Examination Of The Impact Of Land Use Control Measures On Real Estate Development. A Study Of Calabar, Nigeria
Nigerian real estate includes all types of property ranging from single and multiple dwelling units residential developments, commercial (office space, retail space, shopping malls and hotel or restaurants), agricultural farm land and industrial blocks of (go-downs and warehouses, factories). The real estate development is a process by which initial land use of a designated neighbourhood or planning zone is transformed into new land use(s) in order to obtain the highest and best use of the land parcel(s). This development is mainly undertaken through change of use and extension of use through the approval by the local authority under the area of jurisdiction. The major challenges currently facing sustainability urban environment is the inadequate practice of land use control measures. The real estate developments in Calabar are led by demand rather than infrastructural capacity.
This research project examined the Impact Of Land Use Control Measures On Real Estate Development. A Study Of Calabar, Nigeria since the urban area has experienced massive developments in real estate in terms of increased property investment. These high rise developments have stressed the existing environment in terms of infrastructure capacity and green spaces. This study shall try to address the prevalence and the nature of the developments in real estate; the causes of land use variations as developments; the effects of the real estate developments on infrastructure services provision and vegetation cover within the study area.
The literature was reviewed to determine on how real estate development affects the general urban areas, and the possible merits and demerit of development models under the study and the land use control measures. The target population was residents of Calabar while the study population will be chief officers, departmental heads and general staff from the real estate firm managing properties. Simple random sampling was used to pick out specific houses across the study area. The data obtained from the study was sorted out, analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using photographs, maps, charts, simple tables and graphs.
Nigerian real estate includes all types of property ranging from single and multiple dwelling units residential developments, commercial (office space, retail space, shopping malls and hotel or restaurants), agricultural farm land and industrial blocks of (go-downs and warehouses, factories and light productions) (Masika, 2010). The real estate property development in Nigeria has been soaring high in the past few years because of the perceived high rate of returns and fewer risks involved. The Nigerian population records an annual rise of about one million and out of this has arose a significant group of investors that is aggressively seeking investments in real estate property. This has had the effect of exerting pressure on sustainable urban environment due to the need for adequate infrastructure and contusive living environment and the increased demand for housing, especially in urban areas which has far outweighed the supply. An immediate obvious impact of limited housing in urban areas has led to a trend that has seen the sustainability of the urban areas in terms of adequate facilities; environmental conservation and infrastructure services.
The real estate development is a process by which initial land use of a designated neighbourhood or planning zone is transformed into new land use(s) in order to obtain the best use and maximum returns of the land parcel(s). These developments process are mainly undertaken through either demand-led or infrastructure led developments approaches. The demand-led real estate development approach involves subdivision, change of use and extension of use. These procedures go through local approving authorities before the implementation of the desired developments. The other approach in real estate development under infrastructure-led, is where the implementation of the long term zoning plan is guided by the available infrastructure. This zoning plan indicates all aspects of real estate to be developed in terms of; land use, plot/ground coverage, plot ratio, building heights, and building line among others. However all the two approaches above tend to follow the available regulations; although the demand-led approaches
may encourage the violation of the initial zoning standards, for the planning zone as had been intended in the urban land use plan or the zoning plan.
There is an urban challenge of balancing the increase in demand and supply for real estate against the adequacy of infrastructures and conservation of the green areas or vegetation covers in urban areas. This research project therefore, provides an insight on urban land use management focusing meanly on the effects of the developments in real estate on infrastructure and vegetation cover within Calabaras one of the cities in the developing nations.
In recent past, Nigeria has experienced an urban growth of population which has led to pressure on existing infrastructure and necessary services and an abrupt growth of informal or unplanned urban settlement. Calabar is currently experiencing immense developments in real estate in many parts which are characterized by the various variations in the land uses. These land use variations exercises carried out are; change of user, extension of user, amalgamations, subdivisions and extension of lease. There is pressure on the low-density residential neighbourhoods within Calabar area due to high rate of population growth..
The key challenges in land use control within Calabar metropolis are; the enforcement and compliance with the zoning regulations due to weak enforcement and widespread non-compliance; and the housing deficit especial for low and middle class population. The private sector has been allowed to venture into provision of housing in order to bridge the gap in provision of housing. The observed trends within Calabar show the deterioration of the urban environments. The estates are characterized with flooding during rainy season; there is loss of trees and green spaces. Additionally as observed during reconnaissance, green fields and vegetations in the study area have been changing. The developments in real estate are demand-led development and not the intended infrastructure-led development which could have followed zoning regulations of Calabar. These high rise developments have strained the existing environment in terms of infrastructure capacity.
