The last decade has seen an explosion in both the popularity of reality television programming and the use of social net-working sites (SNS). Murray and Ouellette (2009) argued that reality television has become one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the United States due to its inexpensive production costs and the ability of editors to high-light real and manufactured drama and comedy easily. Since the debut of Survivor in the summer of 2000, reality television has become a staple of both networks and cable channels (Baruh, 2010).
Individuals now have more viewing choices than ever before in deciding how to spend their time with television. With the explosion of cable programming channels, many different genres of programming are competing for niche market audiences (Hiebert & Gibbons, 2000). One programming type that has rapidly gained popularity across all TV channels in recent years is reality television programming. Most channels have some type of reality show (even ESPN created a reality show) to quench audience’s thirst for reality television programming. Research is needed to identify how reality television may differentially influence audience’s attitudes and perception. Therefore, this is a study of how perceptions are cultivated by reality TV programming.
According to Chikafa&Mateveke (2012) the concept of Big brother was borrowed from George Orwell’s novel of 1984 titled ‘fictional dystopia of Oceania’ in which he described a world of never-ending surveillance. In the novel, the dictator who watched over the citizens of Oceania was called Big Brother, and his terrifying slogan was ‘Big Brother is watching you’. In the Big Brother television show, contestants confined in the house compete to escape eviction in order to win the prize money. The reality TV show debuted on the African continent in 2003, and has since then, with the aid of the growth of satellite television in Africa, roused African audience interest and has remained an annual event till date (see: Chikafa&Mateveke 2012).
Big Brother reality show has continued to thrive and at the same time wax stronger mostly among the youth; although, the show, over the years, has been criticized for its display of obscene and vulgar scene which is considered not to be part of the Nigeria culture and that of Africa in general.
Television is a powerful medium that can influence a person‘s attitude and help to shape their perceptions on a wide variety of topics. Several studies have demonstrated that the information and exposure provided by television can influence a wide range of attitudes and behavior beyond providing entertainment (Murray and Ouellette, 2009). Reality shows are the trump cards of the producers of the television Industry. ‘‘A reality show is the live telecast of the performance or activity of the persons who may be the expert or non-expert of the respective field in an unpredictable environment & in unscripted manner’’. Reality Shows are genre of television shows or programmes which feature common people or celebrities and or both, in real life or scripted situations/environment or a mix of both real and scripted incidents. The genre often highlights personal drama and conflict to a much greater extent than other unscripted television such as documentary shows. It generally, breaks the monotony by creating interesting concepts and innovative ideas that made them stand out from the regular shows. Every day on television, some new reality shows are being introduced, enabling the viewers to choose from a large menu of many shows. Reality shows have become the order of the day, attracting and wooing the audiences in all age-group (Baruh, 2010). Most assumptions about the psychology of reality television viewership are derived from textual analyses of reality-based programs, rather than research involving audiences. Thus, it calls for investigations of reality-based programming based on the assumption that such programmes may implicate a network of social, economic, and political changes in modern society. Reality shows generally include interviews, talk shows, entertainment, documentaries, Comedy shows, horror Shows, educational shows, Talent hunt shows, celebrity shows and live quiz shows. Typically docu-dramas, invented or composite characters and dialogue are excluded from the reality TV category (Baruh, 2010). Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment of communication impact of big brother Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The positive and negative impact of TV reality show on the communication pattern and behaviour of students attract the attention of so many intelligent people all over the world and calls for real academic debates and scholarly studies.
The Big Brother Africa television series has been fraught with controversy since it started gaining popularity in the Nigerian market. Critics of the show have vitriolic ally called for its ban from Nigerian television stations (satellite though), citing the nudity, loose morals, and other factors which they claim, can negatively influence Nigerian youths.
Since the debut of Big Brother TV reality show which was seen as a platform for Nigeria and Africa in general to showcase their culture to brother countries and to the outside world, and boost brotherliness and cohesion in the continent, the TV reality show has also been heavily criticized for promoting immorality through its display of obscene scene and use of inordinate languages hitherto seen to be alien to the rudiments of the cultures of Africa as a people.
