CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE (A STUDY OF ANAMERA STATE)
This work is prompted by the desire to fathom corruption and underdevelopment in Nigerian public service. (a study of Anambra state).as a modest contribution of the federal government declared to eradicate corruption in our society. furthermore, in data collected primary together with secondary sources used by the researcher were got through questionnaire and interviews with the Anambra state Public servants, while secondary data were collected from books, journals, newspaper and other written materials from the analysis and discussions, the following findings were made, corruption is the major issue and it has its causes, consequences and solutions one of the major, corruption causes under development, corruption equally causes employment, the following steps should be taken to alleviate the problem associated to corruption. 1. There should be management practice, which will help to eradicate bribery and corruption. High standard of moral behaviours should be prescribed in the Nigeria constitution for public officers should be vigorously enforced (2) The management should create more incentives for motivating both employees and employers. (3,)Promotion and compensation of employee should be based on merit through organized job evaluation procedure, which can be understand by the employees if all these could be taken into account, it will help in the growth and development of the economy.
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of contents: vi
List of tables viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement Of The Problems 3
1.3 Hypothesis/Research Questions 5
1.4 Purpose of the study 5
1.5 Significance Of The Study 6
1.6 Scope Of The Study 7
1.7 Research Method 7
1.8 Definitions Of Terms 7
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 8
2.1.1 Conceptual frame work on the concept of corruption and local government. 8
2.1.2 Forms and nature of corruption in Nigerian public service 15
2.1.3 The historical development of corruption in Nigeria 20
2.1.4 Problems and effects of corruption on development. 33
2.1.5 Empirical framework: mechanism in controlling corruption 37
2.2 Theoretical Framework. 38
2.2.1 The Game Theory 38
2.2.2 The basic tenets of the theory. 40
2.2.3 Relevance of the theory to the study. 42
2.3 Summary Of Literature Review 44
3.0 Introduction 45
3.1 Methodological Details 45
3.2 Materials Used 47
3.3 Data Collection 47
3.4 Analytical or statistical techniques employed. 47
3.5 Area of the Study 47
4.0 Results, Analysis, and Finding 49
4.1 Presentation of Results
4.2 Analysis of Research Question 49
4.3 Discussion, Analysis of finding 52
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 54
5.1 Conclusion 54
5.2 Recommendations 54
Appendix A 60
APPENDIX B 62
List Of Tables
TABLE 3.1: Table showing the departmental distribution of the respondent
TABLE 4.1: Table showing the relationship between corruption and underdevelopment
TABLE 4.2: Table showing the relationship between corruption and unemployment
TABLE 4.4: Table showing the impact of eradication of corruption and Development
1.1 Background to the study
Nigeria is rich in natural and human resources, with a population of over 150 million people; the most populous country in Africa. At the time of her political independence, on 1st October 1960, Nigeria excelled in production of agricultural produce such as groundnut, palm oil, cocoa, cotton, beans, timber and hides and skins.
Then, during the oil boom period of the seventies Nigeria made headlines with her oil wealth, as a country richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources capable of financing a number of important projects to meet basic consumption and development needs (Salisu, 200:2). With per capital income of around $1,100 during the late 1970’s Nigeria was regarded as the fastest growing country in Sub- Sahara Africa (Salisu, Ibid). Yet it remains predominantly underdeveloped due to the scourge of corruption that has corroded it.
Corruption denies the ordinary citizen the basic means of livelihood, it worsen unemployment and erodes our image as a nation and as individual (Danjuma Goje 2010). It has undermined Nigeria’s economic growth and development potential, with a per capital income of $340, Nigeria now ranks amongst the least developed countries in the World Bank League table (Salusi, op.cit). Nigeria’s higher education system once regarded as the best in Sub-Sahara Africa is in deep crisis.
Health services are woefully inadequate, graduate unemployment is rising and so too is crime rate (Salisu, Ibid).This culture of corruption which is rampant at national level constitutes a threatening force to development at grassroots level.
It has been a significant factor leading to the general failure of local government as well as an excuse for suspending representative institution (Humes and Ola, N.D: 104). Corrupt practices have been deleterious not only because they divert funds from public purposes to private purses but also they undermine the vitality of local government.
Brief historical background of Anambra state
Anambra is the eight most populated states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. Anarnbra possesses a history that stretches back to the 9th century AD, as revealed archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and Ezra; Great works of art in iron, bronze, copper, and pottery works belonging to the ancient Kingdom of Nri, Led a sophisticated divine Kingship administrative system which held sway area of Anambra from c. 948 AD to 1911. The Historical background of Anambra state prompt the researcher to chose it as a study area.
The significant level of Corruption in Most of the Local government in state viz Idemili North, Nnewi North and South, Ihiala, Anambra East Aguata leads to the former governor Chris Ngige to suspended six heads of service in the state local government system for alleged misappropriation of council funds. About eight local government treasurers and the Auditor-General Local Government were suspended for alleged misappropriation of councils’ funds. These suspensions came amidst complaint of non-payment of July salary and arrears from the previous government by the workers.
This research therefore, examines corruption and underdevelopment in Nigerian public service. (a study of Anambra state). It is divided into five parts viz: chapter one-introductions, chapter two literature review, chapter three methodology and finally the conclusion and recommendations.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
Corruption is a great enemy of development. According to T Sen (1999), development can be understood as “a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy”. Nevertheless, corruption does not allow these freedoms to flourish. “Corruption in one way or the other infringes upon the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals; it adversely affects all categories of rights”.
Generally, it is a well known fact that corruption which was supposed to be sine-qua non to nothing in Nigerian public service administration as regards to its and efficiency of performance has succeeded and considered since and post colonial era a successful measure of income increase in the service. In fact, all activities in the public service, have been monopolized by this cankerworm. Corruption is not farfetched in all human endeavours including individual families, other non-government and governmental organizations. But that of the public service is ware delicate because of the role it plays in the government and entire society.
The general performance of the public servants in their various offices has been radically contaminated and as such has stopped the prestige and dignity so low and in a wide spectrum has, tarnished the image of the country Nigeria both internationally and globally in her relation with other countries of the world.
In Anambra State public service ,corruption takes the shape of Embezzlement of public fund Committing fraud by some with political leaders Maiming and assassination of superior officers to take over their positions Bureaucratic red-tapism, nepotism and favoritism Erosion of discipline, Insertion of cognitive inexperienced officers and indiscriminate promotions and transfers because they have people in high places.
The ghost worker” syndrome “Setting of government offices ablaze to cover up crimes committed on records. Collecting bribe to render services which are meant to be free of charge, Under declaration of age and tampering with employment files (records) so as not to retire when due. The open and close reporting system in this case superiors don’t usually tell the truth in order to sage their lives or the other way round, they write down their subordinate because he or she does not know what is written about him or her. The reporter will favour who he or she like, but whoever they hate, they write down or off. All these are being done in the public service in guest for power and wealth and greed and selfishness among the leaders and public servants and as such the public service finds it difficult to carry out its task effectively in the context.
In any case, the research work will be concerned with how high level corruption in public service contribute to the state of poorer performance, inefficiency and infectiveness.
1.3 Hypothesis/Research Questions
- Does corruption causes under-development in Anambra state?
- Does corruption causes unemployment in Anambra state?
- Does eradication of corruption facilitates to rapid development Anambra state?