CHAPTER ONE/Introduction

     Background to the Study

The progress and prosperity of any society depends on its ability to manage its security challenges—both internal and external. Security of lives and property have been a major source of concern for man right from time immemorial, the search for security forms part of the reasons why  ―people  aggregated  into  bands,  tribes,  kingdoms,  and  nation-states  to  join  international organisations,‖ (PadelFord, 1976:182). Even in ancient times the need for security was expressed in the form of fruit gathering and periodic expeditions for the aim of meeting the most important socio-economic requirements of the people. Perhaps, the physical security need of the people constituted part of the reasons why they preferred rocky and mountainous topographies for shelter, (Peterside, 2014). Thus, one of the most important roles of any state is to protect its citizens and inhabitants against any threat, be it physical, social or economic. In the words of Aristotle  ―The  state  exists  for  the  sake  of  life,  and  continues  for  the  sake  of  the  best  life‖ (Aristotle, n.d.).

The impacts of terrorism on the socio-economic activities of any society cannot be over-emphasized. Terror attacks or mere threats of terrorism can have so much socio-economic consequences, for instance terror attacks can lead to diversion of foreign direct investment (FDI), reduction in level of trade, redirecting of public investment funds to security, destruction of public infrastructure, internal displacement, refugee outflow, homelessness, personal insecurity, proliferation of widows and orphans, loss of means of livelihood, low productivity in the society among others. Terrorists attacks may also have spillover cost on neighbouring communities, societies or countries as the case may be.

Terrorism in Nigeria predates its creation. The British colonist used state terrorism to conquer hitherto independent nations within the territory called Nigeria today. Some few years after independence, Nigeria was engulfed in many internal crises. Some of these crises included: the Tiv riots in 1962, post-election violence 1964-65, and the 1966 first military coup d’état, Isaac Adaka Boro uprising in 1966, the counter coup d’état of 1966, the Nigerian Civil war, the Agbekoya Parapo Revolt of 1968-69, etc. In the 1980s, the Maitatsine uprisings erupted in Kano and other parts of northern Nigeria, including Gombe, Yola and Bauchi, the anti-SAP riots of 1989; the 12 June 1993 post-election annulment riots, the Odua People’s Congress saga, the Niger Delta militancy in the Niger Delta region and most recently the Boko Haram Terrorism in North Eastern part of the country.