ASSEMENT SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FROM 2018 TO 2019

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ASSEMENT SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FROM 2018 TO 2019

Introduction
Globally, the rapid increase in population leads to a dramatic upsurge in solid waste production, with austere socio-economic and environmental effects on society (Lagerkvist and Dahlén, 2019). Currently, there is a general consensus on the guidelines for sustainable solid waste management, however, limited efforts have so far been done in this regard, and these are adapted to the specific guidelines and needs of each national or regional authority. New strategies are required to design various and variable urban models for effective waste management.

Today urbanization is one of the major factors contributing to solid waste generation in most part of the world (Kumar and Pandey, 2019; Chen, 2018; Anarfi, 2013). In Africa, waste is unsightly and lowers the morale of communities. Improper waste management is known to create conditions for the spread of diseases (World Bank, 2011; Osei et al., 2010; United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), 2009). The collection of solid waste (SW) is a key step in all waste management plan. It is one of the greatest challenges confronting waste managers globally.

(Ogra, 2013; Chalkias and Lasaridi, 2009; Tinmaz and Demir, 2005; Environmental Protection Agency, 2002).Irrespective of the strategies and methods of waste management employed, the first step is that waste in which ever form it is must foremost be collected. The waste collection scheme ought be tailored to meet the objective of the intended waste management processing procedure such as landfilling methods or resource recovery. Solid waste collection mostly comprises people and a means of carriage to a transference station, treatment facility, or final dumping site (Oelofse et al., 2018; Worrell, 2012). Collection techniques may differ obviously between developed and developing countries. The phenomenon of house-to-house collection is very common particularly for household solid waste collection in most developed nations (Satterthwaite et al., 2018). However, the application of this method has mostly been very low mainly in developing nations due to several challenges including financial, population expansion and other economic difficulties (Awuak, 2018; Bezama and Agamuthu, 2019).

In Sub-Saharan Africa, waste collection systems such as communal container collection methods appear most dominant in many nations (Awuah, 2018; Lloyd, 2019; Lagerkvist, and Dahlén, 2019). In this kind of system, common containers (waste bins) are provided at dedicated points within neighborhoods for households to drop-off their solid waste. Trash collection vehicles then pick up these containers and empty off the trash at designated disposal spots and return the containers to their original locations. However, this trash collection method is fronted with several difficulties most of the time leading to uncollected. Thus, there is overflow of waste, ground dumping at collection sites, and at unauthorized spaces (Atkinson et al., 2019).

The unplanned siting of dump sites or communal containers could pose threats to water resources, particularly source water sources such as rivers and streams. Eventually borehole, hand-dug wells and other groundwater sources are also affected.

Several gaps exist within efficiency and effective waste domain in Ghana. although some work has been done, more questions remain unanswered (Kretchy et al., 2019; Boateng et al., 2019; Owusu-Nimo et al., 2019).

First an efficient waste management requires data on geographical location of landfill and dumpsites, this is critical for an effective and timely waste management regime. Thus, leading to efficient waste collection and consumer satisfaction; whilst sustained ineffective services leads to dissatisfaction on the part of the client resulting in indiscriminate refuse disposal by various households that may result in environmental pollution and spread of disease (Francis-Xavier et al., 2018).

The efficiency of waste management service as relates to human interface within the waste management delivery domains remains largely unknown. For example, a holistic assessment of clientele perceptions of efficiency across districts regarding the services of a given waste management provider is virtually non-existent. Yet it is critical to have integrated information about the efficiency of waste management delivery as well as customer satisfaction in order to aid policy directions and enhance sustainable waste management. However a holistic assessments of the efficient or quality of waste management services cannot be complete without views from patron of the waste service so provided (Udofia et al., 2018).

The purpose of this study is therefore, to evaluate solid waste management among household aimed at identifying the adequacy of the communal containers; distance from households to the dumping site and distance from the collection point to the final disposing site in a large

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