EFFECTIVE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN ORGANIZATION (A STUDY OF ZENITH BANK LTD)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
This study aims at highlighting the effective utilization of management information technology and tools by most banks. This is as a result of the need to tender best services to customers and achievement of organizational goals or objective.
However, despite the various sophistication of information technology and the huge investment, many decision makers in organization is still faced with the problems of obtaining information that is reliable, relevant and up-to-date.
These difficulties have adversely affected the decision making process of most banks by hindering the decision makers through the introduction of distortion, leading to inaccurate information and creating misplaced confidence.
These particular problems are common in most banks today, the management of such banks are yet to really believe that management information system has actually justified the huge amount invested in it because most information system have foaled to meet the information requirement of the banks management.
The management of most banks had complained of unreliability, untimeliness and inaccuracy of information. Such banks include Union Bank of Nigeria Plc and MBC International Bank Ltd. Thus, there is need for the development of a vital and efficient information system which is essential for improvement in performance of the management of the bank.
The main stream of this is to show extensively the importance of Management Information System instituted within or among the three levels of management in aiding effective decision making of the bank so as to ensure their continued survival and profitability.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, information has become the life line of most successful banks. Computerized information systems channeled at facilitating or enhancing management operations have thus been developed in several banks.
Despite the edge of technological advancement, customers are yet to experience a drastic improvement in service rendered by banks. Customers waiting time in bank is yet to reduce tremendously and transactions are still processed at a lower pace than it should be, considering the use of good and reliable Management Information System.
The Management Information System is supposed to ensure an effective internal control system but the rampant cases of fraud in banks have proved otherwise.
Also bank managers complain of lateness of reports, constant break down of computer machines and computer frauds. This has resulted in the reluctance shown by top executives of banks to make further investment in information technology as the returns on investment of previous ones have not bee too encouraging. Like a case of system hanging, while a cashier is attending to customer.
These problems have resulted in dissatisfaction among users of information system and the management of banks in general. Due to the huge investments management incurs form acquiring Management Information System, it is anticipated that a good return on investment should be realized.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to seek to explain the concept of what has come to be known in modern management and information technology circles as Management Information System [MIS] and how Management Information System has impacted on decision making in a competitive and challenging banking environment.
In addition, the study will highlight for the benefit of organizations, the probable advantages accrued to modern business organization that has implemented Management Information System.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In an attempt to provide relevant and accurate solution to the research problems, the intention here is to come up with specific solutions for the purpose of knowing major issues to be tackled as well as emerging cases. In light of above, the research will address the following questions as stated below:
i. What is the relationship between Information System and decision-making?
ii. Does the introduction of MIS improve data generation efficiency and effectiveness of operation?
iii. Has the network infrastructures installed being able to support the MIS conveniently adequately?
iv. Does and organization require MIS to survive in business operations?
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
In the course of this study, the following hypothesis will be tested.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between Management Information System and decision making.
Hi: There is significant relationship between Management Information System and decision making.
Hence, the independent variable is Management Information System while dependent variable is decision making.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is on the banking sector because of the nature of their operations and the dynamic nature of the operating environment. Equally, Lagos city is chosen because of the fact that all most every bank operating in Nigeria has their Headquarters situated in Lagos. Proximity to concerned or selected banks for this study will enhance the flow of data and relevant information to the benefit of the study. However, the findings of the study will be difficult to generalize to other sectors of the economy because of their different mode of operations, products and structures.
Another area of limitations is the level of interactive development in Lagos and that of other cities. Some geographical areas are so behind in infrastructure that using Lagos as yardstick to generalize or recommend finding would be incorrect.
However, the study would provide the building blocks for other research in other sectors of the economy relative to application of MIS. And the outcome of this study to the chosen banks would serve as mirroring medium to the banking sector.
1.7 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of the study would highlight the strength and the importance of application of Management Information System in modern day business environment that is dynamic and competitive. Managers of banks would know if MIS is in monopoly of effective and productive decision making or that carefully made decisions that do not involved MIS can stand the test of current volatile and dynamic business environment today.
The study will also be useful to scholars in related fields, the government, firms, and the banking industry to a reasonable extends in applications of MIS in facilitating decision making in the modern business world. And finally, it would assist the selected bank to consolidate or improve on their current position in MIS application.
1.8 BRIEF BACKGROUND OF ORGANIZATION (ZENITH BANK)
a. Zenith Bank Ltd formerly commenced banking business in Nigeria in 1982. Since its inception, the bank has played prominent role in the Nigeria Banking Industry as one of the top corporate and investment banking institutions.
In February 2001, the bank converted to universal banking operations to diversity into other specialized areas of operation occasioned by Central Bank of regulatory policy on universal banking, which allowed financial institutions wider range of operations. The bank has branch network seven  that are sparsely located in 5 cities of the federation. The bank has currently merged with First Bank of Nigeria to scale the hurdle of N25 billion capitalization.
b. Union Bank of Nigeria Plc is one of the first generation banks in Nigeria. Over the years, the bank has grown into a force to be recorded within the banking environment in Nigeria. The bank branch network is over 293 nationwide. In addition, the bank has invested in subsidiaries and associated companies, which marked the bank out as financial Super Market.
The bank currently operates with capital base of N90 billion naira after the post capitalization era. To narrow communication gab between branches and head office and being cowed with the advent of information technology in the industry, the bank is also a forerunner in application of modern technology in discharging of their products and services to their customers.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- BANKING: Any organization whose primary role is that of carrying out the business of mobilizing funs, keeping money, loaning out funds and other financial services in an economy.
- COMPUTER: A computer is a mechanical or electro-mechanical device which accept new data, process the raw data and converts it into information that can be used in making decision. It can co-ordinate information from funds deposits, cash positions, investment and application of funds, produce financial data and maintain ledgers through its data base system.
- DATA: It is a term used to describe the basic fact about the activities of a business or event.
- DATA PROCESSING: Any collection of data organized for storage and access by computers. The data may be text, numbers or images.
- DECISION MAKING: Simply defined as the existence of doubt or uncertainty as a result of existence of two or more courses of action from which a choice has to be made that will lead to the elimination of uncertainty or doubt. It describes the process through which a course of action is selected as a solution to a specific problem [J.A.F. Stoner, 1982].
- INFORMATION: This is obtained from data by processing of the data. It is the output element of a data processing system and its important in day-to- day management of business.
SYSTEM [MIS]: This is a system designed to provide selected decisions oriented information needed by management to plan, control, and evaluate the activities of the corporation.
- NON-PROGRAMMED DECISIONS: These are decisions, which in the present state of art cannot be programmed on a computer