A PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE REALIZATION OF FRICATIVES IN SELECTED UTTERANCES OF SUNDAY IGBOHO AND NNAMDI KANU
The main thrust of this study is to investigate the Phonological Analysis Of The Realization Of Fricatives In Selected Utterances Of Sunday Igboho And Nnamdi Kanu. In carrying out the study, two research questions was posited. The research objectives were; To analyze the profile of fricatives consonants pronounced by Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Igboho and to know the possible factors causing the activists mispronounce fricatives consonants. Relevant literatures and scholarly ouputs were reviewed in chapter two of the study. This study were anchored on Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production. The source-filter theory describes speech production as a two stage process involving the generation of a sound source, with its own spectral shape and spectral fine structure, which is then shaped or filtered by the resonant properties of the vocal tract. In data analysis the researcher made use of Coding, Identification, Classification, Tabulating and Describing. Based on the findings, it was revealed that Based on findings, it was revealed that the two activist make some replacement of [ð] with [d], [t] and [θ], the replacement of [θ] with [t], the replacement of [v] with [f], the replacement of [s] with [z] and [∫], the replacement of [z] with [s], the replacement of [∫] with [s], the replacement of [ʒ] with [∫] and [z].
Background to the study
According to Roach (2009:39), fricatives are consonants with the characteristic that air escapes through a narrow passage and makes a hissing sound. Fricatives are considered as continuant consonant, which has a meaning that human, can continue making the sounds without interruption. English has quite a complex system of fricative phonemes. Based on the place of articulation, English Fricatives are divided into labiodentals, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, and glottal. Each place of articulation has a pair of phonemes, one fortis and one lenis. However, glottal only has one phoneme.
In the labiodentals fricative, the lower lip is in contact with the upper teeth. The fricative noise is never very strong and is scarcely audible in the case of v. The dental fricatives are sometimes described as if the tongue were placed between the front teeth. The tongue is normally placed behind the teeth, with the tip touching the inner side of the lower front teeth and the blade touching the inner side of the upper teeth. The air escapes through the gaps between the tongue and the teeth. In the alveolar fricatives, the air escapes through a narrow passage along the centre of the tongue, and the sound produced is comparatively intense. In Post alveolar fricatives, the tongue is in contact with an area slightly further back than that for s, z. The glottal fricative is produced from the narrowing that produces the friction noise which is between the vocal folds
This is similar to what was seen with the plosives. The fortis fricatives are articulated with greater force than the lenis, with louder friction noise. The lenis fricatives have very little or no voicing in initial and final positions, but may be voiced when they occur between voiced sounds. The fortis fricatives have the effect of shortening a preceding vowel in the same way as fortis plosives do.
Odden (2006: 2) relates pronunciation to the foundation areas of linguistics that deal with scientific study of the language structure, that is, phonology. Furthermore, he mentions that it is different from other linguistics field. The language structure that is discussed in phonology is closely related to the study of sound structure in a language. According to Richards, Platt, & Weber (1992: 215) phonology deals with two main things, phonemics, that is, the study of the distinctive sound units, and phonetics that mainly deals with speech sounds. It should be noticed that to the same extent as phonology, pronunciation, basically, also deals with sounds. The way sound is made is called manner of articulation. Manner of articulation is focused on the way how the sound of consonants is pronounced. There are several kinds of manner articulation such as stops articulation, fricatives articulation, and approximant.
This study focuses on fricatives of Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Igboho because the two leader make mistake the most in pronouncing fricatives consonants. The research will focus on errors and mistakes which they made on pronunciation of the words containing fricative consonants in there utterances and speech.
According to Jones (1972: 26), fricatives are formed by narrowing of the air passage at the some points so that, when air is expelled by pressure from lungs, it escapes with a kind of hissing sound. Fricatives are the sounds that are accompanied by a continuous noise. Fricatives are produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth. Noises are produced due to frictions between the organs of speech.
Biography of Sunday Igboho
Sunday Adeniyi Adeyemo popularly known as Sunday Igboho is a Nigerian business magnate, human right activist, political activist and philanthropist. He is the chairman of Adeson International Business Concept Ltd and the Akoni Oodua of Yoruba. He was born on 10th October 1972 at Igboho town, located in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria.
Nicknamed after his hometown, Sunday Igboho rose to fame following his role in the Modakeke-Ife communal crisis in 1997, where he played an active part. Many believe that Sunday Igboho has metaphysical abilities which make him a formidable opponent in battle. He is the chairman of Adeson International Business Concept Ltd and the Akoni Oodua of Yoruba.
He gained fame and public attention in January 2021 when he gave an ultimatum to Fulani herdsmen in Ibarapa to vacate the land after the killing of Dr. Aborode and went ahead to enforce his declaration making sure those Fulani herdsmen were sent out of Ibarapa in Oyo state. This action alone created a lot of controversy in Nigeria.
Sunday Igboho was born in Igboho, an old Oyo empire of Oke Ogun in Oyo state, but his father relocated to Modakeke in Osun state, where he grew up. He started off as a motorcycle repairer and then ventured into automobiles where he sells cars and was able to start Adeson business Concept.
