CORRUPTION AND CRIMINAL ACT IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTORS (A STUDY OF NIGERIA POLICE FORCE ENUGU DIVISIONAL COMMAND
The primary purpose of this study is to ascertain Corruption and criminal act in Nigeria public sectors (A study of Nigeria police force Enugu Divisional command. The survey method of descriptive research was used for the study. The main instrument used in data collection for the study was a questionnaire and its responses were detailed in frequency tables and percentage which was used to analyse the data. The result of the analysis and interpretation revealed that bureaucracy has too much innovation and not rigidity, it sees human feelings and not regarding human as a programme like machines and appropriately manipulated to produce standard outcomes in Nigeria. It was also discovered that rules and regulation encourage the operation of the Nigerian police force. Impersonal orientation help the actualisation of police force objectives, too close supervision and control that helps bureaucrat in the process of carrying out assigned works in Nigeria. Also employees are motivated due to unsterile work environment, strict adherence to rules and regulation applied to workers. Creativity and innovation, hierarchy of authority fosters the process of decision, a message sender and message received for short communication, division of work compete of work comment and slow the process of decision making. Therefore, employees are satisfied by the method of payment and remuneration
According to Max Weber he defined bureaucracy as an organisation with a hierarchy of paid, full-time officials who formed a chain of command and these are concerned with the business of administration with controlling, managing and co-ordinating a complex series of task. Bureaucracy is a system of control, it is a hierarchical organisation in which superiors strictly control and discipline the activities of the subordinates. ORUEBOR, A.A (2007:142) According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000) defines corruption as “dishonest or illegal behaviour, especially of people in authority; the act or effect or making somebody change from moral to immoral standards of behaviour” corruption is a deviation from following the normal accepted standard of behaviour by a public official in order to serve social economic or political interest. CHINELO AROH (2010:50).
The Nigerian police Authority have and will continue to be one of the prime mores of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized. Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was not popular because only a few Nigerians know what it was. In Nigeria, public relation was introduced on 1st January, 1944 with the establishment of the first ever public relations office in the country though it was not popular. The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations as a career and the absence of public relation programmes for understanding its practise hindered many Nigerian organisations until recently, when the Federal Republic of Nigeria promulgated Decree No.16 of June,1990,establishing and upholding the practice of public relations in Nigeria.
The origin of the police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word Police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non ecclesiastical administration having to do with the safety, health and order of the state. Policing and police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble, incorruptible and distinction. It was the justices of the peace system, which corrupted the parish constable system. The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian police force as a federal force charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout Nigeria. However, the constitution did not prevent the regions from establishing their own local police force. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the inspector general of police (IGP) while those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police. Recently, the Nigerian police force (NPF) dropped the force in its name and now answers the Nigerian police. Do not be suprised to read the Nigerian police in place of the Nigerian police force.
The Nigerian police is grouped into departments A-F; “A” department takes care of administration personnel promotion, dismissal, transfer and posting, medical budgeting, pay and accounts, public relations and printing etc “B” department and “F” have their own respective duties, our major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs or categorised.
Corruption has become a household word in the Nigerian society. It pervades all strata of society, from the highest levels of the political and business elites to the ordinary person in the village. There are divergent opinions on what constitutes corruption just as is commonly the case with other concepts in the social sciences. This according to Akindele (2005) has long been ideologically, morally, culturally, politically and intellectually elusive to the point of losing sight of its detrimental and parasitic influence on people and the society at large. Divindi Citing ALUKO (2002) argued that corruption includes nepotism, favouritism, bribery, graft and other unfair means adopted by government employees and the public alike to extract some socially and legally prohibited favours.
However, there is the need for a legal and or formal institution to at least help to ensure meaningful socio-economic and national development in any society which is hinged on state of security, which is to be strictly monitored by the civil police.
In Nigeria like many other nations, the police have been the major organization charged with the responsibility of maintenance and preservation of public peace. Effective police is therefore necessary in every society for maintenance of peace, as effective police force will make sure that members of the community are safeguarded in their persons and properties so that their energies are not exhausted by the business of self protection (Onovo, 2009).
The above implies that, maintenance of peace does not only entail the protection of life and properly but also embraces the prevention and detection of crime; the apprehension of the offenders and the due enforcement of all laws and regulations with which they are directly charged with. The assumption here is that, effective execution of the above mentioned functions is tied to the smooth running of daily activities in every society, be it economic, social and political. However, the Nigeria police as an entity is confronted by a lot of problems which invariably affect their efficient and effective functioning.
