THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATION A STUDY OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE IN ENUGU COMMAND
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An organization whether a business or an industrial enterprise, needs for its growth further development, contrivance, material and men (Alvares, 1997:10). It is on effective combination and devetatiling of these factors that the success or failure of an organization depends (Mohran etal 1997:132). However, the management of men is very important and challenging because it is a job of administering a social system (Mohran etal 1997:132). As Oliver Sheldon put it, no industry can rendered efficient so long as the basic fact remains unrecognized that it is principally human. It is not a mass of machines and technical processes, but a body of men. The management of men is a dynamic task because of the dynamic nature of men. It is not a complex of matter, but a complex of humanity. If manpower is properly utilized, it proves as dynamic motive force for running an enterprise at its optimum results and also work as an elicit for maximum individual and group satisfaction in relation to the work performed.
Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential for achieving organizational objectives.
Those organizations that are able to acquire, develop, stimulate, with deep outstanding workers will be both effective and efficient (Ulrich; 1997:256). Those organizations that are effective or efficient risk the hazards of stagnating or going out of business. Survival of an organization requires competent managers and workers coordinating their efforts towards the ultimate goal.
The issue of human resources development (HRD) has been gaining prominence and focus in management during the last two decades. Human resource being the most significant and active factor of production are considered to be the centre of all development processes of the economy (Beatty, 1997) while HRD has been known through the ages, its rediscovery as an essential demerit in development is necessitated by the deteriorating social conditions, increased competition and rapid technological advancements.
The theme organization of development of human resources has occurred during different periods at different places. Adam Smith, Karl Max and a host of classical and modern economists have emphasized the importance of human resources and focused on labour, dexterity and skill development.
There have been three stages of human resources development history (Carrel etal 1995) identify them as follows: the ancient, in which India was the leader, the second medieval stage, though recognized as the concept of a welfare state could not make it a reality. It gave birth or metamorphosed to what is called feudalism and perpetrated traditionalism. During the period, human development failed to cope with the faster development of material world. The modern and India has entered it with numerous problems due to foreign rule, over population poverty etc.
The emerging literature in the field of HRD indicates the multifaceted meaning of the term (Alvares:1997) HRD is a multi disciplinary concept. Different authors have defined it from different angles, economists described it upon the economic angle of capital assets, labour, skill and wages. The view human resources as accumulation of capital and their effective investment. A psychologist considers HRD from psychological dimensions of attitude, aptitude values, intelligence, perceptions, aspirations and motivations. Psychology provides an explanation for a variety of human behaviour and also several remedial functions through guidance, counseling etc. sociology perception of HRD moves around ingredients social relations like family, groupism, crowd, mob etc. An anthropologist looks at HRD keeping in view the history of humanity and focuses on several aspects of tradition, kinship, culture, myths and ceremonies.
The meaning of HRD have their relevance at both the micro and the macro levels in the contest of improving the quality of human life. It the organization level, that is considered to be improving the quality of workers so as to achieve the higher levels of productivity.
The quality and quantity of human resources are modified by such environmental factors such as education, training and development. With the help of acquire talents a human being is capable of producing new ideas, developing and improving capital goods and modifying the available physical and financial resources in order to achieve greater productivity, satisfaction and the goals of organization.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Every organization whether formal or informal are faced with the complexity of individual behaviour in the organization. For an organization to achieve its organizational goal/target, it needs to pool material, financial and human resources for efficient and effective use of human resources development strategies.
“Enlightened and progressive management have therefore come to believe that people are not problem but opportunities”. They have thus, taken expeditious steps to carefully identify constructively channelize and consciously develop the potential of their human resources. These tasks are easily paid said than done because of the interaction of various internal and external environmental factors and behavioural patterns of individuals in the organization.
Because of the non homogenous nature of human resources, all human beings cannot be treated alike and each one or group need different role to play in the development of human resources. It is against this background that the researcher envisaged the following problems confronting the individual behaviour role in the development of human resources in the Nigeria police force.
- Leaders/management inability to recognize employees who display high sense of creativity in their work place.
- Dissatisfaction of the employee conditions of work place emanating from typical leader/manager.
- Management failure to recognize individual needs for self actualization.
- Non challant attitude of management/leaders to design/redesign employees training programme for effective and efficient performance.
- Also worthy to mention are the non recognition of organizational culture on part of the employers and management, incompetence in the recruitment and the management union relationship with the employees.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Basically, the objectives of this study are:
- To determine the factors that influence individual behaviour in promoting development of human resource.
- to examine the extent these factors have affected the development of human resource in the Nigeria police force
- To highlight the role of individual behaviour in the development of human resources in the Nigeria police force.
- To evaluate the impact of organizational change and how it affect the development of human resource in the Nigeria police force.
- To ascertain the implications of individual behaviour in development of human resources.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study sought answers to the following questions
- What are those problems that affect the performance of individual behaviour in the development of human resources?
- What are those factors that affect the role of individual behaviour in the development of human resource.
- How has organizational culture and change affected individual behaviour in the development of human resources?
- How has leadership style affected individual behaviour in the development of human resources in the Nigeria police force?
- What are the implications of organizational change in the development of human resources?
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study can be summarized by the statement made by Emeka Okpara (2002) in his book titled: Introduction to Psychology and determinants of behaviour and he quoted “Great qualities are partly the gifts of God, partly the result of Good training and efforts”.
It is widely known that the behaviour of individual group in an organization has a significant role to play in the development of human motivation. This can be done through situational contingencies.
The significant of this study is to help further build up more literature in this area of endeavour.
Results from this study will enable other researchers, businessmen, personnel and human resource managers, consultants to determine how relevant or otherwise the role played by individual human being/group as portrayed by their behaviour in development of human resource.
Consequently, the result of this study will be significance to policy makers and management planners as it is a clear evaluation of our efforts in some critical area of interest and stimulate more studies in this area.
Other benefits of the study stern from the fact that it is an academic work required in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of Science Degree in Management. It will also serve as a spring board upon which further studies can be actuated.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
The research was conducted in Enugu, Enugu state urban and the decision to carry it out in this part of the state informed the researcher on the area of the state where she can sought information on the behaviour of officers and men of the Nigeria police in the development of human resource.
The limiting factors of this study are that there has been little research in this area and based on this, the researcher made use of both direct and indirect adapted materials for the study.
Other limiting factors include time and money coupled along with the long distance between the place of work and the researcher’s school. However the researcher encountered the problem of incomplete return of the questionnaire from the respondents and limit of time available for the respondents to go through the questionnaire.
- DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
- Learning: According to Okpata (2002:93) defined learning as an relative permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of practice or experience.
- Forgetting: Is a temporary or long term loss of material that has been learned (Okpata, 2002:95)
- Motivation: In view of Eugine (2006:152) defined motivation as a propensity or the level of desire of an individual to behave in a certain manner at a certain time and in certain situation.
- Emotion: Emotion refers to internal feelings that stir people to act or change within themselves (Obiageli etal 2001:59).
- Handling relationship: This is concerned with managing other people’s emotions, social competence and social skills (Obiageli etal 2001:63).
- Managing emotion: This is concerned with channeling ones emotional self control, delaying need gratification and stifling impulse (Obiageli etal 2001:63).
- Development: According to (Okpala 2002:36) defined development as a process in which the internal psychological changes and the way which enable the individual to be able to understand and handle environmental situation.
- Human resource management: Human resource is concerned with the people and their dimension in management (Eugine 2006:5).