Design and implementation of leave or electronic leave Management system

Design and implementation of leave or electronic leave Management system


At some point in time, any employee of an organization may be faced with a personal or family illness or other life event that requires such employee to be away from work for an extended period of time. In this case, a system should be in place to assist such employee in managing the leave needed to handle these life events and to ensure a smooth transition back to his role within the organization. A Leave Management System basically works in situation like this, assisting in the management of leave application within an organization and also providing other functionalities like cancellation of leave, viewing leave details etc.
The aim of this project is to develop a web-based and user friendly leave management system that could be used to support leave application, management, and to enhance employee-based decision making processes. The system is designed using Universal Modeling Language tools such as use case diagram, sequence diagram, activity diagram and so on. It is implemented with PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor), HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), JavaScript and CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) using iterative model. The Leave Management System allow employees to apply for leave and receive approvals and confirmations online. This would ensure uniform leave policy management throughout an organization therefore reducing the need for Human Resource (HR) intervention and easy tracking of employee leave records.


Title page i
Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study 1
Problem Statement 2
Aim and Objectives 3
Scope of the Study 4
Significance of the Study 4
Project Layout 5
Chapter Two: Literature Review
Introduction 7
Leave Overview 7
Classifications of Leave 7
Categories of Leave 8
Leave Management… 10
Electronic Leave Management System 11
Benefits of Electronic Leave Management System 11
Review of existing Electronic Leave Management Systems 12
Just Login eLeave 12
e-HRMS 13
SCTCS Leave 14
BMS Leave Management System 15
HR e-Leave Management System 16
e-Management Solution System 17
Chapter Three: Methodology
Methodology 18
Fact Finding Techniques 19
Interview 19
Investigation 20
Information on the Existing System in Operation 21
Problems of the Existing System 23
Overview of the Proposed System 24
Requirement Specification 25
Software Requirements 25
Hardware Requirements 25

3.5.2 System Users 25
3.6 Data 3.6.1 flow of the New System 26
Use Case Diagrams 26
3.6.2 Sequence Diagrams 28 Sequence diagram for Administrators and employee Login 29
3.7 Choice of Programming Tools and Program Flowchart 33
3.7.1 Program Flowchart 35
Chapter Four: System Design and Implementation
Database Table Structure (Methodology) 36
The Input Design or Results 40
Output Design 42
System Home page 42
Administrator Module 42
Leave Manager Module 43
Employee Module 43
Authentication Module 43

Reports 43
The Presentation of Results/ Screen Shots 44
System Evaluation 49
System Operation/Usages 50
System Testing 50
System Security 51
Client Side Validation 51
Server Side Validation 52
Chapter Five: Conclusions
Summary 53
Limitations of the system 53
Future Work 54
Conclusion 54

Background of the study

Leave is any form of vacation, sick time, personal time, or paid time off (PTO) which is provided as a standard portion of an employee benefit package.

Leave is an authorized absence from duty. It is a period of time that one must be away from his primary job, while maintaining the status of employee. This contrasts with normal periods away from the workplace, such as vacations, holidays, hiatuses, sabbaticals, and “working from home” programs, in that they are considered exceptional circumstances, rather than benefits. Generally, such an arrangement has a predefined termination at a particular date or after a certain event has occurred. All leave time must be earned or allotted before it can be used by the employee.

Leave management is the process of employees requesting time away from work and supervisors granting or denying leave based on its impact on the organization. This may involve handling leave of absences related to personal or family illness, the birth, adoption, or foster care placement of a child, military service, and any other event that results in an extended absence.

Electronic Leave Management is the automation of a traditional Leave Management System. An Electronic Leave System is described as a smart online leave management system that allow users to apply for their leave conveniently anytime, anywhere and designed with online leave approving capabilities, making every leave application a total breeze for both those applying as well as those approving.

Electronic Leave Management System (e-Leave) allows employees to apply for leave online using computer system and internet facilities. Nowadays, more and more people choose the simpler, quicker and more secure alternate ways to do things by going online. Some of the advantages of online leave application include; reduced cost, ease of access, quick processing and so on.

