, it will go a long way to enhance the mass communication and journalism students’ effectiveness in the society by being capable of carrying out what they have learned, thereby contributing to the building up of the society at the local, national and international levels.The research will also be beneficial to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on editorial independence.


The scope of the study covers newspaper ownership and editorial independence a comparative analysis of Pointer and guardian newspaper. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.





Social media tools are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many companies, ranging from start-ups and small and medium enterprises to large corporations (Lee et al, 2008; Osimo, 2008; Andriole, 2010; Bell and Loane, 2010). Despite extensive use of social media, little is known on the specific impact that these tools and technologies have on business process performance (Denyer et al, 2011). The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the listings of benefits and drawbacks of social media technologies and to analyze to what extent their employment has a measurable impact on business process performance (Bughin, 2009, 2011).


The business impact may be due to the impact of social media on management (Birkenshaw and Crainer, 2010), on governance (De Hertog et al, 2011), on knowledge management (Schneckenberg, 2009), on strategic competitiveness (Liu and Liu, 2009). Emerging technologies gain popularity as tools to enable cooperation among businesses in business networks (Liu and Liu, 2009; Bell and Loane, 2010), whereas the applications market is flourishing (Dutta, 2012). Networked companies that take advantage of the latest social media technologies seem to outperform their competitors and report benefits like lower costs and improved efficiencies (Harris and Rea, 2009; Eisenfeld and Fluss, 2009).


In this context it is important to understand the specific impact that social media have on business process performance (Wetzstein et al, 2011). The identification of a direct connection between the two will support the shift towards Enterprise 2.0 – a new business environment in which companies will maximize the benefits they can obtain by integrating social media suites into their daily operations. The research question in this paper is ‘What is the impact of social media on business process performance?’ The present study aims to better understand the social media environment and the impact of common social media tools used in practice. To answer the research question, we analyze a case and assess how business managers and IT managers in a successful social media based company evaluate this impact.

A Case Study of Military Barracks and Police Stations in Anambra State, Nigeria

A Case Study of Military Barracks and Police Stations in Anambra State, Nigeria

Despite the huge environmental and energy problem in Nigeria/designers have not seen the need for a shift from their traditional method of designing buildings. This study proposes the adoption of green building concept for Nigeria public institutions as a way of enhancing effective administration of public properties, with reference to military barracks and police stations in Nigeria.  observations as a primary source of data was used to gather information’s because of the military and police headquarters in Anambra state refused to grant interviews. Secondary data sources was also  used. Findings/observations made from the study showed that the barrack buildings and premises including some part of the premises need renovation urgently. It was also found out that due to poor electricity supply, households of police officers and their offices resort to informal power supply which contributes to global warming. The paper recommends that there is need for a holistic adoption of green design either in new or old building as lack of it has been observed to be adverse to efficiency in buildings and environmental sustainability in Nigeria, most especially public institutions.






The term portal is known as links page which presents information from diverse sources in a unified way. It may contain services that provide standard search engine feature, e-mail, news, information, databases and entertainment. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases, which otherwise would have been different entities altogether.

Electronic registration or e-registration, web based registration or even online registration is a secure website that students enter to indicate that they will attend classes in the upcoming (fall or sprint) rain or harmattan semester (Strauss, 2000). Students can access the e-registration site from anywhere with an internet connection. Mostly these sites are portals. Pena-Lopez (2007) describes a web portal as a site that functions as a point of access to information on the World Wide Web and portals present information from diverse sources. The Google directory describes the term portal as where users control the content. There are several terms in library and information science and indeed IT that have their origins borrowed from other disciplines and a portal is one of such (Brakel, 2003). It must be borne in mind that the Web, a resource of the Internet, and a tool to browse the Internet is the first ever innovation that allows anyone to publish to a vast number of users via the Internet. The portal in this context, is more than a gateway, it is a hub from which users can locate all the Web content commonly needed (Nielsen, 1999). The portal is a platform for organizations – universities, colleges, companies to leverage and for efficient communication and other in-house operations. Put more simply a portal collates ― a variety of useful information into a single, one-stop` web-page, helping the user to avoid being overwhelmed by infoglut` or feeling lost on the web‖ (Looney and Lyman 2000 33). However, the Internet (Internet gateways or libraries) are not focused on internal enterprise functions. Reasons why organizations have a portal according to (source) include: Information customization: Information personalization: Efficiency in accessing information (work flow): Link integrity software issues that link work: Enhancements and features such as calendars, to do lists, schedules, hours of operation, discussion groups and chat, announcements and alerts, job openings, career opportunities, reports and documents, search, emails, course schedules, grades, CPGAs (Cumulative Point Grade Average), transcripts, campus and world news, links to reference materials, bookmarks, etc. (Brakel, 2003). The roles that a portal supports includes those of students, faculty, staff, managers, workers, provosts, academic departments, IT facilities, scholars, researchers, prospective students, alumni, visitors, friends and vendors. (Katz, 2002).


