A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SCHOOL PROPERTIES AND EQUIPMENT IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SCHOOL PROPERTIES AND EQUIPMENT IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This topic is a  comparative study of school properties and equipment in public and private secondary schools . 6 research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed under theoretical framework, conceptual framework, empirical studies and summary. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised teachers from the public secondary schools and teachers from the private secondary schools in Orlu. A 35-item structured four-point scale questionnaire titled “Comparative Assessment of Facilities Provision Questionnaire (CAFPQ)” and a check list was used for data collection. The instrument was validated  by three experts, two in Educational Management and one in Test and  Measurement who ascertained the validity of the instrument after corrections. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through a pilot study which yielded a Cronbach Alpha correlation co-efficient of 0.80 which was considered high enough and  reliable to use  for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while frequency, percentages and charts were used to test the responses from the check list. t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that there is significant difference in the mean ratings in the provision of classrooms, laboratories, libraries, playgrounds electricity supply, portable water supply and staff quarters between the public and private secondary schools in the Imo state, Nigeria. This means that these facilities are more available in the public secondary schools than the private ones. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others, that the proprietors/proprietress of both public and private secondary schools should endeavour to provide adequate school facilities to meet up students’ enrolment and balance the disparity in the provision of school facilities in different type of secondary schools. Government and philanthropist organizations should assist private schools in  the provision of laboratory facilities since they are very expensive for an individual school proprietor/proprietress to afford. This will help to balance the disparity in facilities provision in public and private secondary schools which affects an individual’s choice of school.

Introduction

henever the word education is mentioned in Nigeria, what readily comes to mind is its quality. Over the years, private schools have gained popularity and acceptance from Nigerians because of the failures of public schools. Private schools are seen as the better option for gaining quality education amongst many Nigerians. This has resulted to a sharp proliferation of private schools in the past one and half decade ranging from elementary to tertiary levels. For instance, private universities increased from 3 in 1999 to 68 in 2017. In Lagos State alone, about 6,083 private schools were registered in 2016.

In Nigeria, private schools are different from public schools in so many ways.

Some differences between private and public secondary school are identified and analysed below.

Class Size

Private schools have always maintained the universally recommended class size standard of teacher to pupil/student ratio of 1:25 at all levels of the educational system. When the pupils/students are few in the class the teacher can reach out to every one of them and attend to their individual learning needs. Sadly, the teacher to pupils/students ratio is hovering between 1:114 and 1:122 in public schools. With this large number, the teacher cannot be effective and will ultimately not be able to reach out to all students and meet their individual learning needs.

Strikes actions

Private schools do not belong to any labour unions and therefore, do not participate in any strike action. This has helped them to maintain their academic calendar and full coverage of their syllabus. While public schools belong to various labour unions and often participate in strike actions to press home their demands. In 2013, sixty public universities were paralysed by strikes for more than five months over demands for funding increases and better employment benefits for university staff.

Teaching Facilities

For effective teaching and learning to take place, facilities such as books, teaching aids, libraries, laboratories, etc., are very necessary. Private schools ensure that these facilities are adequately provided to facilitate and enhance teaching and learning. But these facilities are either not provided or are obsolete in most public schools.

Training

Refresher courses, workshops, seminars and training are regularly given to teachers to improve their knowledge and skills by the private school owners. While teachers in the public schools rarely get opportunities for training to improve their knowledge and skills.

Difference in School Fees

Exorbitant tuition fees and other sundry charges are peculiar with private schools. For instance, in the 2017/2018 academic session, the most expensive private primary, secondary and university are: America International School (Elementary), Lagos, USD$27,232 (N9,857,984) per annum, America International School (High School), Lagos, USD$31,228 (N11,304,536) per annum and Babcock University, Nigeria, between N620,000 and N3million depending on the programme of study.