In the words of Basaru (2003) cited in worobleski and Hess, 2003, examples of police corruption vary greatly in kind and degree, but they all have key elements in common; the conduct is prohibited by law or rule. It involves misuse of position. Police corruption includes a wide variety of prohibited behavious, either crime or departmental; rule violations committed under the auspices of a police officer’s position.
At the same time, one cannot ignore the hues and cries that permeate the entire country over the perceived corruption of Nigeria police. There has been widespread concern over the state of insecurity and seemingly inability of the police to deal with the problems.
This evil (corruption) is so entrenched that it is becoming virtually part of the system. Many people who have course to deal with the Nigeria Policemen have revealed that the force harbours some very bad characters (Pekuliameesi 2005). The matter is becoming more alarming hence the routine misuse of firearms by the police in Nigeria and their complete disdain for the people has become the norm.
In virtually every parts of the country, people tend to look elsewhere for alternative sources of protection for their lives and properties. Many prefer to the keep any information that is vital for crime prevention to themselves. Many have resorted to Jungle Justices. It is in the light of the above that the research therefore focuses on the impact assessment of corruption on maintenance of law and order by the Nigeria police.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Here, the unfortunate aspect of corruption in Nigeria is that there are enabling laws to fight it but the leadership find it difficult to enforce these laws. The menace of corruption leads to slow movement of files in the offices, police extortion eg “In collecting twenty naira from bus drivers causing traffic congestion and even road accidents if any of the drivers refuses to give them money, they will start shooting guns to deflate their tyres. The funds allocated for their welfare disappear into this air. Thus, it is believed by many in the society that corruption is endemic in all government. Corruption is found in democratic and dictation politics, feudal, capitalist and socialist economies.
The leaders as well as their followers are corrupt. If there is lack of control of corruption in every sphere in the nation, it is then like the old saying “When water chokes you, what do you take to wash it down?”(The philosophy of Aristotle, 451-ME2783, p.355). Corruption is as a result of man made factors such as greedy people, especially our leaders, who are not contented with what they have so that they will use public funds for selfish gains. Also, many people in Nigeria, especially the youths want to get-rich-quick, so that they indulge in all types of crimes to make money, kidnapping, electoral fund (thuggery), armed robbery, yahoo yahoo, 419, the list is endless, yet the elders who are to correct them end in praising them. Nigerian police force was known in the eighties and nineties for early dispatch of services, result oriented performance and high productivity.
The main objective is on Corruption and criminal act in Nigeria public sectors (A study of Nigeria police force Enugu Divisional command.
The aim and objective of this project are as follows:
- To solve the problem of corruption in the Nigerian public service for better governance.
- To know how bureaucracy structure and control encourage the police force to achieve its objectives.
- To find out how bureaucracy improve decision making.
- To ascertain how bureaucracy improve productivity.
- `Why is corruption a viable enterprise in the 3rd world, nay, Nigeria?
- To what extent does the poor living condition and welfare of the police affect their performance?
- To what extent does police brutality and extortion damage its image to the public?
- How cordial is the relationship between the police and the press?
- To what extent do the Nigerian police effectively handle crowd and crisis management?
The purpose of this research is to answer the uplisted research questions that bother both the police and civilians in the state.
- The findings in this study shall be of immense help to administrators and managers in correcting animates coherent in a bureaucracy set up.
- It will aid the government and television authority to avoid bureaucracy bottle neck, red tapism and i do not care attitude portrayed by workers.
- It will help the police force also in boasting productivity.
- Corporate bodies and entrepreneurs that wish to share their own business police force would find this study invaluable in their endeavours.
- Academically, it will help other researchers in further research analysis.
Since in large police force corruption in eminent and inevitable for the success of such television authority, the study shall focus on Nigerian police authority and due to its structural largeness the study shall be narrowed down to the administrative sections.
In the study, the researcher encountered certain constraints that impede the academic work. These are:
- Time Constraints: This posed as a limitation to the study, as the time frame work constructed by the department for the kick off of the study was incompatible with out academic work load.
- Unwillingness of staff to give out information: The researcher myself could not gather as much information and facts due to non compliance and non-cha/llant attitude of respondents of workers against the study.
- Funding: Due to economic problem, the researcher myself is faced with lack of adequate finance was not available for mobilisation of the work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- An Organisation: This is a group of people who forms a business together to achieve a goal.
- Bureaucracy: This is the official rules and ways of doing things that a government or the police force has with positions of an authority will defined hierarchically so as to facilitate the attainment of police force goals.
- Administration: This is seen from a government perspective where it is being used as a machinery for implementing government policy.
- Objectives: Something that one tries to achieve, it is also the aim or goals the police force or government seek to achieve.
- Hierarchy: This is a system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest. At each level of the hierarchy, officials enjoy the right of issuing directives to subordinates who have the duty to obey them.