The purpose of this study is to develop a web based Online Registration Portal that as a solution to the problems of the students registration currently in the institution.  The purpose of this study is aimed to solve the following problems:

  1.  The registration problem due to some manual means of operations which easily     lead to misplacement or loss of student information.
  2. The manual pre-assessment of student registration system is very slow and consumes         a lot of time which causes the delay in completing the entire enrolment process.
  3. Consume time and human effort due to long queue in the process of paying money in        the bank and registration processes.
  4. Due to manual means of generating report, such report can easily be misplaced or loss. The outcomes from this study will assist the university to know whether or not the problems of manual handling of students` registration and mismanagement records have been overcome. The level of acceptance and use of e-registration by the students of the university that will be unraveled in this study will provide a framework for the improvement of e-registration at the university from which other universities in the country can copy to improve their own e-registration exercise.


The purpose of this study is to prefer solution to the above stated problems being faced and to develop a web based online registration portal for National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Damaturu Study Centre using Adobe Dream weaver PHP to develop each web page and MYSQL as the database for storage of information on the website. The objectives are as below:

  1.      To have an effective way of providing courses information and exam information or          notification anywhere and anytime to the students about rapid changes of schedule.
  2.      To improve the privacy, user-friendliness and to enable convenient access to the     different kinds of information and services mounted on the web by users, it would be     desirable to set up a portal for channeling the vast information resources to the      different users in an efficient and effective manner. 
  3.      To create an online Course Portal which provides a pre-assessment module that allow        courses verification to the students when login on the website. In addition, the course        portal can also automatically evaluate and showcase the report of courses of the      students.


            1.         To the Students,

Through this system, the students will be able to use the Online Registration Portal effective for their online registration process especially for registering their personal information, courses registration and exam registration. Example: It will also promote students easy access to information resources, materials etc.

            2.         To the Faculty Members,

Through this system, the faculty members can provide all the necessary information and resource material to their students and also be able to get the student information from the website.

            3.         To the Future Researchers,

The future researchers could gain knowledge from the study on the benefits, advantages and disadvantages, impact of developing web portals which they may apply to their research in the future. By improving on the portal in such a way that is being connected with inter-switch whereby students will be able to make any necessary payment through the website, payment like school fee, acceptance fee, and departmental fee and so on.


In this study, online registration portal for National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Damaturu Study Centre and plan to implement the system. The study intends to provide an online registration portal home page in which it should contain the description and brief overview about the students, courses and exam registration processes for Computer department. The scopes of the study are:

  • Online Registration portal for student information registration
  • Courses Registration
  • Exam Registration


Administration – can access and controls the whole system

Payment: is an amount of money that is paid to someone.

Bank: is an institution where people or businesses can keep their money.

Accounts: are detailed records of all the money that a person or business receives and spends.

E: means electronic

Internet: is the computer network which allows computer users to connect with computers all over the world, and which carries e-mail.

Design: it is a detail plan or arrangement to achieve a particular purpose.

Implementation:  is the carrying out execution or practice of a plan. 

Transaction: is a piece of business, for example an act of buying or selling something.

Student: is a person who is studying at a university or college.

Lecturer: is a teacher at a university or college

Institution: is a large important organization such as a university, church or bank.

Database – a collection of data neatly organized which stores the operational records

Portal – presents information from diverse sources in a unified way. Apart from the standard search engine feature, web portals offer other services such as e-mail, announcements, discussion board, registration, inquiry, information, databases and entertainment.

Registration – students or faculty members submits personal information to be a member to have an access inside the campus course portal.Courses – is a series of lessons or lectures on a particular subject




The incidence of female combatants in Africa is a recurrent decimal. This problem has really pre-occupied not only scholars of strategic persuasion, but also in the violence and peace studies and those in the humanitarian scholarship have also not been left out. This is because of the numerous effects and the problems it posits for both local and international peace especially the psychological and traumatising multiplier effects it has on the domestic social space. Although, the concept of female combatants is being confronted with serious theoretical and conceptual clarification, what is vivid is that, Africa’s experience presents a case and picture of irregularities and conventionalism ( Aghfer, 2010:23).

Females make up almost several thousands of those recruited for wars. The internecine wars in Africa and the numerous conflicts of different dimensions and colourations on the continent have given rise to the crisis of female combatants. The child- soldier syndrome (Amadu, S and Wale,I, 2003:137-166) in Africa was not exclusive of the great percentage of the females who served in the different categories of the wars. For instance, girls make up of almost half of the 300,000 children involved in wars in Africa (Geoffrey, 2010:11). Research has shown that girls are used extensively in combat in a wide range of international conflicts. In some cases by groups who have had the support of Britain and the United States. Among countries involved are Colombia, Pakistan, and Uganda in Africa, the Philippines and Democratic Republic of Congo, also in Africa. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, there were up to 12, 500 girls in armed groups. In Sri Lanka, 43 per cent of 51,000 of children are

girls. (Richard, 2009:218). The point here is that the problem of female combatant is not peculiar to Africa, though the worst examples are being experienced in Africa.