CHAPTER TWO/LITERATURE

Public and Private Secondary Schools

Public secondary schools are those schools that are established and managed by government or are established by private individuals, communities, organizations, government parastatals but are grant-aided by government (Kapusuzoglu & Donmez, 2010). In effect, public secondary schools are those secondary schools that are managed by the government. Even if the private individual owners, the missionaries, the communities, the organizations and government parastatals have already constructed all the buildings, once payment of teacher’s salaries, employment, posting and discipline of teachers and staff generally is taken over by government, it is referred to as a public secondary school. In the words of Lee (2009), public secondary schools are those either built and directly owned by government regulations or owned through grant in aid to such secondary schools in which case government has a share in the management and administration of such schools. Lee, further states that such secondary schools were established by some voluntary agencies like missionaries, communities, private individuals, organizations like government parastatals, but are being grant-aided by government.

On the other hand, private secondary schools are those secondary schools in which government has no direct share, does not grand-aid to those secondary schools (Ikoya & Oneyase, 2008). The owners in this case can be private individuals, communities, missionaries, organizations and government parastatals.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2014) considers public secondary schools as those established and owned by government, federal or state, while private

 

secondary school are those established or provided by voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals. FRN (2014:17) further states that government welcomes the contributions of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals in the establishment and management of secondary schools. State governments shall prescribe conditions to be met by the communities and others wishing to establish secondary schools. It further spells out conditions under which private schools shall exist as government shall regulate the establishment of schools, supervise and inspect schools regularly and ensure that all schools follow approved curricula and conform to the National Policy on Education.

According to Adeogu (2008), public secondary schools are the type of schools that are either in partnership with government in its running or it has been taken over in certain aspects such as payment of salaries and the provision of school facilities. Adeogu, went on the say that private secondary schools are established and owned by communities, missionaries, communities or government parastatals. These secondary schools are managed by the owners without government intervention or government grant-in-aid. According to Adeogu, private secondary schools are seen as private proprietary school without government regulated administration. The private secondary school owners retain the control and management of such schools. The private secondary school owners maintain school structures and reserve the power to hire and fire their staff the provision of funds, preparation of budget, sponsorship and provision of the necessary educational facilities are purely the exclusive duty of the private owners. Relevant government authorities are to ensure compliance with the provision of the advance laws.

 

  • Provision of Classroom Facilities in Public and Private Secondary Schools The provision of school facilities in some public secondary schools is very impressive. The same is true of some private secondary In the public secondary school system, the twin engines of political support and economic revenue base are critical. In private secondary schools, the ability to attract endowment and other forms of financial support are just crucial too. Private secondary schools, according to Nwankwo (2014), have school facilities and amenities which surpass those found in public schools. Nwankwo elaborated that some private school owners have these secondary schools established as their business therefore, they don’t joke with the provision of the necessary facilities required by government. Labo-Popoola, Bello and Atanda (2009) posit that most private secondary schools have small sizes with smaller students population to contend with, which also requires small classroom facilities. On the other hand, a public secondary school has to admit almost any member of the community who lives within its environment. This makes them to have a large class size which requires more classroom facilities to accommodate the

students’ population.

 

Major and Ominabo (2013) maintain that a classroom is a room in which teaching and learning activities can take place. This is found in educational  institutions of all kinds, including public and private secondary schools. Nwankwo (2014) further notes that private secondary schools have classrooms facilities such as gaslight, chalkboard, moveable walls, maps, among others. Lunenburg and Ornstein (2008) assert that because of adequate funding or large financial stand of public secondary schools, the provision of classroom facilities such as installed desk, chair, green chalk-board and even overhead projectors are more in public secondary schools than in private ones. Contrary to this, Nwankwo (2014) observed that some private

 

secondary schools classrooms are more equipped than those in the public secondary schools. The content of these private secondary school classrooms include flipcharts, whiteboard and interactive whiteboard where as some public secondary schools are still using the blackboard.

Mojela (2013) points out that common facilities found in private secondary school classrooms includes: televisions, maps, charts, pencils, books, monographs and among others for presenting information and images from a computer. According to Mojela, most of the listed facilities are rarely found in public secondary schools, because government takes it for granted providing all these than in the private secondary schools where the proprietors/managers go along way in making provision for all the needed classrooms facilities that will ensure effective teaching and learning. This will attract the attention of more parents in bringing their wards and children to such schools.

