Akindele (1990) and Babalola (1995) have made efforts to divide corruption into many forms. These are political corruption; bureaucratic corruption and electoral corruption. Babalola (1995) argued that corruption in politics occurs at two levels. The first level has to do with the various forms of corruption in politics at the law-making level while the second level is at the law-implementation level. At the first level, people try to influence law-making and policy decisions while at the second level, efforts are made by people to pervert the course of justice and influence judgments. Babalola (1995) notes that the perpetration of corruption in politics is done in the following ways:
(a) Buying of votes and voters card during election. The electorates are induced with money.
(b) Electoral officials connived with party agents and security officials to manipulate or falsify election results a glowing example was the 1983, 1999, 2003, 2007 elections when INEC officials connived with security forces and government officials to falsify election results.
(c) Use of the power of incumbency and the state machinery. There is the Iron Law of African politics which states that no government in power ever loses election. Office holders therefore makes use of all the available weapons at their disposal to suppress opposition and win elections at all cost.
(d) Use of money. Money is now a crucial and the most potent factor in Nigeria politics. Babalola (1998) and Osoba (2002) also observed that money bag politics that is being practiced in Nigeria does not make political aspiration available to everybody; it is available only to the rich and powerful. This is true of the Parliamentarian or Presidency, it is the same. Credible people in Nigeria find it difficult to contest for election. The reason for this is that if one cannot dole out money or bribe the electorate with food one would not be voted for or be nominated. This is seeing in party primaries at all levels. It is unfortunate that elective posts usually go to the highest bidder. Dike (2011) noted that, political corruption is sometimes seen as similar to corruption of greed as it affects the manner in which decisions are made, as it manipulates political institutions, rules of procedure, and distorts the institutions of the government. Bureaucratic corruption occurs in the public administration” or the implementation end of politics. This kind of corruption has been branded low level and street level. It is the kind of corruption the citizens encounter daily at places like the hospitals, schools, local licensing offices, police, taxing offices and on and on. Bureaucratic petty corruption, which is seen as similar to corruption of need, occurs when one obtains a business from the public sector through inappropriate procedure Babalobi (2008). Electoral corruption includes rigging of election and buying of electoral votes. It also includes promises of office or special favors, coercion, intimidation, and interference with electoral procedures. In the last election, votes were bought; the consequence of this was that losers became winners in the election. This led to the killing and maiming of electorates and party candidates. In offices corruption is rife, government officials are involved in the sales of legislative votes, administrative, or judicial decision, or governmental appointment.
According to a report from the workshop organized by ZCC, Lagos from Dec 11-12, Babalobi notes the following as the causes of corruption in Nigeria.
Forms and Causes of Corruption in Educational Circle
- Weak government institutions
- Poor pay incentives
- Lack of openness and transparency in public service
- Absence of key anti corruption tools
- Ineffective political processes
- Culture and acceptance of corruption by the populace
- Absence of effective political financing
- Ethnic and religious difference
- Resource scramble
- Great inequality in distribution of wealth;
- Political office as the primary means of gaining access to wealth;
- Conflict between changing moral codes;
- The weakness of social and governmental enforcement mechanisms; and
- The absence of a strong sense of national community (Bryce, 1921).