The percentages of the girls in the areas cited above are just extracts of the total percentage of the female soldiers in wars in Africa. However scholars have looked at this issues form different dimensions. Paradoxically, despite the contributions to warfare by female combatants, they continue to be seen but not heard. Their roles are usually in the area of logistics and administration at the point of recruitment but they find themselves in real combat when the need arise.

The Niger Delta crisis have been explained from different dimensions ( Samuel , I: 2009), Suberu, L: 2010), Akanni, J: 2011), Eghosa, L:2012} the crisis of female combatant remains highly inexhaustive. Celestine, B, (2010) and Angela, F(2011) have both looked at the issues of girls used as spies by the Niger Delta militants but the issue of the females as combatants in the Niger Delta being used in all the ramifications of war and the subsequent effects of this on post violence Niger Delta is largely neglected. In fact, the amnesty and rehabilitation programmes of President Yar’adua even failed to address the total realities of the female combatants. Vividly capturing this position was Bubaraji, J (2011:45) who was of the opinion that the programmes of rehabilitation of President Yar’adua mentioned nothing about the females who took part in the crisis but only the male combatants are adequately catered for in the programme.

This position partly informs the dimensions of this work and seeks to establish that female combatants were actively involved in the Niger Delta crisis and that their roles in the Niger Delta crisis were of combat nature alongside their male counterparts. There is also the need to establish the fact that they were not rehabilitated in the post crisis amnesty programme and

this neglect has led to negative effects especially on the female combatants and by extension on the society.

It should be stressed that the idea of female combatants in this context is understood from the perspective of female mercenaries either forced or engaged to fight wars on behalf of a group, interest or for other reasons peculiar or distant from direct concern of the mercenaries but which the female mercenaries are directly or indirectly committed to. The regular female combatants in the National armies are not part of this category. Although, the idea of female combatants is not alien to the traditional African setting but the difference is the degree and dimensions of the trans-national colouration it has assumed. In the pre-colonial African setting especially in the Yorubaland, in Nigeria, male and female mercenaries are engaged to fight on behalf of empires and kingdoms. Often times, their support are enlisted when necessary because of their identified prowess and abilities not necessarily for financial benefits but for some other social and political reasons (Ayinla, 2004:118) the required recognition and pride of place that the female combatants are supposed to enjoy is always lacking despite their prowess.

The contemporary situation especially in the Niger Delta was largely directed towards pecuniary benefits and primordial sentiments (Eghosa, 2007:12) but more essentially by seeming patriotic commitment to the emancipation of the Niger Delta environment. This work is essentially located partly within the vortex of the contemporary realities and the conditions of the engagements of the female combatants in the Niger Delta. The nature of the contemporary problems of violence and the degree of the engagement of these combatants also partly underscore the availability of the female recruits into electoral crimes and mayhem in the Niger Delta. Convincingly, Jinadu Adele(2009) got this situation more clearly when he posited that the rate at which women are being used in the Niger Delta environment for

stealing of votes, assassination and for all forms of crimes explains the reality of the need to properly engage and rehabilitate these women. Their responses to crimes and modus operandi do not only send jitters but also tells a deep story of a trained and fearless group that could be used for violence and war any day.

This position informs the relative significance of the women combatants in the Niger Delta conflicts and why it is worth this intellectual investigation. By focusing on the roles of the female combatants in the Niger Delta and the role of the domestic factor that has thrown up this class; it underscores a bottom-up rather than the realist top-down analysis of national security formulae. This is because of the nature of the recruitment of these combatants, the nature and period of training and the responsibilities of being a combatant.




This study investigated on the A social-linguistic study of code mixing and code-switching in Secondary School in Ethiope West Local Government Area. Specifically it strived to find out other causes of Code-Switching and Code-Mixing on learning English language, determine how Code-Switching and Code-Mixing contribute toward student’s success or failure in learning English language in class and examine other ways which can be used to avoid Code-Switching and Code- Mixing on learning English language in the classroom. The theoretical framework used include: theory of language acquisition like the imitation theory, Inter-language theory, and theory of active construction of grammar and Reinforcement. It also explored: theories of Code-Switching and Mixing like situational and metaphorical Switching and Nakedness. The study mainly used qualitative approach in data collection, analysis and presentation. Content analysis was used for data analysis and presentation. The findings indicate that Code-Switching and Code-Mixing influence student’s failure to learn English language, creates lack of confidence in speaking, limit students practice in speaking English language, retarded the ability of students to master English language and fail to understand and master English language. In addition, the study revealed that, teachers are the main source for Code-Switching and Code-Mixing and that more efforts be placed on training English teachers to improve their pedagogy skills.