Adebayo (2009) aptly captures the level of decline in Nigerian education system by stating that a casual visit to any public school in Nigeria would reveal the extent to which these educational institutions have decayed. School facilities in public secondary schools are in a terrible shape; schools are littered with battered structures, worn-out equipment (where they are available at all); overcrowded classrooms, inadequate manpower in quantity and quality, instability in the academic calendar owing to strikes actions, very low teachers (staff) morale due to poor remuneration and working conditions. Similarly, Alimi, Ehinola and Alabi (2012) opine that in South-West Nigeria, public secondary schools, instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective, that is, “classrooms are not spacious enough”. The foregoing trend definitely portends grave consequences for Nigeria public secondary schools system. A situation where school

 

facilities are grossly inadequate would likely lead to mass failure in external examinations. The implication, for instance, is that where students lack necessary learning experiences due to inadequacy of school facilities, the achievement of pre- specific objectives of the curriculum become unattainable and leads inevitably to failure of students when they are assessed based on the objectives of the curriculum that were not achieved during teaching and learning.

Jajac, Knezic and Marovic (2009) noted that the difference in school facilities provision between the public and private secondary schools is that most facilities in public secondary schools are inadequate. The basic classrooms, teaching materials are lacking in public schools compared with private secondary school. Even the available ones seemed strangely out of place in the dilapidated surroundings.

Ogbonnaya (2012) asserts that public secondary school classrooms facilities can never be compared to those of the private secondary schools because, the owners of private secondary schools ensure more comfort for their staff and students mostly  in the provision of ceiling fans, lights better installed desks/chairs and sometimes computers. According to Ogbonnaya, most public schools do not have these mentioned facilities and even those that have, they are always in bad shape or in a state of disrepair.

It is a pathetic situation in Nigeria that the situation of public secondary schools have worsened by the fact that enrolment in public secondary schools has increased without commensurate expansion or provision of adequate educational facilities in secondary schools (Asiyai, 2012). Asiyai, further states that most Nigeria public secondary schools have been in existence for a relatively long period with the same limited classrooms, open spaces, libraries, laboratories and so on. Such

 

secondary schools have witnessed little or no renovation over time, while virtually nothing is done to expand the size of facilities in such schools.

Provision of Laboratory Facilities in Public and Private Secondary Schools

Laboratory has been conceptualized as a room or a building specially built for teaching by demonstration of theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Cynthia and Megan (2008) opines that “seeing is believing” as the effect of using laboratories in teaching and learning of science and other science related disciplines as students tend to understand and recall what they see than what they hear or were told. Laboratory is essential to the teaching of sciences and the success of any science course is dependent on the laboratory provision made for it. Affirming this, Vandiver (2011) also observes that, there is a general consensus among science educators that the laboratory occupies a central position in science instruction. It could be described as a place where theoretical work is practicalized whereas practicals in any learning experience involves students in activities such as observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording, observations and carrying out field work. These activities are different from the theoretical work which involves listening to talks and taking down notes from such talks.

Yadar (2007) opines that no course in sciences and mathematics in secondary schools can be considered as complete without including some practical works. The practical work ought to be carried out by individuals either in science laboratories or in classes. At secondary school level, practical work is even more important because of the fact that we learn by doing. Scientific practices and applications are thus rendered more meaningful. It is an established truth that an object handled impresses itself more firmly on the mind than the object merely seen from a distance or in an illustration. Thus practical work forms an important feature in any science. Owoeye and Yara (2011), assert that laboratory is very important in all the secondary schools for the students to learn better particularly in science subjects, irrespective of their locations and ownership. Owoeye and Yara are of opinion that where the specimens used in the laboratories are not commonly available like in the rural areas, the science students hardly perform in such places. Yara and Otieno (2010) also found that classroom/laboratories and textbooks/students-ratio could be used to predict academic performance in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Bondo district of Kenya.