He gained international attention after the part he played in the Modakeke/Ife war between 1997 and 1998, where he was a defendant of Modakeke people. And thereafter he relocated to Ibadan where he met former Oyo state Governor, Lam Adesina through a courageous step while trying to defend the rights of the people at a fuel station.
He also went on to work with former Governor, Rasheed Ladoja and became one of his most trusted aides. As the Akoni Oodua of Yoruba land, he is known for fighting for the right of the Yorubas where he possesses metaphysical powers and advocating for the Oduduwa republic.
Sunday Igboho is a Christian, he also has a belief in Ifa, the religion of Yoruba land and Oodua. He is married with two wives and has many children including three professional footballers playing in Germany. He is the leader of the secessionist group Oduduwa Nation and he is the one championing the move for Oduduwa republic.
Sunday Igboho has collaborated with Nnamdi Kanu leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) to fight for a one course and that is independent freedom to breakout from Nigeria.
After the arrest of Nnamdi Kanu, DSS stormed his house in Ibadan to arrest him too but he was able to escape. The Nigeria governments are trying to arrest and prosecute Sunday Igboho because of his campaign for an independent state of Yoruba nation. After arresting Nnamdi Kanu, the Nigeria Federal government believes that Sunday Igboho is the next target to be arrested so that the call for self determination and disintegration will stop.
Biography of Nnamdi Kanu
Nnamdi Okwu Kanu (born 25 September 1967) is a Nigerian pro-Biafra political activist, who is also a British citizen. He is the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB). Kanu founded IPOB in 2014. The main aim of IPOB is to restore the separatist state of Biafra which existed in Nigeria’s Eastern Region during the Nigerian Civil War of 1967–1970.
As the director of a United Kingdom-registered radio station named Radio Biafra, Kanu propagated Biafran separatism.Kanu was arrested on treason charges in Lagos, Nigeria on 14 October 2015 and was detained for more than a year, despite various court orders that ruled for his release. When in court, Kanu appeared regularly wearing a Jewish prayer shawl and head covering. He said in court, that he “believes in Judaism” and considers himself a Jew and oftentimes has led his Biafran people to various Jewish prayers and religious observations. On 28 April 2017, Kanu was released from prison on bail. After jumping bail and fleeing abroad, Kanu played a major part in the insurgency in Southeastern Nigeria, as the Nigerian security forces attempted to quash IPOB’s armed wing, the Eastern Security Network, resulting in a low-level conflict in early 2021. Despite the fighting, Kanu maintained that IPOB was interested in a peaceful solution and achieving Biafran independence without violence. In June 2021, he was arrested by Interpol and handed over to Nigeria.
Statement of The Problems
The problem investigated in this study has to do with fricative. Clark and Yallop (1995: 91) say that a language selects from the human articulatory potential. Judging from the various sounds that human beings are able to produce, the articulatory potential is vast. However, the range that their language has selected limits speakers of a particular language.
- How is the profile of fricatives pronounced by Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Igboho ?
- What are the possible factors causing the two activists mispronounce fricatives consonants?
Based on the statement of the problem above, the objectives of the study are stated briefly as follows:
- To analyze the profile of fricatives consonants pronounced by Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Igboho
- To know the possible factors causing the activists mispronounce fricatives consonants.
Significance of The Study
The result of the research is expected to be useful for the readers, the institution and the students who are interested in English Education. And this result is hoped to be useful for the lecturers of English, as reference in designing teaching strategies, so the students of English education will perform better in speaking English with the hope they can also avoid in mispronouncing of fricatives.
For the writer: It is expected that the result of this study can contribute in improving students‟ awareness to pronounce fricatives consonants correctly in performing pronunciation.
For the Reader: The result of this study is able to become reference to study pronunciations errors and it can be used as additional knowledge in linguistics. This research can improve the speaking ability in order to minimize pronunciation errors of fricatives consonants.
For other Msc Research : The result of this research can be used as one of the references and information for further research related with the field.
Scope of the Study
The discourse approach adopted in this research focused on such parameters of fricatives as functional entities in Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Igboho speechs.
Limitation of The Study
Financial Constraints: The researcher was with limited funds and cannot visit all the areas to get responses from respondents but was able to get good information concerning the research topic.
Time Constraints: The researcher was involved in other departmental activities like seminars, attendance of lectures et.c which limited the time for the research but the researcher was able to meet up with the time assigned for the completion of the research work.
Definition of Key Term
In order to prevent misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the research findings, the writer would like to explain and define the key terms that are used.
According to Yate (2002: 1), pronunciation is the production of the sound that we use to make meaning including to the particular sound of language segmental aspects and supra segmental aspects. It means when people deliver message to others by their voice, the message could be received by others clearly and understandably.
Fricatives are consonants with the characteristic that air escapes through a narrow passage and makes a hissing sound. Rouch (2000: 50) defines fricatives are continuant consonants, which mean that we can continue making them without interruption as long as we have enough air in your lungs.
Discourse Text: ‘Discourse’ in this sense is used adjectivally to modify ‘text’in order to realize the meaning: the text in the discourse. In this sense, the text is the visual representation of the song.
Transitivity; is the realization of the experiential component. It refers to the way meanings are encoded in the clause and to the way different types of process are represented in language