AN EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN ORGANIZATION
This research work looked into the issue of “An Evaluation of Training and Development of Human Resources in Organization”. A case study of Emenite Nigeria Limited and Scientific Equipment Development institute Akwuke (SEDI). It has been observed that the success or failure of business organization depends to a great extent on the skills, knowledge and ability of the human elements in such organizations. In the contemporary times, it is noted that while some organizations enjoy optimum productivity, efficiency and effectiveness on the part of their employees, other organizations experience low productivity and inefficiency. This has been the major reason why it is observed that while some organizations have failed; others still forge ahead inspite of all odds. However, the secret behind these discrepancies in performance (or organizations) lies on the organizations training and development of their employees’ others consider it a colossal waste of time and money to carry out such activities. No viable organization can achieve remarkable success without resource to the concept of training and development – because, its importance to organization success cannot be underrated. To carry out this study, both primary and secondary data were extensively used. Specifically, it is hypothesized that as the perceived attainment of desired know-how increases, the employee’s productivity will increase. The basic data of this research consist of interviews, statistical data based on a standardized questionnaire and other secondary sources. Each interview or questionnaire was prefaced by a brief statement to the effect that: 1. The employee’s participation was completely voluntary and did not require that they answer any question. 2. No name were recorded and 3. All research data were presented in tabular form and in some other fashion to completely protect employee confidentiality. Several findings were made in the cause of this research. Permanent among them is that the benefit of planned and systematic human resources is an inevitable aspect of organization growth, and for this reason should avail all workers the opportunity of being trained not only within, but outside their organization to widen their scope and knowledge on the tasks they perform. For a successful research work to be carried out, this study was divided into five chapters, and each of the chapters was exhaustively dealt with in the main text.
- TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page- – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification- – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – v
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study- – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem- – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Questions- – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – 8
1.7 Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – 9
1.8 Limitations of the Study- – – – – – – 9
1.9 Definition of Terms- – – – – – – – 10
References- – – – – – – – – – 13
Review of Related Literature – – – – – – – 14
2.1 Concepts and Definitions of Training and Development- – 14
2.2 Systematic Approach to Training and Development- – – 18
2.3 Assessment of Training and Development Needs- – – – 21
2.4 Types and Methods of Training and Development- – – – 24
2.5 Evaluation of training programme- – – – – – 26
2.6 Problems of Training and Development- – – – – – 29
2.7 Benefits for Planned and Systematic Resource
Training and Development- – – – – – – 31
2.8 Effectiveness of Training and Development
Programmes of Employees in Organizations- – – – – 33
References- – – – – – – – – – 35
Research Methodology- – – – – – – 36
3.1 Research Design- – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Sources of Data- – – – – – – – – 36
3.2.1 Primary Sources of Data- – – – – – – 36
3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data – – – – – – – 37
3.3 Instrumentation- – – – – – – – – 37
3.4 Population of the Study- – – – – – – 37
3.6 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – – 38
- 3.5 Determination of Sample Size- – – – – – 39
3.6 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – – 41
3.7 Validation of the Data Instruments- – – – – – 42
3.8 Method of Data Analysis- – – – – – – 42
References- – – – – – – – – – 44
- CHAPTER FOUR
Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – 45
4.1: Analysis of Questionnaires Distributed and Returned. – – – 46
4.2 Section A: Demographic Data- – – – – – – 46
4.3 Data on Education Background – – – – – – – 49
4.4: Hypotheses Testing- – – – – – – – 62
- CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion – – 77
5.1 Major Findings- – – – – – – – – 77
5.2 Recommendations- – – – – – – – 78
5.3 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – 80
Bibliography- – – – – – – – – 83
Appendixes- – – – – – – – – 85
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has become an established fact that the success of most public and private organizations does not depend entirely on how well such organizations are 63 financed but also on how well the human resources working in the organizations are experienced. The experiences acquired by these human elements do not simply come out of the blues, but as a result of the chances given to them to acquire such experiences. It has been noted that in most organizations, whether in the public of private sector, those who are found to be more productive are those workers who have a wealth of experience on their jobs as a result of training and development they had acquired. This is why in contemporary times, many managers and employers in several organizations are no more averse to the concept of training and development. They have begun to realize the fact that well trained and developed employees are assets any public & private organizations.
