Effect Of Leadership Style On Employees Productivity A Study Of Cadbury Plc Lagos
Leadership style is a key determinant of the success or failure of any organization. A leader is a person who influences, directs, and motivates others to perform specific tasks and also inspire his subordinates for efficient performance towards the accomplishment of the stated organization objectives. Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. According to Ngambi cited in Jeremy,
Melinde and Ciller (2012), leadership is a process of influencing others‟ commitment towards realizing their full potential in achieving a value-added, shared vision, with passion and integrity. The nature of this influence is such that the members of the team cooperate voluntarily with each other in order to achieve the objectives which the leader has set for each member, as well as for the group. The relationships between the leader and subordinate, as well as the quality of subordinates‟ performance, are significantly influenced by the leadership style adopted by the leader (Jeremy, Melinde and Ciller, 2012). Leadership style in an organization is one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization (Obiwuru et al., 2011).
Leadership is a critical management skill, involving the ability to encourage a group of people towards common goal. Leadership focuses on the development of followers and their needs. According to Singapore Productivity Association (SPA, 2010): there posited that leadership is a social influence which individual exhibits and gets the support of other persons in the accomplishment of a common goal. It has to do with the role someone play in influencing followers in order to achieve organizational goals. It basically helps followers achieve their goals as they work in the organizational setting; it encourages followers to be expressive and adaptive to new and improved practices and changes in the environment (Azka et al., 2011). According to Michael (2011) leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organizations and their success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employee motivation. They shape institutional strategies including their execution and effectiveness. Leaders can appear at any level of an institution and are not exclusive to management. Successful leaders do, however, have one thing isn common. They influence those around them in order to reap maximum benefit from the organization‟s resources, including its most vital and expensive.
In recent times, many organizations in the Nigerian education sector have recorded cases of immoral and unethical practices, gratifications, high labour turnover, in ability to meet basic required obligations, and incessant financial distress syndrome, which has led to many organizational problems in schools. This may be as a result of lack of effective leadership. The prime motive of many organizations is to achieve its stated objectives, hence the need to effectively coordinate and motivate the workers by an effective leader. Unfortunately some organizations do not take cognizance of the leadership style adopted by their managers.
Furthermore, Nworgu in Adeyemi (2010) view “leadership as the process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in efforts towards goal achievement”. It involves a force that initiates actions in people and the leader. U.S. academic environments define leadership as “a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task“. Chin, Roger (2015). Okonkwo (2011) maintained that leadership is everything that the leader does that affects the organization as objectives and their well-being. Of course effective leaders are conscious of what they (i.e. beliefs character), what they know (in tasks and human nature) what they do (such as implementing, motivating and providing direction). Also, Stogdill in Okonkwo (2011) saw “leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an organized group towards goal setting and goals achievement”. Thus, it is clearly known that when an individual acts, he necessarily interact or transact with element of his environment. He both gives something and get something. This type of influence usually occurs within the structure of a social system and tends to contributes to its stability. Leadership therefore, refers to the attributes of a position in the social structure, the characteristics of a person and a category of behaviour.