FRIENDSHIP TIES AT WORKPLACE AND MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS IN SELECTED NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

97

FRIENDSHIP TIES AT WORKPLACE AND MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS IN SELECTED NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

ABSTRACT

The study is on friendship ties at workplace and managerial effectiveness in selected Nigerian universities. This study therefore sought to identify the level of the relationship between “proximity” cause of workplace friendship formation and organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities, to ascertain the degree of the relationship between “proximity” cause of workplace friendship formation and absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities and to determine the nature of the relationship between “Work Value/Life Interest similarities” cause of workplace friendship formation and organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities; other objectives were to assess the degree of the relationship between “Work Value/Life Interest similarities” cause of workplace friendship formation and absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities, to examine the level of the relationship between “instrumentality” cause of workplace friendship formation and organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities; and to establish the degree of the relationship between “instrumentality” cause of workplace friendship formation and absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities. This study adopted survey research design. In pursuit of the objectives, a national survey research was carried out in four federal and four state universities in four geopolitical zones of the country purposefully selected from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation universities in order to balance the study without bias. A sample size of 1147 was determined from a population of 30,955 drawn from the three major unions in the universities namely: Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Universities (SSANU), and Non-Academic Staff of Universities (NASU) using Freund and William’s statistical formula. The sources of data for the study were primary and secondary. The main instruments used for primary data collected were questionnaire and oral interview. The secondary data were sourced from journal, textbooks, periodicals and internet. The questionnaire was structured in Five-point Likert scale in line with the objectives of the study. Content validity approach was used to ensure that the variables measured were all covered while Factor analysis was used to measure the convergent validity. The instrument was checked for reliability showing Cronbach alpha co-efficient value of 0.84 and thereafter tables, pie charts, percentages and statistical tools (F-test, univariate, multiple regressions) were used for presentation and analysis respectively. Findings of the study indicated that Proximity cause of workplace friendship formation had a very strong positive relationship with organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 246.94 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Proximity cause of workplace friendship formation had a positive but weak relationship with absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 186.23 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Work value/life interests similarities (WVLIS) cause of workplace friendship formation had a strong positive relationship with organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 622.48 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Work value/life interests similarities (WVLIS) cause of workplace friendship formation had a positive but weak relationship with absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 373.21 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Instrumentality cause of workplace friendship formation had a strong positive relationship with organizational commitment in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 259.98 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Instrumentality cause of workplace friendship formation had a positive but weak relationship with absenteeism in selected Nigerian universities. (FC = 147.22 > FT =10.89; α = 0.05). Based on the study’s findings, the study thus concluded that the employees in selected Nigerian universities do not form friendship ties at workplace for the purpose of being absent from work but for productivity. The study recommended that while participatory, high interdependent tasks that will increase positive core attitudes, performance and reduce absenteeism be encouraged, Nigerian university management should employ an effective, tactical strategic planning at workplace that will reduce frictions within and among staff, while increasing productivity in efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration ii
Approval iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of study 9
1.7 Scope of the study 10
1.8 Limitations of the study 11
1.9 Profile of selected Nigerian universities under study 12
1.9.1 Profile of Benue State University, Makurdi 12
1.9.2 Profile of Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi 19
1.9.3 Profile of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu 25
1.9.4 Profile of University of Nigeria, Nsukka 28
1.9.5 Profile of Kaduna State University, Kaduna 33
1.9.6 Profile of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 36
1.9.7 Profile of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma 42
1.9.8 Profile of University of Benin, Benin City 47
1.10 Operational Definitions of Terms 50
References 51

2.0 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 52
2.1 Conceptual Framework 52 2.1.1 Concept of Friendship 52
2.1.2 Concept of Workplace Friendship 56
2.1.3 Process of workplace friendship 60
2.1.3.1 Affective Processes of Workplace Friendship 60
2.1.3.2 Cognitive Processes of Workplace Friendship 61
2.1.3.3 Behavioural Processes of Workplace Friendship 61
2.1.4 Factors Influencing Workplace Friendships 62
2.1.4.1 Situational Factors 62
2. 1.4.2 Individual Factors 62
2.1.4.3 Dyadic Factors 63
2.1.5 Development of Workplace Friendship 65
2.1.6 Strategies for Maintaining Workplace Friendships 77
2.1.7 Causes of Workplace Friendship Formation at Workplace 85
2.1.7.1 Proximity Cause of Friendship Formation 85
2.1.7.2 Work-Value/Life-Interest (WVLI) Similarities Cause of Friendship
Formation 86
2.1.7.3 Instrumentality Cause of Friendship Formation 88
2.1.8 Managerial Effectiveness of Workplace Friendships:
Organizational Outcomes 89
2.1.8.1 Organizational Commitment 91
2.1.8.2 Absenteeism 92
2.1.9 Relationship between the causes of Workplace Friendships (WF)
Formation and Organizational Outcomes 94
2.1.9.1 Relationship between Proximity Cause of Workplace Friendships
(WF) Formation and Organizational Outcomes 95
2.1.9.2 Relationship between Work Value/Life Interest Similarities (WVLI)
cause of Workplace Friendships (WF) Formation and Organizational
Outcomes 97
2.1.9.3 Relationship between Instrumentality Cause of Workplace Friendships
(WF) Formation and Organizational Outcomes 98
2.2 Theoretical Framework 100
2.2.1 Social Exchange Theory of Friendship 100
2.2.2 Developmental Theory of Friendship 100
2.2.3 Relevance of Theories to the Study 105
2.3 Empirical Review: Prior Researches on Friendship Ties at Workplace 106
2.4 Summary of the Review of Related Literature 113
2.5 Research Gap 115
References 111
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 128
3.1 Research Design 128
3.2 Population of the Study 129
3.3 Sampling Procedure 131
3.3.1 Sample Size Determination 131
3.4 Sources of Data 134
3.5 Methods of Data Collection 134
3.6 Instrument Design 135
3.7 Data Treatment Techniques 136
3.7.1 Survey 136
3.7.2 Pilot Survey 137
3.8 Measurement of Variables 137
3.8.1 Independent Variables 137
3.8.2 Dependent Variables 138
3.9 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 139
3.9.1 Validity of the Instrument 139
3.9.2 Reliability of the Instrument 142
3.10 Model Specification 143 References 144

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES 147
4.1 Data Presentation 147
4.2 Presentation of Univariate Analysis 149
4.2.1 Frequencies of Friendship Ties (FT) 150
4.3 Test of Research Hypotheses and their Interpretations 162
4.3.1 Hypotheses on Proximity and Organizational Outcomes 162
4.3.2 Hypotheses on WVLIS and Organizational Outcomes 164
4.3.3 Hypotheses on Instrumentality and Organizational Outcomes 165
4.3.4 Findings of Bivariate Analysis of FT on Organizational Outcomes 166
4.3.5 Presentation of Qualitative Data Analysis Results Using QSR
NVIVO 167
4.3.5.1 Interview 168
4.3.5.2 Analysis of Interviews 169
4.3.6 Integrated Research Findings 172
4.4 Discussion of Results 173
4.4.1 Discussion of Findings Related to the Response Rate of the
Questionnaire 173

4.4.2 Discussion of Findings Related to the Personal Data of the
Respondents 174

4.4.3 Discussion of Findings Related to the Objectives 176
References 186
5.0 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 188
5.1 Summary of Findings 188
5.2 Conclusion 189
5.3 Recommendations 190
Bibliography 193
Appendices 206

______________________________________