Implementing a central system for course rating and evaluating by students

Implementing a central system for course rating and evaluating by students



This chapter discusses the introductory part of the thesis which includes background of the study, research motivations and goals, the research questions the thesis attempts to answer, the methodology used to answer those questions and finally the summary of the thesis contribution to knowledge.

Background to the Study


Central system for course rating and evaluating by students is a web-based course evaluation tool to help rate courses and instructors. The electronic questionnaire allows students to provide feedback, which is used to improve courses and instruction. All course ratings are confidential. After the course ratings period ends and final grades are posted, instructors can access the results for each course, but they cannot link responses to individual students.


A lot of issue has been developed due to this course system method which has been conducting manually using a software called Microsoft Excel. All lecturers are having their preferable courses where their expertise field play the most important role on that issue. The lecturer is the biggest guide for the student lecturing in the courses that students taking on the semester. It doesn’t mean that all the lecturer can only teach few courses according to their expertise to be lectured for the students but they also can teach all courses which has not on their expertise field. Due to that doing on manual student course rating system they could not get the preferred course, due to that a system has to be develop accordingly. The system also minimizes the usage of paperwork and user friendly for the administrators to log in and edit if any changes required for the course allocation. The system will print out a output of a list stated for lecturers on their preferred course.

A major challenge faced by university academics is the effective management of large amounts and various types of data that are encountered in day-to-day operation, ranging from personal data to varied types of documents. The data have various access privileges and restrictions and will be input by a variety of sources, ranging from individuals themselves (e.g., a current student or applicant submits a resume), to a member of the faculty to a member of the departmental administration (e.g., Head of Department who manages the affairs of the Department), to automatic uploading of transcripts or test scores for an applicant. Automatically generated statistics regarding this information will be used by many different stakeholders, both inside and outside the department. Traditional paper- based operation is not only costly but also ineffective.

We designed and implemented a central system for course ratingto effectively manage school information. The design of the overall system follows the guidelines from the Design Science for Information System (Hevner A., et al, 2004)and benefits from the study in Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) (Grundin, Computer Supported Cooperative Work History and Focus, 2005). To increase the usability of our system, we followed Computer-Human Interaction (The Apache Software, 2007) and Iterative Design guidelines (Denning, 1997).

Research Motivation and Goals

The greatest challenge of today’s information system design is to provide users with the required functionality needed for the organization which, in many cases, happens not to be possible or requires huge resources including money, time and highly skilled personnel. Information systems of many Nigerian Universities suffer from some of the following challenges:

  1. Ineffective management of the large amounts and different types of data
  2. Inability to cater for different user categories with various access privileges and restrictions
  3. Lack of related components that need to be integrated together such as registration and academics.
    • Lack of robust, portable and extensible components that support efficient data management.

The objective of the research in this thesis is to develop a robust Implementing a central system for course rating and evaluating by students.

Investigating the Sources of Errors in the Writing of Senior High School Students

Investigating the Sources of Errors in the Writing of Senior High School Students


There is the general perception that the standard of English among students in Nigeria at all the levels of education is falling in recent times. Chief Examiners’ reports received from the West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC) from 2005 to 2012 have regularly indicated that most students in Senior High School who fail in English, lack in-depth knowledge of the rudiments of the English language. Students’ lackadaisical approach to the teaching and learning of the language may be a contributory factor. They think that English, like all other languages should not be learnt, but rather it should be spoken. This is of great concern to stakeholders of education in the country, as English, is emerging as the lingua- franca of the world and it is essential that students graduating from our secondary schools demonstrate solid knowledge of both formal and conversational properties of the English language.
This study, seeks to investigate the sources of errors that Senior High School students make in writing in order to establish the actual problem areas for attention and redress. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the data collected from the essays written by the students and also the information obtained from teachers of English during his interaction with them.
The findings of the study, disclosed that generally, students in Senior High Schools in Nigeria have insufficient or little knowledge of the English language code and therefore, they will not be able to communicate effectively and
efficiently with other users of English and this can hinder their interaction with other Anglophone students and friends.
The study proposes that ESL learners have peculiar needs such as training on the formal properties of the English language and therefore, require immediate intervention by way of organising English language clinics for students and in- service training for teachers of English to update their skills. It is hoped that if the recommendations in the study are heeded, standard of English will improve.



Employee’s interest in higher productivity does not develop without some stimulation by management; either directly or through the creation of an atmosphere in which employees wants to contribute their best effort to the job.

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