Background to the study

Most often the term “radio jingles” can be used to collectively describe all elements of radio station branding or identification. Accurately the term in the context of radio used to describe only those station branding elements which are musical, or sung. Sung jingles are the most common form of radio station branding otherwise known as imaging. A radio jingle therefore is created in a studio by session singers and includes a musical representation of the radio station name and frequency. Radio stations will sub contract to specialist radio jingle producers who will create the musical sound and melody, along with the recording the session singers. The elements, termed a donut, will then be dispatched to the radio station in various time variations to be edited by local radio producers before being broadcast in between songs, or into and out of commercial breaks.Alternatively, jingles can be made in-house by production staff.

Family planning implies the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children by spacing and timing their births. It is achieved through the use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility. The availability of family planning does more than enable women and men to limit family seize. It safeguards individual health and rights, and improves the quality of life of couples and their children.

Umbeli T, Mukhtar A, Abusalab M (2001). Family planning is an important strategy in promoting maternal and child health. It improves health through adequate spacing of births and avoiding pregnancy of high risk maternal ages and parities.

The most important proximate determinant of fertility is the use of family planning. Where contraceptive use is widespread fertility is low. Rajaretnam has demonstated that even if there is no reduction in the family size of individual couples, delaying child bearing will bring about a decline in fertility and population growth rate. Lack of adequate information and ignorance are key factors militating against family planning practice in Nigeria. Many potential informational barriers exist to contraceptive use. (Rajaretnam, T. 1990). Adinma J.I.M, Nwosu B.O (2005), women must be aware of the methods available, must know where supplies of these methods can be obtained and they must know how to use the method they choose. Each year an estimated 5,00,000 women die of complication due to pregnancy, child bearing or unsafe abortion.

In some areas of Nigeria, one in five women report having experienced an unwanted conception, of these 58% had an abortion and on additional 9% attempted unsuccessfully to end the pregnancy. It is estimated that about 25% of women who have abortion in Nigeria experience serious complications.

Adoption of family planning measures will reduced unwanted pregnancies and criminal abortions to it barest minimum. Pregnancy is the reproductive age group die at a higher rate than men. Most materials deaths occur among poor women who live in remote rural areas and have difficult access to hospital. (federal office of statistic 1992).

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with more than 88million people, it also has a high annual rate of population growth (3.5%) and a total fertility rate of 6.0 lifetime births per women. Additionally, the country has relatively high levels of infant mortality (104 infan deaths per 1,000 live births) and maternal mortality (800 materials death per 100,000 live births). (USAID ODA)

Mass media and interpersonal communication are two important components of radio jingle  that are conventionally utilized to promote family planning program. Mass Media utilizes radio, television, posters, billboards, movies etc, while interpersonal communication utilizes individual patient education and counseling, group meetings, home visits etc to promote family planning program. In Nigeria , over 90% of women have been reached family planning messages via mass or interpersonal channels. While providing information on reach of radio jingle  no information is provided on impact, which in any case would be difficult to ascribe to the radio jingle  because of lack of baseline or controls[6].

The application of mass communications to influence fertility is a natural extension of the basic idea that the media can both inform and motivate people, even about such complex subjects as their reproductive means and goals. Communication efforts have become increasingly widespread in the developing world as part of international technical assistance and government programs designed to reduce fertility. Recent evaluations of mass media campaigns in three different areas of Nigeria indicated that there were large increases in the number of family planning clients at clinics following the implementation of different communication campaigns, with the authors concluding that mass media interventions can play a major role in promoting family planning use in certain situations. Similar results have been reported in Indonesia and in Trinidad and Tabago(2020) In Latin America, two studies illustrate some of the methodological difficulties involved in interpreting the association between awareness of media messages on family planning and the practice of contraception, an inherent problem that complicates the analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on this subject. However, the investigators emphasize the difficulty of inferring causality: Yet whatever evidence found does not allow to exclude the possibility that those individuals who already use family planning, or know about it, are those likely….to be constant media consumers. The most relevant earlier study and one that corresponds closely with this illustrative analysis and that also underscores these problems of causal inference.

A first radio survey in Nigeria  assessed the role of radio as a disseminator of information in rural areas and determined listener’s preferences attitude. Results showed that most males listened to the radio in a group and that this practice was less prevalent among females.

Although the importance of radio jingle  to family planning is often acknowledged, there has been relatively little evaluation of radio jingle  program in Nigeria. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty of measuring the impact of such programs. This study examines the levels, differentials and determinants of access to mass media and its exposure to family planning message. Studies in access to mass media differentials provide information for assessing inequalities among women with respect to access to mass media. Again, data on access to mass media help identify those underprivileged segments of women who experience lower access to mass media. This information is useful for family planning activities. It is against this background that the study seeks to evaluate the Effect Of Radio Jingles On Family Planning Campaign In Lagos state Nigeria.


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