Owoeye and Yara (2011) concluded in their study that school facilities were the most potent determinant of academic achievement. Facilities in terms of qualifications of personnel, who are directly involved in the pedagogy; laboratory, library, classroom chairs/tables, administrative blocks, chalk-board, school maps and the likes are very crucial to high academic attainment. Owoeye and Yara, further state that academic performance in secondary schools generally is a function of availability of facilities to students in public schools compare to private secondary schools. They however, state that experience on the part of the school personnel cannot be ruled out but facilities availability is important to high academic achievement of students.

Yadar (2007) opines that no course in sciences can be considered as complete without including some practical work. The practical work ought to be carried out by individuals either in science laboratories or in classes. At school level, practical work is even more important because of the fact that we learn by doing. Scientific practices and applications are thus rendered more meaningful. It is an established fact that an object handled impresses itself more firmly on the mind than the illustration. Thus practical work forms an important feature in any science and mathematical courses (UNESCO, 2008).

Laboratory accordingly provides a forum wherein the learner is given the exercise to subject his beliefs, ideas, statement, theoretical propositions and so on. To some forms of experimental task. Owoeye and Yara (2011) maintained that, in order to maintain and arouse the interest of students in subjects involving laboratory work, the teacher should be effectively involved in order to transform knowledge and facts to learners for a good performance in any examination. Adeiza (2011) postulates that laboratory as a school facility is grossly inadequate in some public secondary schools in Lagos state Nigeria and some of the public secondary schools in the south-west Nigeria have merely a room designated as laboratory without equipment for teachers and students to undertake experiments.

Laboratory is a designated room where equipment to carry out scientific experiment are installed. Some of the laboratory equipment include amongst others; fume, cardboards, rotary evaporators and infrared Spectro meters. Bello, Theordora and Olufunkein (2012), emphasized the importance of science laboratory positing that science had been of a great importance internationally for sustainable and socio- economic development as well as for technological advancement of nations. Knowledge of science and technology is therefore a requirement in all countries and needed by all people globally due to the number of challenges that are facing them. These challenges include emergencies of new drug resistant diseases, effects of genetic experimentation and engineering. Olufunkein added that public secondary schools have less laboratories, even where they have, the laboratories are not  equipped with reagents.

Okpala (2010) posits that many private secondary schools do not have adequate facilities that can enhance teaching and learning in the schools. Such facilities include: standard library, standard laboratory and so on. Okpala further opines that most of the private secondary schools do not have enough money to provide all necessary things for their schools. School laboratory is one of the necessary facilities, Abdulkarim, Lodhi and Usman (2011) opine that in public secondary schools, laboratories are not provided for teachers and students. Laboratories are essential at secondary school levels, especially for science students. Abdulkarim, Lodhi and Usman, further state that in public schools, facilities and equipment related to experiment do not exist. They have to teach students with limited and improper damaged instruments.

Kings (2011) holds that, in most private secondary schools, some laboratory facilities/equipment are non-existent. They are without reagents. To Kings, those instances where the facilities are available they are inadequate. Many of them are sub- standard and obsolete. This may be one of the reasons why it is common to see science teachers running all over the places sometimes even to private schools to collect specimens and other materials that schools are expected to use during class demonstrations and experiments. Ochai (2012) postulates that in spite of all the efforts made by the Christian missions representing the private sector participation in the provision of education and the former regional government, the various states and federal government of Nigeria, the shortage of educational facilities such as school buildings, libraries, laboratories and recreational facilities, ICT continued to be a major problem confronting secondary schools – public and private. Ochai further lamented that, one of the major problems leading to shortage of school facilities is the dwindling financial allocation to public secondary schools. According to Ochia, the amount of money specifically voted for capital project in education by government is not enough to meet the demand for school facilities and the expansion of the existing ones.

Torley (2009) maintains that laboratory equipment, such as fume cardboards, rotary evaporators and infra-red spectrometers are hardly found in public secondary schools but can be found in private secondary schools. Similarly, Aldermna, Orazem and Paferno (2010) observe that availability of adequate science materials and equipment in public secondary schools is more as compared to private secondary schools. Aldermna, Orazem and Paferno, listed, common among the equipment to include work benches, countertops, cabinets for storage of laboratory equipment and books. Aldermna, Orazem and Paferno, further note that in private secondary schools the owners try as much as possible to make provision of all the needed laboratory facilities so as to win the minds of parents who intend to enroll their children in better science schools where they can learn better. But in public schools, government do not care if those facilities are available or not since the aim is not to make profit but to provide services to the members of the public at affordable cost.

