An Appraisal of rock fines on the geotechnical properties of sub-grade soil materials of a failed portion in Kaduna state
Road networks are crucial for the socioeconomic development of many nations because they link all businesses and marketplaces and encourage increased trade, the creation of jobs, and a more equitable distribution of revenue. Road transportation, in general, determines how economic processes are spread internationally. Numerous documents ((Ebuzoeme OD (2015) Evaluating the significance of poor road design as a factor of road failure: a study of Onitsha–Enugu Expressway, Southeastern Nigeria. Civ Environ Res 7(2):180–195)) state that traffic accidents have caused many fatalities and significant property damage. Roadway paving and foundation soils are both important for a country’s growth ((Meshida EA (2006) Highway failure over talc–tremolite schist terrain: a case study of the Ife to Ilesha Highway, Southwestern Nigeria. Bull Eng Geol Environ 65:457–461.)). The road quickly started to degrade with certain noticeable characteristics once it was put into service.
The qualities of the rocks or soils—geological elements—on which actual roads are constructed affect how effectively they perform as a transport medium. Subgrade, subbase, base course, and riding surfaces make up the majority of the components from the bottom to the top of many traditional flexible highway pavements ((Gupta BL, Gupta A (2003) Roads, railways, bridges, tunnel and harbor dock engineering, 5th edn. Standard Publishers Distributors, Nai Sarak, New Delhi)).
The destruction of life and property has frequently been traced to subpar building techniques and poorly designed projects that broke basic laws and regulations. Road breakdowns are typically preceded by destructive signs such as cracking, rutting, potholes, differential heave, deformation, and peeling ((Alexander WS, Maxwell J (1996) Controlling shrinkage cracking from expansive clay sub-grade. In: Francken LB, Molenaar AA (eds) Reflective cracking in pavements, 2nd edn. E&FN Spon, London, pp 64–71)) The increase in reported road failures has many causes, including increased road usage, defects in design and construction, and maintenance problems ((Jain SS, Kumar P (1998) Report on causes of cracks occurrence in Ramghat–Aligarh road in UP. Report submitted to PWD, Aligarh)).
It is well knowledge that the strength of the basic materials for roads is compromised by environmental factors, particularly temperature variations and acid rain assaults. According to Gidigasu((Gidigasu MD (1983) Development of acceptance specifications for tropical gravel paving materials. Eng Geol 19:213–240)) and Graham and Shields , the width and structure of the road shoulders are other factors that influence road failures. Notably, numerous pavement collapses have been connected to the geological and hydrogeological conditions brought on by marshy, insufficient drainage systems and the textural characteristics of the subsoil in Nigeria’s Southern Niger Delta region((Gidigasu MD (1983) Development of acceptance specifications for tropical gravel paving materials. Eng Geol 19:213–240 )).
Additionally, a connection has been made between the frequency of pavement collapses, the engineering indices of the subgrade materials, and the underlying geology. It is believed that their mineral compositions have an effect on the underlying geology’s engineering behavior Poor geotechnical properties of the soils, such as low MDD, poor bearing capacity, high compressibility, high liquid limit, plasticity index OMC, and California bearing ratio (CBR), are frequently to blame for road collapses . These conditions typically cause pavement surfaces to be cracked or distorted. The resilience, strength, and lifespan of roads are impacted by the transmission and bearing of axle load, which are directly related to the suitability of soils for base courses, subbase courses, and subgrades. Understanding soil behavior that could seriously jeopardize road construction is made easier with the help of geotechnical analysis of subsoils ((Akpan O (2005) Relationship between road pavement failures, engineering indices and underlying geology in a tropical environment. Glob J Geol Sci 3(2):99–108))Research has also indicated that in order to identify the underlying causes of the highway collapses that continue to happen in some areas of southern Nigeria, geophysical and geotechnical studies must be coupled as well as conducted individually In order to avoid a repeat of the Isinbode-Ara road’s premature road failure, geotechnical parameters of the remaining subsoils have been examined. These parameters include the natural moisture content, grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, California bearing ratio, consolidation, and permeability tests. Appropriate materials—either in situ or elsewhere—were suggested after assessing the subsoil’s potential for swelling and shrinking and comparing the results to standards.((Amadi AN, Eze CJ, Igwe CO, Okunlola IA, Okoye NO (2012) Architect’s and Geologist’s view on the causes of building failures in Nigeria. Mod Appl Sci 6(6):31–38))
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