Effect s of cultism on students academic performance in senior secondary school.A case of Enugu North Local government area of Enugu state
Cultism as part of crime being committed in our society is something which is now eating deep in the mind of youth which go in long way no affect their life negatively in so many ways. This make a conscious mind to wonder if they truly understand what it stands for. What is known as secret cult in tertiary institutions started at
University College, Ibadan in 1953. It was formed by nigeria’s only nobel laureate, Prof. Wole Soyinka, Aig-Imoukhuede, Pius Oleghe, Ralph Opara, Nat Oyelola and Prof. Muyiwa Awe. Their main objectives included:
1. To abolish convention
2. To revive the age chilvary
3. To end tribalism and elitism
Although the philosophical foundation of this group could be appropriately located in the tales of
Treasure Island and the renaissance period of the fifteenth century, their ideas were both patriotic and altruistic as it was not imagined as a secret cult, but simply known as the Pyrates Confraternity or the National Association of Seadogs. Their objectives which revolved around the maintenance of polite behaviour among people of different background and chivalry, portrayed the dreams of the Founders.
Why did the students decide to form such a group? Nigeria in the 1940s and 1950s was on the verge of gaining political independence. The nationalistic fervour in the country gave a warning signal to the colonialists that the sun was about to set on the British empire. Trade union consciousness and militancy soared under the leadership of Michael Imuodu. Political parties sprang up in the major centres of the country which raised political awareness and questioned the continued stay of the colonialists in the country. Nigerian students were not left out of this social change. They questioned the conscription of Kings’ college students into the colonial army to fight in the World war II and eventually created a conducive background for the emergence of the popular National council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (later Citizens) (NCNC). The idea of the students was to respond to the demands of the time, enhance cultural nationalism and fight the tribalisation of politics which was given a boost by the Richards constitution of 1946.
It is noteworthy that the group was not to harm, maim, kill and destroy as their cohesiveness and absolute allegiance to rules made it become an elite club, only for the cleanest, brightest and the politically conscious. They teleguided political events and held important positions within the student body like President, Chief Judge, P.R.O and Secretary. Their existence was well known by students and was not associated with weird, horrorful and spiteful character of latter-day confraternities. The Anti Anglo-defence pact with Britain riot and the “Ali must go” students protest of 1978 was ably handled by members of the Pyrates confraternity.
Over the years, due to doctrinal differences and inability of intending members to meet required standards of the Pyrates confraternity, protestant ones started emerging like the
Buccaneers, Mafia and Vickings. The early nineties witnessed a boom as every university was plagued with cult explosion such as the Black Axe, Black Cats, Trojan Horse, Black Panthers, the Twelve Disciples, Mgba Mgba Brothers, Eiye, Maphites, Temple of Eden, The Jurists, Klu Klux Klan, The Executioners, Black Beret, Dreaded friend of friends, National Association of Adventurers, Black Scorpion, Eagle Club, Termites, Red Sea Horses, Knight Cadet, Sonmen, White Angels, Amazons, Daughters of Jezebel, and the Black Brassieres.
As earlier noted, the emergence of cult groups in our tertiary institutions was not a result of divine disobedience, but a precipitate of socio-economic conflicts. Conflicts that were energized by the capitalist character of our mode of production. There was, therefore, a need to find relevance within this changing order. Gradually, the cults constituted themselves into a protection group that fought and advanced the rights and privileges of their members including passing exams, acquiring babes, accommodation, e.t.c.
The possible effects of cultism on the learning process cannot be exhausted as both intra and inter-cult clashes negatively affect students in stupendous proportions. Cult clashes lead to an outburst of violence on the campus which leaves many students wounded, maimed or killed as the case may be. It sometimes lead to the incarceration, rustication or expulsion of both innocent and guilty students. There is no gainsaying the fact that when any of the aforementioned happens, the learning process, the psyche of students and the peace of the campus is adversely affected. In cases of closure, hospitalization, suspension or incarceration, the resultant effect is that learning is suspended for some period of time, possibly a year or more.
Some cult clashes are so catastrophic that loss of infrastructure and other resources will be colossal and eventually the funds that would have been expended on the provision of other facilities and infrastructure on the campus will be used in replacing the damaged ones. The concomitant result of the waste of capital is reduction of the quality and quantity of education as there will not be enough money to purchase the necessary learning equipment nor to cater for the education of many.