Ikoya and Onoyase (2008) asserted that in most private secondary schools, there are no laboratories even; the ones with laboratories cannot get the best for the students, because of the emptiness of the laboratories. Ayogu (2008) asserts that because of the financial position of public secondary schools laboratory equipments such as incubators, microscopes, laminar flow/biohazard and bio-softly hoods are possibly found in public secondary schools than in private secondary schools whereby the proprietor/proprietress might have low financial status that cannot purchase some of the listed expensive laboratory facilities. Igwe (2008) notes that laboratory facilities such as fluorescent, optics and camera, bench, dissectory microscopes, cell and brain staining apparatus and chemicals, are hardly found in some public secondary schools but many are found in private secondary schools, that are more concerned about giving the best quality of education to students so as to win the interest of more parents to send their children to such private schools. Similarly, Handallah, Ozovehe and Olanrewaju (2013) note that a casual visit to most of the public science secondary schools today would reveal the extent to which government has abandoned those schools. The availability of laboratory facilities seems to be inadequate or having decayed specimens and other important facilities/equipment. This makes concerned parents wishing to give their wards the best education to start looking for an alternative which is the private schools where provision and maintenance of school facilities is better.

Provision of Library Facilities in Public and Private Secondary Schools

Library is an accommodation where books of various grade levels are stored on shelves for students and even teachers to read (Obomanu & Akporehwe, 2011). Library facilities are very important in well-organized secondary schools and indeed every educational institution. Without library facility in secondary schools both students and teachers will have some difficulties in gaining knowledge. Teachers make researches to broaden their knowledge in specific areas through reading books from the libraries. Edem (2011) maintain that many public secondary schools are without a sizeable collection of books, while some have only scanty and poorly maintained ones. The contribution of school library to effective teaching and learning is obvious. It is an inseparable part of instruction, serving as a reading centre as well as repository of information for both the teacher and the students. Nwankwo (2014) observes that the content of a library must reflect the objectives of the school, the

 

nature of the school programmes and the level or classes and subject areas of the students and staff.

Ige (2011) observes in Niger State that many public secondary schools lack standard libraries with adequate learning facilities as compared to private secondary schools. Similarly, Yusuf (2009) maintains that a standard library for effective teaching and learning should contain shelves, chairs tables, plenty of books cutting across all disciplines, a computer, maps atlas, encyclopedia, magazines, florescent light and fans with well-ventilated windows.

Ekere (2008) in Imo State lists non books media in public secondary schools  to include audio player/cassettes, video cassettes/player, film projectors, slides, overhead projectors, computers, transparencies, disk, ink and video compact disk player. Ekere, concludes in his view that public secondary schools are better off in terms of providing those facilities in the secondary school libraries. However, Ekere laments the inadequacy of library facilities in public secondary schools and  sometimes which are so outdated. Chinelo (2011) points out that the expansion in students’ enrolment in schools as a result of the introduction of Universal Basic Education programme at different times in Nigeria has made it difficult to commensurate increase in the provision of adequate instructional materials in our school library. Under this situation facilities previously used by few students are now used by hundreds of learners. It is not the same case with private secondary schools. According to Obe (2009), most private secondary schools in Nigeria have developed secondary school library websites, which keep students informed about various activities and programs of the schools through these websites whereas, most public secondary schools libraries look uninteresting to even student to even enter into. On the other hand, Ukpai and Okoro (2011) state that public secondary schools have huge

 

resources at their disposal than the private schools and can play an important role in improving the situation in secondary school libraries by delivering the information, literacy skill relating to use of e-resources particularly to secondary schools. Mardes (2009) asserts that teachers have very specific information needs relating to mastering the curriculum content and the behavioural structure of their classroom for a diverse range of learners. However, research by Gakure, Mukuria and Kithae (2013) in Kenya, has shown that teachers mostly in some private secondary schools do not use their school libraries and various information resources effectively, mainly due to the inadequacy of their school facilities in terms of educational materials and other facilities. Similarly Abdulkarim, Lodhi and Usman (2011) aver in Pakistan that, government sector libraries are not available for teachers and students. Abdulkarim, Lodhi and Usman, further stated that, the Pakistanian education policy of 1992-2010 recommended that schools should be facilitated with libraries and laboratories so that teachers can get benefit of it.

