AUTOMATED INSTANT MESSENGER FOR GROUP LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Since its inception, the primary purpose of the Internet has been to facilitate the exchange of information. Initially, this exchange was conducted between researchers at major educational institutions. The grandfather of the modern day Internet, ARPAnet, was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. President Eisenhower created the Advanced Research Projects Agency or ARPA in 1957 in response to the USSR’s launch of Sputnik . ARPA brought together some of the country’s brightest minds to establish the US as a leader in science and technology . Initially driven by the government’s request for a way to control its defense systems that would be impervious to nuclear attack, ARPA turned to the private sector to create ARPAnet in 1968 .
ARPAnet began as a network of four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, Stanford, University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah .
Research done as a result of the ARPAnet lead to many innovations that are still used today: email (1971), telnet (1972), and the file transfer protocol (1973) .
Although not finalized and deployed until 1982, the development of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP, which is the foundation for networks worldwide today, began in 1973 . As network technologies became more pervasive, universities began to create networks of their own called Local Area Networks or LANs. These LANs were then networked together by making use of Internet Protocol software