Chapter one Introduction

Meteorology is the study of the earth’s atmosphere .it includes the study of winds, and weather patterns weather phenomena such as rainbows and pollution, and the study of day to day weather[1].

To study the day-to-day weather we connect couple of instruments together to form a weather station, Weather stations are facilities with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions, to provide information to study weather and climate, for weather forecasting for aviation, agriculture, construction, or shipping[1].

Weather   stations   can   be   Automated    weather    station    which    is  an updated version of the traditional weather station that uses sensors to measure it’s different parameters it is either used to save human labor or to enable measurements from remote areas, Or it can be manual weather station is a more traditional one which always involve the human effort, skills, power and energy to get its results.

A sensor network is a network of microcontroller integrated smart devices, which are spatially distributed and sensors. A sensor is a primary component of network essential for monitoring real world physical condition or variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure and precipitation amount.


The remote stations are networks of weather stations which are located in remote areas because of this, they usually are not connected to the electrical grid but have their own solar panels and a battery. This network is a distributed network that sends data to central data storage. These distributed networks are connected to each other by the concept of the internet of things and cloud computing.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a computing concept that describes a future where every day physical objects will be connected to the Internet and be able to identify themselves to other devices[3].

Cloud computing is a model for delivering information technology services in which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection to a server[4]. Data and software packages are stored in servers. However, cloud computing structure allows access to information online which allows working remotely.

Listing some basic types of weather stations: the first one is the Synoptic Weather Station which makes local observation of weather at fixed times, it has the basic elements that is on most of the weather stations, which is temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction and rain gauge. The second one is climate weather station that is used in separated times and it has the same earlier said parameters but it doesn’t need rain gauge. The third one is the agriculture weather stations that is needed by the farmers to guide their work, it have special factors like the soil temperature and the sunlight and then with the application the weather station should has its own parameters that serves that application.

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