EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN ANY ORGANIZATION A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSAL TRUST BANK PLC
1.1 Background of Study
One of the foremost questions in the minds of managers at all level right from the Chief Executives Officers to the supervisor at the lowest level is how to motivate colleagues and subordinates to put their best efforts at the task in hand.
A person is hired because of his competence he has to bring on a particular job. Beyond competence, employers also look for evidence of how willing a person is to undertake tasks, to learn specific skills and job knowledge and the enthusiastically tackle assignments. Willingness involves the motivation that is on ground to spur the employee to exhibit his best at work and add value to the organization.
The questions of motivation are one, which human resources persons and psychologists are trying to unravel all the time. No two individuals are alike. Each individual has his own dogmas, beliefs and value system; each individual has his own set of priorities. So different things motivate different people. Not only this, but also different things motivate different people at different time. What motivates a person now need not motivate the person later.
Several theories have evolved to help explain different facets of motivation. We begin with the concept that people have different needs that direct their behaviour. Some of the needs depend on personal circumstances and outside events. Needs can cause people to seek out experiences that enrich their lives. Alternatively, needs can trigger behaviour to avoid threatening conditions and feelings of deprivation. Other needs are learned from reward experiences. These learned needs become relatively persistent motives that influence a person to seek out experiences that satisfy a particular need, such as the need for achievement or power.
A different explanation of motivation focuses on expectancies, or people’s expectations about whether they can affect performance outcomes and how closely desired rewards are linked to performance. People also consider the equity of how they are treated, and those evaluations help determine whether they will appear motivated or not. As you develop in the workplace and perhaps find yourself with managerial responsibilities, you will be more productive if you understand the needs, expectations and conditions that enable individuals and groups to learn and exhibit qualities of effective motivation.
A lot of research has been done on what motivates employees and whether employees work as they love the work for the money or it is for both. Social scientists have found empirical evidence that money is not the only source of motivation. Many have propounded various theories of motivation. The most famous theory of motivation factors is the one formulated by Maslow.
An employee’s performance typically is influenced by motivation, ability, the work environment. Some deficiencies can be addressed by providing training or altering the environment, motivation problems are not as easily addressed.
Motivation is important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been observed among employees in the Banking Sectors that the levels of performances, attitude to work and punctuality have been low in recent times. High level of labour turnover and absenteeism to mention just a few abound in the Banking Industry. Few changes were witnessed during the era of new generation Banks. Nevertheless, this was short-lived, unfortunately the issue of motivation is an area often ignored by the management of these Banks, which expect much productivity from the staff.
The fact is that most people work harder to exert more efforts than others. The result is that individuals of lesser ability can, and do, perform better than the more gifted counterparts. For this reason, an individual’s performances at work or otherwise depend not only on ability but on motivation as well. This study considers various explanations of why some people exert more on the job than others and evaluate employees’ motivation and job performance in Universal Trust Bank Plc.
1.3 Objective of the study
- Are the workers satisfied with the fringe benefits given them by the Management?
- Are the workers satisfied with the training given them by the management of the bank?
- Does the handling of high quality of work increase employees’ chances of promotion?
- Does producing of high quantity of work lead to job security in the Bank
- Is producing a higher quantity of work rewarded with higher pay?
- Do supervisors give recognition when employees produce a higher quantity of work?
- Does getting the job done on time increase employees’ chance of promotion?Is getting the job done on time rewarded with a higher pay?
1.5 Statement of Hypothese
This study is unique in nature and for the purpose of understanding and clarity of study, it becomes imperative to state our hypothesis and verify them on the basis of the data at our disposal.
The hypotheses are stated concisely as follows:
Ho: That employees in the banking industry are not motivated through the use of comfortable package of incentive or fringe benefits.
H1: That employees in the banking industry are highly motivated through the use of comfortable package of incentive or fringe benefits.
Ho: That motivation in the banking industry in Nigeria is not tailored towards increasing performance and productivity.
H1: That motivation in the banking industry in Nigeria is tailored towards increasing performance and productivity.
Ho:That participation in decision making as a factor of motivation is not neglected.
H1: That participation in decision making as a factor of motivation is neglected.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The primary task of Managers is to get people to contribute to the achievement of the goals of an organization. This is because managing involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for the performance of individuals working together in groups towards the accomplishment of a common objective. It is quite obvious that a manager cannot do this job without knowing what motivates peoples. However, mangers are not expected to manipulate people but rather to recognize motivating factors in designing an environment for performance since human motives are based on needs, whether consciously or subconsciously felt. Therefore, this study becomes relevant for the bank and entire banking sector to see reason why staff should be motivated to improve performance.
1.7 Scope of Study
This study will be divided into three chapters. Chapter one is devoted to the introduction of the topic. Chapter two will be reviewing the related literature. The research methodology is explained in chapter three and definitions of some important variables. Chapter four will be data presentation and analysis while the last chapter which is chapter five will focus on the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations
- Berelson & Steiner (1964), Human Behaviour: An inventor of Scientific Findings (New York, Harcourt, Brace &World, Inc).
- Ahmed A. (1985), A Speech delivered at the Dinner of Nigeria Institute of Bankers.