The above explains why Ubeku (1984:194) opines that “The process of training and development is a continuous one, and money spent on the training and development of employees of any public & private organization are money well invested.” He went further to stress that in public & private organizations employees who have not received adequate training before being assigned responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out their jobs. For this reason, an employee should be helped to grow into more responsibility by systematic training and development, because it is only then that he will feel confident enough to carry out the responsibility of the job. This is so because it is only then that the employee believes he knows what is expected of him regarding the job, and because he can do it, his enthusiasm for the job increases.
Consequently, as noted by Donnelly (1992:114) “an employee in this position is more likely to originate ideas as to how best to carry out the tasks of the job. And employees who are not trained tend to cling to methods they were shown the first time they took over the job. They are frightened of doing the job in a different way, because something might go wrong and that risk they cannot take”.
The concept of training and development is not the task of educational institutions alone. This explains why in December 1970, according to Ubeku (1984:198), the then federal commissioner for labour in his address to the 14th Annual General Meeting of the Nigeria employers consultative Association stressed the role of employers in training their employees to be able to carry out their responsibilities effectively. He explained among other things that.
The development of human resources cannot be entirely the concern of our educational institutions. It is also the responsibility of other institutions capable of performing training functions. Every enterprise, whether public or private, necessarily does considerable on-the-job training, some of which organized, and some haphazard and accidental… You as employers must realize or recognize the overriding importance of the development of human resources, without which we cannot overcome the continuing shortage of trained people as we strive to throw off the bonds of economic backwardness and seek to achieve the social and economic objectives of our development plans.
The anxiety of the government and other private organizations over the scarcity of trained manpower in the country has been translated into action in the form of institutions with the function of promoting, training and development in the Nigerian economy.
However, one may be tempted at this juncture to ask – what exactly is training and development? According to Armstrong (1984:20) Training is
the modification of behaviour through experience, and development is a change towards the better”. Based on this, it then shows that employers in organizations that have in their policy, the concept of training and development have paved way for the success and survival of their organizations, and the subsequent enjoyment of optimal performance on the part of the employees or workers.
In any case, the question then is, in the midst of the advantages inherent in the concept of training and development of employees in organizations,
- How far has the Nigerian public and private organizations appreciated the idea of training and developing their workers?
- Also, in what capacity do the workers receive training and development of employees in organizations.
It is the above questions posed that leads to the study on “An Evaluation of Training and Development of Human Resources. In Pubic Private Organizations’ with special reference to Emenite Nigeria Limited and Scientific. Equipment Development Institution Akuike
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is very axiomatic to state that the importance of training and development of human resources in public and private organizations cannot be over-emphasized. Most organizations have met their waterloo while others are performing below expectations as a result of not having in their employ skilled personnel. The assertions by Torrington and Chapman (1983), show that the developed societies have been paying much attention to training and development. This is the secret behind the relative success being recorded by most public and private organizations in such areas. On the other hand however, most public and private organizations in this part of the world do not consider it very expedient to make provisions for the training and development of their workers (although a few of them do), and this has always been the major cause of low productivity, inefficiency and the inability of most public and private organizations to enjoy continuity.
The discrepancies being noted in the operational systems of Public and private organizations existing in the developed world and those that exist in this part of the world helps us to identify a problem – that no organization can achieve remarkable feats in terms of higher productivity and efficiency without recourse to training and development. This study is therefore set to evaluate the training and development of human resources in Nigeria public and private organizations with emphasis on Emenite Nigeria Limited and Scientific Equipment Development Institute Akwuke.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are stated below:
- To identify the kinds and methods of training given to workers in public and private organizations in Nigeria.
- To examine the effectiveness of the approaches/techniques used in training personnel in both private and public organization.
- To evaluate the impact of training on workers performance.
- To assess, if any, the difference employee performance between public and private organization based on training approaches.
- To identify the problems associated with training and development programmes in Nigeria public and private organizations.
The study poses the following research questions:
- What are the kinds and methods of training given to workers in public and private organization in Nigeria?
- How effective are the approaches/techniques used in training personnel in both private and public organization.
- What are the impacts of training on workers performance?
- What are the differences in employees’ performance between public and private organizations based on training approaches?