The solid existence of cult groups within the university community has completely made life unsafe and meaningless for both staff and students as female students who refuse the amorous advances of cult members are disdainfully manhandled. Lecturers who insist on merit for passing exams are openly attacked and disgracefully beaten up or sometimes killed, thus paving way for the free reign of fear, violence and a palpable feeling of insecurity. This ruinously comatose situation is a veritable recipe for academic immorality, national impotence and ruin as it is an inescapable truism that no nation can rise or develop beyond the capacities of her tertiary institutions and if her future leaders, the youths, who according to Benjamin Disreali,
are the trustees of posterity , are trained in such a milieu, nothing then awaits such a nation but A FUTURE THAT IS BUILT AND STRIVES ON VIOLENCE.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to oxford dictionary of current English the word “cult” means a system of religious worship especially one that is exposed in rituals. From this definition. Cults have now popularly know as “confraternity” has assumed a monstrous feature in our various institutions of learning. This is because international figures have been known to be members of pirate confraternity in their polytechnics or institutions. Furthermore, Kolawale et al (2000) said that when there was a violet crash between the eye confraternity and the buccaneer. At the university of Ibadan in 1989. Some notable professors and doctors at the institution were found to be patrons and doctors wre members of the these cults in their poly days.
It is now common in our campuses that factors of neval cults violent clash ever in broad day knight and mats themselves with dangerous weapons such as guns and daggers. The recent accurence are the university of Ife, Benin, Ekpoma, Ibandan, polytechnic Ekiadolor against the social ill calling it its total eradication. Secrete cult societies could be traced down to Egyptians.
The magicians in their request for more power used some cultic devices they formed a school of taught which was mostly based on intellectual objectives, which is mainly to enhance their cultic prowess.
Initiations are conducted for people that want to belong to a particular set of masquerade are observed thoroughly by its members. In the late 40’s the higher institutions in Nigeria were not associated with secrete societies. The first higher school secrete cult in Nigeria came into existences in 1952 when a group of seven (7) students lead by Wole Soyinka Olumuyiwa, Awe, Raph, Opora, Dr Aif imokhunede, junji, tubi and only Agunoloyo formed the sea dogs confraternity (A.K.A pirates) in the university of Ibadan. There was nothing secreted than when it was newly introduced.
The main reason of forming the cult was to fight colonialism ensuring the dignity of man and ride the Nigeria society of elitism and tribalism.
Its members engage in humanitarian activities such as donations of blood to hospitals to save lives and assist the helpless in the society also an attempt to fight any attempted oppress students by any lecturers or the school management trying to impose oppressive policies on the students. “Everything we did then was healthy. Firm harmless and above board”.
Recall Muyiwa Awe. One of the founding fathers their confraternity were legitmate and officially recognized by the school authority and the gov’t of the time cultism could simply be described as a kind of gang behavior that is contrary to the acceptable norms and value of the large society and it’s characters by oath talking.
Secrecy and violence. According to Hornsby (2001) it is also system of religious worship a devotion to a person or practice and ritual especially of a single diet.
However, that is were the similarities ends as there is needed a distinction between the two for instance “secrete society” is defined in section 31% of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria 1999 as including any secrete association group or body of person (whether registered or not).
a. That uses secrete signs oaths rites or symbols and which is formed to promote on course the purpose or part of the purpose which is to foster the interest of its members and to aid one another under any circumstance without due regard to merit fair play or justice to the detriment of the legitimate interest of those who are not member.
b. The members are shown to observe oaths of secrecy or the activites of which are not known to the public at large. The names of whose members are kept secret and whose meeting and other activities are held in secrete. Although there is no definition in the constitution. The definition given to the secrete cult and similar activites (prohibition) law 2004 recently passed in the River state house of assembly in 18 instructive as it clearly shown the popularity in Nigeria of the non academic everyday usage of the phrase. That law defined secret cult as follows it names an organisation association group of body or person (whether or not listed) whose membership meeting and others activities are kept secret and which promote cause or engage in acts of violence or harm.
From the definition above, it can be seen that the essential difference between the two nations is the definition of secret cults which element is not necessarily present in that of the secret society.
1.2 THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The fundamental problems of cultism are the uncertain and unsafe atmosphere in our campuses. Ewa to the activities of members of secrete cult the manner of operation is both sinister in our campuses in recent times of cultism whose phenomena seen to be going more and prominence on our campuses. This researcher intent to make an in-depth study in to effect of cultism on student academic performance.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of cultism on student’s performance. A case study of ENUGU STATE with the view to educate the public about magnitude of the factors that promotes the growth of cultism in our institution of higher learning. Furthermore, it will also help to know its sanctions placed on students by the school outward contribution to the growth of cultism in our institution of higher learning. Lastly, it will examine how cultism affects the intellectual ability of the students.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide explanatory terms. The factors which create the hearty and implementers of policies with the factors that influence cultism and school and the effect on the emotion of students. Then when known will enable them to combat squarely and help eradicate the problems that have become a cankerworm in our institution of higher learning. It is important to state clearly that project work will also highlight some of the cause of cultism. Factor that promote the growth of cultism and conclusively provide solution on how the problems of cultism can be solved in our higher institution of learning.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Does lack of parental care promote the growth of cultism in our contemporary schools?
Ii. Does the cultism affect the emotion of students?
iii. Does sanction from school contributes to the growth of cultism in school?
iv. Does cultism affect the intectual ability of the students in school?