The management of leave in Nigeria is governed by Part 1 of the Labour Act Chapter 198, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990. According to section 18, Part 1 of the Labour Act, every worker is entitled after twelve months of continuous service to a holiday with full pay of at least six working days; or in the case of persons under the age of sixteen years (including apprentices), at least twelve working days (Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 1990). The holiday may however be deferred by agreement between the employer and the worker: Provided that the holiday-earning period shall not be increased beyond twenty-four months’ continuous service.

In Nigeria, different organizations have various policies regarding the management of leave, such policies must however adhere with the Labour Act Laws of 1990 (other law applies for other countries).

A pro-active leave policy may also serve to preserve the interest of an organization, for example one study estimated that a one per cent increase in absenteeism is equivalent to a one per cent increase in salary costs (Nikolay et al., 2012).

Problem Statement

First, leave within the organization is managed through leave application letter prepared by the person when he wants to get a leave. Mostly this application is used for taking leave for specific reason. The application letter is then presented to the approving authority who will grant or reject the request. However, this method of managing leave using leave application letter is not capable to achieve a high level of leave management and making efficient employee-based decisions because it is prone to delay and unnecessary paperwork.

Second, for the current manual filing system, data are kept in files according to the year or staff name alphabetically. This may take time to search for the information needed in time as the staff may have to look for the file, one by one and other related files just to search for some information. For example, if the leave manager wants to calculate leave balance of their staff, he or she has to search every file, one by one and it will take a long time.

Third, the manual file system has no backup and if the files with the information are lost or damaged, the staff at Al-Hikmah University will lose all its valuable information.

Project Aim and Objectives

The aim of the project is to design and implement a web-based leave management system using PHP (Hypertext Pre-Processor), HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), JavaScript and CSS (Cascading Style Sheet).

The objectives of this project are to:

i. Review the existing leave management system;
ii. Information’s gathering by interview method, gathering and measuring answers to relevant questions and evaluate outcomes;
iii. System analysis;
iv. Design the proposed leave management system;
v. Implement the leave management system; and

vi. Test the system by testing each module of the system separately (unit testing) and the integration of all the modules as a whole (integration testing).

The Electronic Leave Management System would eliminate unnecessary paper work by allowing employee to request for leave without using any physical paper. Also, it would allow necessary data pertaining to leave application to be stored efficiently in the database and subsequently used for making necessary decisions.

Scope of the Study

Although the system would be able to manage leave application in any organization, it has been noticed that different organization have different leave structures and different approval hierarchies. Due to this, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin has been chosen as a case study for this project.

Also, the system would only support basic leave type such as casual leave, sick leave, study leave and maternity leave etc. Only female married employee would be entitled to maternity leave.

More so, general change of rules associated with leave, and leave type as defined by change in organizations’ policy would not be supported.

Finally, the process of assigning alternate employee or staff for an employee who is on leave would not be handled by the system.

Significance of the Study

The project will enhance the leave management processes by enabling staff to apply for leave anywhere, anytime online, this will make leave application processes become smoother because there would be little or no waiting period between when employee apply for leave and when the leave is granted.

The new LMS has the many features that benefit the staffs:

i. Fast & Efficient, the improved leave system has further streamlined the leave application/approval workflows such that it is much more convenient for staff make leave application and managers to approve.
ii. Easy-to-Use, the new LMS is specifically designed to be intuitive so that the system is very easy to learn and use by the administrators, approving offices and applicants.
iii. Real-Time Information, the new LMS operates on Real-Time whereby information is updated instantly whenever a leave transaction is completed. As such, all staff can check instantly who’s on leave, applying for leave or other status, etc.
iv. Single Sign-On, there is no need to log into the new LMS again once user has already logon onto the Intranet.

Also, leave record would become more manageable because all leave records would be stored in the database. Besides that, manager(s) can view staff leave history without much difficulty.

Project Layout

This project will be divided into the following five chapters:

Chapter One provides an introduction and project background, aim and objectives of the project, scope and significance of study, and also methodology to be adopted in the project work.

Chapter Two will be the review of existing literature and related work or existing systems.

Chapter Three will discuss the architecture of the propose electronic leave management system.

Chapter Four will presents the design and the implementation of the system.

Chapter Five will be the concluding chapter. It will include summary, discuss limitations and discuss present and the future recommendations and the concluding remarks.

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