Effect of Computer Assisted Strategy on Students Attitude Retention And Achievement in Biology
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Science education is obligatory at all levels of instruction in secondary school. Science education is essential and fundamental within the curriculum as it provides students with the ability to think critically and practice methods of inquire, develop science concepts that facilitate understanding of biological and physical environment, and develop appropriate attitude and skills essential for democratic leadership (Lemlech 2010). Biology is one of the branches of science that manages the natural phenomena and help to develop biological knowledge and scientific skills that enhances humanity to appreciate the essence of biodiversity, ecological protection and sustainable utilization of resources (UNESCO, 2007).
Biology education is a pre-requisite for professions in health science, environmental science and precursor of biotechnology development. The knowledge of genetics that is a branch of biology has revolutionized determination of paternity disputes and identity of serious crime culprits with precision and certainty through Deoxyribonucleic acid and sequencing and profiling (Institute of Biology 2007).
Biological knowledge plays an important role in most aspect of human life. Its application in genetic engineering has contributed towards meeting the demand of food security, medicine and control of variety of pest and diseases (UNESCO, 2013). Further biological knowledge lays foundation for commercial agriculture the engine for economic growth in Nigeria (Government of Nigeria, 2003). Research have used biological knowledge to develop high yield, disease resistant and fast maturing food crops and animal to meet the food requirement of ever increasing world population (Burn 2005). Due to the significant role of biological knowledge, therefore there is a concern on the improving academic achievement and motivation in biology in secondary school.
Despite this importance of biology, students’ academic achievement in the biology at the national examinations in many countries across the world has remained to be low. According to Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (2011), 56 countries and other education systems administered TIMSS at grade eight. Less than half of the countries that participated had an average scale score of below 500. The Scores on the TIMSS mathematics and science tests range from 0-1000. Both tests have an average scale score of 500, with a standard deviation of 100. In Africa, Morocco, South Africa and Ghana participated in the TIMSS (2011) but their scale scores in biology subject were below average, this determines the academic achievement of the learners. According to Chime, (2004) academic achievement is a determinant of a student success that measures the extent to which the learners have achieved their educational goals because of an interactional session between the teacher and the learner.
Academic achievement is a measure of student learning or acquisition of certain skills at the end of teaching and learning activities that is reflected in an examination written by the student after a process of learning (Usman, 2000). Therefore, academic achievement is a measure of value and the amount of success that one has in authority of learning skills and comprehension determined by using the standardized test. This has a great influence on student achievement and motivation. Motivation energies, maintains and coordinates conduct towards a student academic achievement.
In Nigeria, Biology is a key science subject in secondary school. Its achievement has been low when compared to other science subjects over the recent years as indicated by the Nigeria National examination council report (2011-2017). Academic achievements in biology are determined by using a standardized test or an achievement test.