Okorodudu (2011) corroborating these views, maintains that high level of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional facilities such as; libraries, laboratories and classrooms are structurally defective. Okorodudu further emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper and well equipped library leads to successful teaching and learning process in Nigeria secondary schools. Edem (2011) observes that most public secondary schools claim to have library support and facilities, be it a shabby room having a small collection of books, dumped in a room with keys in charge of a teacher or a clerk. This means that the library is not organized and lacks basic library items. The services are just bad with conditions that discourage pupils to gain admission into the private secondary schools.

 

There is no doubt that library occupies a very prominent place in every educational set-up at present. The changing pattern in education demands that  learning must be accelerated and broadened by the use of many and varied devices  and materials. In a dynamic approach to teaching, library is an essential part of the school. It does not only supply more information, it supplies materials in all fields of study “all good methods of education postulate the existence of a well-stocked efficiently organized library” the teaching in the new set-up cannot be classroom centered but has to be student centered and library-centered. The students learning has to be self-directed and he has to acquire reading skills and do reading activities through the agency of the school library. This is irrespective of public or private secondary schools. Whereas, a curriculum and text-books aim at providing the least common multiple of all students in a class, the library aims at not only bringing out the individuals difference but also developing special interest and aptitudes of their best advantage.

Civilization has progressed by virtue of specialization and specialization is fed by out of the route studies. Library habit creates specialists. Students need an environment of attractive books from the beginning and it is one of the duties of the school proprietor/proprietress to provide this environment. Hence the school library can play an important role in all aspects of education. As all education does not take place at home, or school, it service makes a substantial contribution to students’ education during school life and also helps in their future search for knowledge. No wonder, therefore Kochhar, (2007) remarks that a school without an easily accessible library of at least thousand volumes is really scarcely a school at all, it is a dispensary without bottles, a kitchen without a pantry.

 

According to Keith (2008) public secondary schools in Nigeria lack adequate library facilities. She maintains that most of the public secondary schools have the library buildings but at most what is contained therein is just a handful of obsolete textbooks. Many libraries for the public schools do not have library resources like, units booklets, library materials, reference materials, newspapers, pamphlets, periodicals, audio-visual or non-reading materials and so on.

                                                Provision of Sporting Facilities in Public and Private Secondary Schools

Sporting facilities are useful for the exercise of the body. Education at the secondary school levels and even beyond requires the exercise of the body of the students. It is good for the health of the human body. Generally speaking, every educational institution is supposed to have playgrounds or sporting facilities. Ediho (2009) asserts that playgrounds or supporting facilities is a place with a  specific design for children to be able to play there; it may either be indoors or outdoors. School playground facilities include all recreational equipment such as seesaw, merry-go-round, swinging sets, slide, jungle gym, chin-up bars, sandbox, spring riders, monkey bars, overhead ledders, trapeze rings, play houses, play fields and mazes. Many of these help students to develop physical co-ordination, strength and flexibility as well as providing recreation and enjoyment. He also states that playgrounds often have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports, such as baseball diamond, a basketball court or a tether ball. Obe (2009) observes that private secondary schools playgrounds facilities such as swings, climbing arenas, large sand areas, professional style baseball field, track and soccer field, modern gymnasium are considered better that that of the public secondary schools.

