Background to the study
Persons all over the world people think of a society where peace and progress prevails. But the factors that influence peace is an exogenous factor of nature rather than native. Hence issues of moral decadence resulting in armed rubbery, kidnapping, prostitution, human trafficking and drugs among others is of concern to every well meaning person especially in developing countries like Nigeria were security issues top government concern.
In Nigeria, many people propose various hypotheses toward finding solution to the use of moral decadence. Many are concern with sudden up-shot of crime and are concern with the etiology of these very important societal issues. One of the causes often though of, was the take over of schools from missionaries by government. According to persons of this school of thought was that moral instruction died with government take over of schools and the moral decadence that is being experienced is the product of school take over. Another school of thought saw moral decadence in the society as a product of the ban of corporal punishment in schools. Many parents of the octogerian believe that “Spare the cane and spoil the child” holds for ever.
Corporal punishment is an action either at home or in the school to rebunke the child of wrong doing, as a means of molding the child towards better adulthood. According to Prve and Alister (2010), corporal punishment is defined as the use of physical force towards a child for the purpose of control and/or corrections and as a disciplinary penalty inflicted on the body with the intension of causing some degree of pains or discomfort, however mild. United Nations Committee on the rights of child, (2006) stated that although most forms of corporal punishment involve hitting children with the hand or implement (such as a belt or wooden spoon),other forms of corporal punishment include: Kicking, shaking, biting and forcing a child to stay in uncomfortable positions. The desired out-come of physical punishment is child compliance with adult directives (Gawlik, Henning and Warner 2002; Smith, Gollop, Taylor & Marshall 2004).
Corporal punishment is a contentious issue, attracting debate within the Teachers/Parents Associations. Consequently corporal punishment has attracted legislative debate, requesting it being out law in schools, in most parts of Europe, Canada, Korea, South Africa, New Zealand and several other countries but remains common practice in a middle East. (School Corporal Punishment 2014). In the United State of America, the House of Representative has attempted to push up a bill between 1991 and 2011 to assist corporal punishment without success.
In Nigeria some parents continue to say that corporal punishment is not good enough for the growth and intellectual development of the child. Others are of the opinion that the use of corporal punishment moulds the child. However many cases between Teachers/Board of Education and Parents, has been reported. Napodia (2007) reported several of these court cases between school authority/Teacher versus parents, (p129-131).
The controversy surrounding corporal punishment include: What amount to corporal punishment; who should administer corporal punishment, what is the present status of corporal punishment in our schools among others. This study was prompted to assess the status of corporal punishment in schools as a results of parents being reported to have attacked Teachers in schools resulting from the inflicting of corporal punishment on their wards.
Nigerian schools like others in other parts of the world are governed by laws either peculiar to the school system or both applicable to the school system and those that are constitutional or statutory in the country, province, state or division. Teachers have the mandate to institute punishment directed at building a responsible child for the society. There are different types of punishment in Nigeria, Primary and PRIMARY SCHOOLs. According to Napodia (2007), they include;
Fine, verbal and/or written warning, grass cutting, detention in class after normal school hours, crawling on one’s knees, kneeling and looking at the sun, picking the pin with one leg……………………… Suspension, dismissal or expulsion and in-school suspension.
Napodia (2007) stated that corporal punishment usually falls within the scope of the teacher’s authority, while suspension and expulsion are usually with the discretionary powers of the school board. In Nigeria, a teacher is usually at the gate of the school with cane waiting for late-comers. It is usually to flog between 2-6 stroke of the cane for late coming as disciplinary measures. However, there is limit to which teachers or school officials administer punishment in order to avoid liability and penalty of damage, fine or imprisonment. Napodia (2007) citing Remmlein and Ware (1970) stated that;
- The punishment be not unreasonable
- Not excessive in view of the age, sex and strength
- Not excessive in view of offence
- Not administered
Statement Of Problem
Corporal punishment is geared towards maintaining discipline in PRIMARY SCHOOLs and it also curls juvenile’s delinquency in the society. However, problems arise when corporal punishment is administered on PRIMARY SCHOOL pupils. The use of corporal punishment however has generated much argument among educationist, sociologist philosophers as well as the psychologist No one argument aver this because of its controversial nature. This study will look into parents and primary school pupils.
Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is on Attitude Of Teachers And Parents Towards Corporal Punishment In Primary School In Lagos State
- To examine how parents/teachers perceived the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state
- To understand how parents differ from teachers on the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state
- To analyze the extend parents and teachers perceive corporal punishment as a legal instrument in primary school in Lagos state
- To understand how parents differ from teacher on who should administer corporal punishment in primary schools in Lagos state
- To understand how urban and rural parents and teachers perceive corporal punishment as instrument of child molding in Delta state
To guide the study, five research questions and three hypotheses were generated:
- To what extent do parents/teachers perceived the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state?
- To what extent do parents differ from teachers on the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state?
- To what extent do parents and teachers perceive corporal punishment as a legal instrument in primary school in Lagos state?
- To what extent are parents differ from teacher on who should administer corporal punishment in primary schools in Lagos state?
- To what extent do urban and rural parents and teachers perceive corporal punishment as instrument of child molding in Delta state?
- There is no significant difference between teachers and parents on the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state.
- There is no significant difference between urban and rural teachers/parents on the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state.
- There is no significant difference between male and female teacher/parents on the use of corporal punishment as a child molding process in primary schools in Lagos state.
Significance of the study
This study was expected to gather information that would assist the stakeholders in education in assessing the impact of alternative methods of disciplining students compared to corporal punishment in matters regarding to discipline of students. It was hoped that this study would help in providing essential guidelines for use by policy makers and educationists in developing policies and strategies for effective implementation of alternative methods of maintaining discipline. It might help in offering guidelines on acceptable disciplinary methods other than corporal punishment in our PRIMARY SCHOOLs.
Basic assumption of the study
- That the respondents, mainly PRIMARY SCHOOL students, teachers and teacher counselors will provide truthful and honest response to the questions (items) in the study.
- That the respondents would be willing to participate and give their views considering the sensitive nature of the subject of the
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- This topic contains:
- Chapter 1-5
- Appendix/If applicable