TERRORISM AND FOREIGN RELATION UNDER MUHAMMADU BUHARI ADMINISTRATION FROM 2015-2021
Background to the Study
The framework of Nigerian foreign policy formed the basic perception how it sees the world from ideological, political, economic, and religious standpoints. These factors decide its foreign policy response to regional and continental affairs. Nigeria is a key player in West Africa sub-region, Africa, and global stage, especially in the activities of the regional inter-governmental organization ECOWAS. Nigerian foreign policy approach towards ECOWAS regional agenda is based on Afrocentric foreign policy doctrine which is the premise of its foreign policy direction after attaining independence to support the cause of African countries struggling for independence in the 1960s. Nigerian Afrocentric foreign policy doctrine was effective at the regional level which was directed at its West African neighbors because Nigeria sees the West African region as its natural territory.
The Afrocentric foreign policy doctrine is the cardinal point of Nigerian foreign policy direction over the years. According to Akintola (2007), Nigeria has maintained a relatively consistent foreign policy because the country had experienced varied forms of government within this period. Right from independence Africa was the centerpiece of Nigeria’s foreign policy with emphasis on the emancipation, development, and unity of Africans both within and outside the continent Akintola, (2007).
The enormous contribution of Nigeria to regional development coincided to the emergence of ECOWAS in 1975 as an inter-governmental regional organization. The effort was to prove its ability to play a larger role in the international community beyond the West African region. The end of the bipolar world in the 1990s allowed regional state actors to play more active role in regional affairs, which also gave rise to Nigerian influence in West African regional affairs. In the assessment of Otunbajo, Nigeria could play a leadership role in Africa because of the dwindled strategic significance of major external powers (Otunbajo, 1989)
However, Nigerian foreign policy towards ECOWAS is two-level approach through bilateral and multilateral diplomatic dealing with state actors in regional affairs. Thus, foreign policy is a plan of action adopted by one nation regarding its diplomatic dealings with other countries. Foreign policy is established as a systemic way to deal with issues that may arise with other countries Business Dictionary (2017).
The contemporary globalization agenda of the world system, no nation can afford to be in isolation in this period of uneven distribution of scarce natural resources and human labor in this era of interdependence. Emphasis is now attached to the foreign policy direction of a nation. Accordingly, foreign policy has a range of actions, as well as a set of principles influencing these actions, taken regarding external situations and factors, the summation of thoughts, actions, and principles on external affairs taken by decision-makers with the intention of achieving long-range goals and short-term objective(Frankel, 1978). The aim of this study is to critically assess terrorism and foregn relation ( buhari administration)
Statement Of The Problem
The goal of every foreign policy is to establish and maintain a cordial relationship with other nations as well as to build a good image for a nation and meet its national and domestic interests. This invariably means that a good foreign policy is important in formulating, maintaining and sustaining a nation‟s positive image. However, Nigeria’s reputation seems to be at a very low ebb under Muhammadu Buhari‟s administrations. It is alleged that violent crimes is a bane of Nigeria‟s development. The Boko Haram terrorism, the Niger Delta crises, and the IPOB agitations have earned Nigeria a place amongst the least safe countries of the world (Martin, 2016). The violent crimes perpetrated by these (and many other) groups have led to the death of over 1.3 million Nigerians and the displacement of over 20,000 people, pallid national integration, and ethnoreligious chauvinism (Duke & Agbaji, 2017). Also, bedeviled by corruption and the maddening disregard for transparency and accountability, Nigeria‟s image tarnishes while she simultaneously loses huge foreign direct investments (FDI) and her energetic young human resources that migrate because they believe the country has little or nothing to offer them. Thus, the nation is unable to successfully combat internal insurrections and stands amongst nations with a smeared image of bad governance. This weakens the economy, increases insecurity and maladministration. In fact, according to Transparency International‟s (TI) Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of 2017, Nigeria ranked 148th out of 180 nations that were surveyed which is a slippery dash below her 136th position in TI‟s 2014, 2015 and 2016 rankings making a mockery of the Nigerian government‟s acclaimed anticorruption blitz. Added to this is the fact that the Buhari‟s administrations, like many other administrations in Nigeria, have never lacked good foreign policies. The problem of Nigeria‟s foreign policy that is affecting the country‟s image is not in formulation, but in implementation