Similarly, Akpan (2008) maintains that the playground facilities of the public secondary schools lag behind that of the private schools. However, since there are more positive and very innovative teachers in the public schools, resourcefulness and creativity makes both ends meet in terms of using present resources and their indigenes compensate for what is lacking. Adeyemi (2012) observes that standard sport facilities and equipment in any school should be pre-requisites for getting approval for establishing. Different types of activities require different facilities and equipment. Consequently, any limitation of these facilities and equipment create difficulties in presenting the desired variety of sports activities. Thus, according to Adeyemi, most private secondary schools do not have sport facilities for soccer, handball, basketball and volleyball.

Ige (2011) lists some common playground facilities found in most private schools to include, seesaw, jangle gym, overhead ladder, slide, swing set, table tennis, snooker board, monkey bars, spring rider and sand box. Ige further states that availability of playground facility in private secondary schools outweigh that of the public secondary schools. This situation according to Ige, is because, government as the owner of public secondary schools do not sometimes care about adequate provision of facilities most especially for sports. Sometimes the government is not fair to school managers in terms of urgent replacement of sporting facilities in schools. Since the owners are closer to the schools, they therefore, give better and faster attention to the provision and maintenance of sport facilities.

Playground/sporting facilities is very crucial to students in secondary schools. Ugwuoke (2011) avers that whatever special organizations, agencies and offices that have been created for sports development purposes and to make available sports services, it is mandatory that secondary schools and tertiary institutions should be called upon to play significant and quite frequently, the major role in Nigeria’s quest to attain national and international standards and honoured in sports. But according to

 

Jeroh (2007), the use of mercenaries in secondary school sports has readily led to the decline in sports development. Genuine students who needed to be encouraged are disillusioned because the schools do not give them the opportunity to showcase their talents. Agwubike (2007) observes that in most public and private secondary schools, there is death of physical education specialization even those that specialize in physical education prefer to handle other subjects leaving out, physical education to suffer. In such a situation, there is ineffective and inefficient implementation of strategies for achieving policy aspirations and objectives. Anike and Tari (2011) notes that the stimulating school environment for sports development in Nigeria would remain low and inconsistent until objectives, policies and procedures are in harmony with the school curriculum.

Okwori, Uever, Ada and Tor-Ayiin (2011) observe that in most of the privately owned secondary schools, there is lack of playground and the availability of sporting activities. Oluremi and Oyewale (2013) notice that sports facilities are lacking in most of the public and private secondary schools in Delta state Nigeria. Orunaboka and Nwachukwu further state that some of the public and private secondary schools do not have the playground not to talk of the sporting facilities. Nwizu (2011) in comparison of availability of sporting activities in public and private secondary schools noticed that most of the public secondary schools have playground but do not have sporting activities. Nzewi (2010) notices that private school in the South-West geopolitical zone lacked some of these sporting activities. Those  activities include gymnastics, javelin, volleyball, basketball, football and many other games. Fagbulu (2013) opines that private secondary schools in Nigeria mostly do not have enough space to established reasonably sporting activities for the students.

 

Ogundele (2012) observes that students learn best when they can actively explore an environment that is rich in materials. In the secondary school environment, the available education facilities include school plants which comprise semi-structures and structures that are put in place towards enhancing effective learning process. School facilities are recreational facilities like indoor, outdoor games, simulation games, tourism. Ezeanichinedu (2009) posits that many private secondary schools in the eastern state in Nigeria operate without adequate playground for sporting activities to take place in the schools. Dantani (2007) opines that there are a number of students that their football talent will be discovered and develop in the secondary school. Such a student will not see any good thing in a school that does not have playground/sporting facilities.

Okwori, Uever, Ada and Tor-Ayiin (2011) are also of the opinion that secondary schools whether public or private need playground because most students have interest in the interschool competition. That is one of the things that awaken  their interest in education. It is not just for the book learning alone.

Similarly, Balogun (2009) asserts that public secondary schools have adequate space and large fields for sports, and other physical activities but no adequate  facilities whereas private schools have small space for facilities. Balogun  further states that private schools have more playground facilities than the public secondary schools, because they are profit making organizations and would want to attract the attention of parents for more patronage and partly for financial gains. Therefore, they have to provide the best needed all round learning facilities for effective teaching and learning of the students.

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