The objectives of the study
This research project aims at examining the impact of Land Use Control Measures On Real Estate Development in Calabar. Therefore the following objectives shall be achieved.
- To determine the nature and causes of developments in real estate within Calabar metropolis
- To determine the impacts of the real estate developments on infrastructure services provision within Calabar metropolis
- To evaluate the impacts of the real estate developments on vegetation within Calabar metropolis
The following questions shall be addressed in detail:
- Which are the nature and causes of developments in real estate within Calabar metropolis?
- How have the real estate developments impacted the infrastructure services provision within Calabar metropolis?
- What are the impacts of the real estate developments on the vegetation within Calabar metropolis?
This research project is organized into five different chapters each having a specific section of the research.
Chapter one is an introductory. It contains the problem statement, objectives, hypothesis, research methodology, scope and the significance of the study as well as defining the key terms in the study.
The second Chapter discusses the literature related to the study and the theoretical model developed that acts as a basis of the research. It includes various relevant definitions as enumerated by different authors; the policies, legislations and international treats governing sustainable urban environment; the nature and level of real estate development; effects of real estate developments on infrastructure and environment. A theoretical framework is established to act as benchmark for the study.
The third Chapter illustrates the case study area and methodology. In the chapter, the characteristics of the study area are provided. The procedures used in sampling, the sample and methods used in collection and analysis of data are highlighted.
Chapter Four presents the responses and analyses of various respondents to whom questionnaires were administered as well as oral interviews conducted. The problems encountered in carrying out the research are also highlighted as well as hypothesis testing.
Chapter Five entails the main findings of the research and conclusions. The proposed appropriate management framework to ensure sustainable urban land management is presented in this chapter. Suggested areas of further research are mentioned.
- Sustainable development: Sustainable development is the improvement or growth that meets the needs of the present conditions without compromising the ability of future conditions or generations to meet their
- Unsustainability: This can be referred to a state at which development are being done either beyond their capacity of supporting eco-systems or development which cannot be done for a long time provided the same conditions prevails hence the resource may not available for the future
- Urban environment: this an area where many buildings have been developed to yield high income and both the working and the living areas are closely placed together with the support services like schools and hospital with minimal empty or green spaces
available. The urban area may be plagued with several challenges like the vehicular (both personal and commercial) parking space and the movement from and to the work stations.
- Green fields: this refers to virgin land that is characterized by indigenous trees and grass or thatches and without structures in an urban area. When there is a project for real estate development, there is definitely interference with the vegetation on the
- Green spaces: Green space is the land that is either wholly or partially covered with vegetation like; grass, trees and shrubs. Green space in urban area is used for recreations parks
- Sustainable urban environment: The sustainable urban environment involves ensuring the available resources in the urban areas are well managed in order to serve the future generations in terms of ecosystem integrity, carrying capacity and
- Real estate development: It encompasses soil and everything below it to the centre of gravity and everything above it to the sky and anything that is permanently fixed to
- Land Use: Land use involves the usage and access to natural resources on land in order to benefit on its output and yields such as pastures for grazing land in rural areas, and human settlements for urbanized areas. Land use can also be defined to include the social and economic importance like homesteads and market areas which may be managed or left unmanaged.
- Land use Variations: Land use variation means complete replacement of one use by another, for instance a shift from one land use category to another or it may also mean additional of an another use to existing uses to have more than one use. It also involves the changing of the size of land in order to add or replace the land
- Demand-led development: This refferes to development which depends on the dynamics of free spending economy led by the high demand and low supply of the products. The developments carried out under this model in the real estate leads to activities on like change of use, extension of use and subdivision of large tracks of land into small plot in order to provide avenue for expenditures on real estate
- Infrastructure-led development: This is where the long-run development is based on public infrastructure such as roads, sewerage, piped water and waste management as the
main engine of growth in a given urban area. The proposed developments are evaluated based on the capacity of the infrastructures.
- Effects of development: This is the impact observed or experienced as a result when something is done or happens: an event, condition, or state of affairs that is produced by an action caused by the real estate