- What are the problems associated with training and development programmes in Nigeria public and private origination.
For the purpose of the study, the following research hypotheses will be formulated:
Ho: On-the-job-training and job-rotation are not kinds and methods of training given to workers in public and private organization in Nigeria.
Hi: On-the-job-training and job-rotation are kind and methods of training given to workers in public and private organization in Nigeria.
Ho: The approaches/techniques used in training personnel in both private and public organization are not effective.
Hi: The approaches/techniques used in training personnel in both private and public organization are effective.
Ho: Ability to learn and adapt to new work methods is not an impact of training on workers performance.
Hi: Ability to learn and adapt to new work methods is an impact of training on workers performance.
Ho: Human factors management and performance system development are not the differences in employees performance between public and private organization based on training approaches.
Hi: Human factors management and performance system development are the differences in employees performance between public and private organization based on training approaches.
Ho: Ineffective management and coordination are not problems associated with training and development programme in Nigerian public and private organizations.
Hi: Ineffective Management and co-ordination are problems associated with training and development programme in Nigeria public and private organization.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is essential to mention that this study was undertaken so as to evaluate the training and development of human resources in organizations with special reference to Emenite Nigeria Limited and scientific equipment development institute Akwuke. This study is very significant because it enabled the researcher to unveil some functional overlaps in the public and private organizations which could be addressed through training and development of the human resources, and this when addressed would benefit these organizations as they would enjoy efficient performance on these workers.
This study also enabled the researcher to highlight the advantages that are inherent in training and development so that those employers in public and private organizations who are averse to the idea of training and developing their workers (especially those employers who think that training is a colossal waste of resources) to rescind their decisions since they would benefit immensely by working with well developed or trained employees.
This study is very significant because the findings and subsequent recommendations are of immense benefit to other organizations, especially those that experience low productivity and poor performance on the part of the their workers because of lack of training and development.
Moreover, this study (as believed by the researcher) is a contribution to the academic development of the theories of “Training and Development; and for this reason would be very beneficial to other student researchers, especially those who would wish to research further on the subject matter in the future.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
“An adequate statement of the problem also defines it very carefully in terms of its scope, and it is obvious for a researcher to set forth the bounds of the topic being researched on”, (Osuala, 1983:58). Based on the above, the scope of this study covered an evaluation of training and development of human resources in public and private organizations, with specially reference to Emenite Nigeria Limited and scientific Equipment Development Institute Akwuke.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A study of this nature cannot be successfully completed without the researcher encountering some constraints or limitations. In view of this, one of the major limitations of this study was inadequate time. It was not easy for the researcher to conduct an exhaustive survey of the activities of the organizations under study and at the same time attend to other academic engagements.
Another limitation to this study was inadequate finance. A study of this nature requires enough money to enable the researcher to make constant visits to the organizations under study in search of relevant information with regards to the subject matter under study. But lack of adequate finance nearly marred the efforts of the researcher in this direction.
Also, a major limitation to this study was the difficulty encountered by the researcher in convincing some of the respondents (i.e employees of the organizations under study) to supply the needed information by completing the questionnaire administered to them. Some of these respondents discreetly revealed to the researcher that supplying any information to an outsider would jeopardize their relationship with the management of their organization, notwithstanding the fact that the researcher made efforts to convince them that the study was just for academic purposes.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms simply represent the specific meaning(s) that are given to them in this study. These terms include:
- In this study training is the modification of behaviour through experience
- In this study, development simply means the change towards the better. It is used to denote the art of making workers grow into maturity for assuming more responsibilities.
- The effectiveness of an organization implies the degree to which it attains its goals or the ability of the system as a whole to effect intended results.
- In this study, management is the process to utilizing the resources of an organization to accomplish set objectives. And some other times, it (i.e management) would be used to denote human elements at the helm of affairs in the organization.
- This refers to a social system or an organized body of persons working together to achieve a common purpose.
- This means achievements, productivity and successful completion of tasks. In the context of this study, performance means the organization’s ability to accomplish its primary goals.
- In this context, productivity is used to denote the ability of an organization to attain its goals and objectives within a given period of time.
- Human Resources
- In this study, human resources refer to the human elements working in or for the organization.