According to Nwafor (2015), the TV reality show now displays uninhibited sexual frolics on open cameras, accusations STDs being passed around, shameless smooching by hormonal charged housemates and ear-tingling swear words are the predominant values being shown, which lamely try to project positive African cultures and traditions; which is ironical because such modern franchises like Big Brother Naija are neo-imperialist means of eroding the very essence of Africanism (Nwafor (2015).
Reasoning along this line, Ojoko (2013) writes that Big Brother reality show has no doubt generated a lot of controversies in recent times, and worthy of note is that the fact that the sponsors or organizers are near-faceless, and the show exhibits low moral values and falls short of what is expected in these days where clamour for the good days when cultural and good moral values was at its peak.
Other scholars contend that Big Brother reality show, just like many other reality TV shows has raised a lot of moral panics among parents teachers and guardians especially on issues relating to sex, nudity, violence, cheating and voting unfairness. The level of immorality being celebrated by the Big Brother reality show is adjudged short of programmes intended for education (Laitto, 2015). Yet, many African audience especially the youth have continued to imbibe the damaging style of the programme and the actors have turned to celebrities (see Oluwakayode, 2013; para 11). This has led to several calls demanding for its ban and censorship. For instance in 2007, the Nigeria House of Representatives issued a directive to the Nigerian Broadcasting Commission to discontinue the airing of any clip or debate on Big Brother reality show (Ralvy, 2007). Despite these outcries and the moral panics, the reality show has neither improved in moral tone nor viewership level reduced. Number of viewers that voted on the final week of Big Brother Naija 2017 was estimated at 26 million, most of which were youths. This shows that there is a large followership amongst the Nigeria youths as the reality show seem to have a lasting impact on the youths.
Since television is seen as an audiovisual medium through which youths especially students are influenced on their day to day activities as it teaches both moral and sometimes bad behaviors, thereby having a lasting impact on the students. This necessitated the need for this research which examines the assessment of communication impact of big brother Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study was designed to examine the communication impact of Big Brother Africa reality television show on youths particularly students of Lagos State University Students. The objectives are:
i. To determine if the students of Lagos State University watch Big Brother Naija reality show and to what extent do they watch the show.
ii. To find out if the Big Brother Naija TV show has contributed to the academic and socio-cultural values of Lagos State University students and to what extent is the contribution.
iii. To know if the Big Brother Naija reality game show has impact on the communication impact of Lagos State University students and to what extent.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Do Lagos State University students watch Big Brother Naija and what is the level of their viewership?
ii. Has the Big Brother reality show contributed to the academic and socio-cultural values of Lagos State University student and to what level is the contribution?
iii. Does Big Brother Naija reality show have an impact on the communication of Lagos State University students and to what level has it impacted their communication?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0 – Big Brother Naija reality television show has a significant impact on Nigerian youths
H1 – Big Brother Naija reality television show does not have a significant impact on Nigerian youths
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is of utmost importance to broadcast media houses, as it will help in scheduling of programmes and know the nature of the programmes to be televised.
Furthermore, academic scholars will benefit from the findings of this research, as it will serve as a good literature for both scholars and students of mass communication who might want to carry out similar or related research in the future.
In addition parents and guidance will also benefit from the findings of this study, as it will show parents and guidance how to be responsible for the upbringing and training of children and their exposure to programmes that do not impact them positively.
This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will thus form the basis for further studies in the field.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is restricted to examine the assessment of communication impact of big brother Nigeria reality TV show. A questionnaire was used for the purpose of this study and the sample population are students of Lagos state university. The researchers restrict this study to 40 students of Lagos state University because to the limited resources available and the time constraints.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Some of the major constraints the researchers encountered in putting up this research include lack of time, lack of willingness to give information by respondent and also limited resources.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Big Brother Nigeria, is a reality TV show based on the Big Brother TV series.