Hand washing is a process of removing the germs from the hands. It is a vital process after done doing any activities. Hand washing helps to prevent any diseases that spread through contact. In order to eliminate most of the germs on the hands, one needs to apply a good hand washing practise. This hand washing practise involves 3 important steps which are rinsing, soaping, and drying. The main focus of this thesis is to design a convenient automatic hand washer that involves 3 vital steps in a good hand washing practise. The automatic hand washer is also a fully automated operation that does not need any single touch from the user for it to operating. Besides, this thesis also focuses on the simulation of the water flow in the nozzle inside the device so it gives a good water spray effect.



Background of Study 

The practice of hand washing is important as it can prevent the spreading of diseases. Most people are practicing hand washing but they are not practicing a good hand washing technique. It is learnt that hand washing is the single most important  factor in preventing the spread of disease (Parker, 1999).

In order to have a good hand washing practices, 5 important steps need to be followed. Those 5 steps are wet, lather, scrub, rinse and dry. Hands need to be scrub well for at least 20 seconds in order to eliminate most of the bacteria on the hand (CDC, 2012). Most people usually clean their hands less than half of the times they should. This cause the bacteria on the hands are not fully removed.

Unfortunately, it is hard to remove most of the germs after hand washing process. This is due to recolonization of germs after hand washing process. Recolonizations of germs occur when the users need to touch the knob of the faucets after hand washing. This is because the knob itself contains million of germs.

There are several diseases that can spread through contacts which are diarrhea, flu and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Health-care associated infections are also one of the deathly diseases that spread through contact between the health workers and patients. These diseases can be easily transferred to one and another.

It is important to have a good hand washing as it can save many lives by preventing disease that spread through contacts. The three elements that can eliminate the germs on the hands are water, soap and dryer. These three elements will be combined into the automatic hand wash where the user only needs to insert their hands in the machine for hand wash. The well design of automatic hand washer will ease the process of hand washing. Besides, the automatic hand washer will remove any germs on the hands efficiently and will reduce the health-care associated infections which occur among the health care workers.

Statement of the Problem 

The lack of hygiene especially in the hands can cause deathly disease to spread through contacts. According to WHO (2013), every year, diarrhea has taken 760 000 lives of children under five years old. It is also estimated that around 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea are recorded each year. The high amount of death cases due to the diseases causes it to be one of the top killers for children under five.

Besides, the lack of hand hygiene can contribute to spread of microbes that cause health care-associated infections .The microbes that cause HAI will easily spread from the health-care workers to patients. This will endanger the patient’s life as they are exposed to various microbes.

By hand washing, it can prevent the disease and microbes from spreading (Burton, Judah, & Curtis, 2011). It is difficult to remove most of the microbes on the hands if they are not practicing a good hand washing technique. Most of the microbes will be removed from the hands when the human uses soap, scrub the hands thoroughly for 20 seconds and dry them after the hand washing process. Human will has good hand hygiene and less case regarding the disease that spread through contact will be recorded if there is device that can conduct a hand washing efficiently.



This study is focus on A microcontroller based auto hand water and soap dispenser with an hand dryer. Through this well design technology, it can prevent the deathly disease from spreading into others. The objectives of this project are as below:

  • To design a well and convenient automatic hand washer
  • To allow users to soap, wash and dry their hands without a single touch from the users
  • To do simulation of water flow in the nozzle of the automatic hand washer

Scope of Works

The scope of works for this study is to apply the application of automatic hand wash. The automatic hand wash will wash human hands efficiently where it will remove most of the microbes. It will improve human’s life by having more convenient and efficient hand wash technology. It also will increase the hand hygiene in humans.

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