Gender differences and employment of marketers in banking sector A study GTBank
The concept of gender generally have been observed to be an uncontrollable factor which individuals have little or no ability to influence, however, discrimination have been observed to occur when employers needs to make employment decisions during recruitment, promotion or even in succession planning for strategic management position. This study aimed at examining the Gender differences and employment of marketers in banking sector.Case study GTBank. Review of an extant literature was done on the construct variables. The target populations for this study are the employees of the selected banks which were selected using the simple random technique the combined population of 150. A sample of 109 respondents was selected using the YaroYammane formula. Questionnaires were administered by hand to the chosen sample by the researcher to elicit data from the respondents for this study. Multiple linear regression was used to test hypotheses using 0.05% significance level while frequencies, cumulative frequencies, and percentages were used to analyze the demographic data of the respondent. The findings from the study showed that a single variable of gender discrimination may not be significant to influence employment decision in banking sector but when used together they can jointly influence the employment decision in banking sector. The R square which shows the variation gives 0.3456 and adjusted R square of 0.54678. The R square which shows the variation gives 0.3456 and adjusted R square of 0.54678. Based on the findings, the study concluded that Women are Prone to sexual harassment in bank and this should be eliminated for effective attainment of organizational objectives. The study also recommends that Promotion opportunity should be opened for both female and male to boost their morale and enhance performance and finally a convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against employees was also recommended.
- Background to the Study
Gender differences is a fundamental social phenomenon which has given rise to a serious debate in relation to assigning social roles to human societies. Gender is concerned with the psychological, social and cultural differences between male and female in addition to different psychological characteristics, male and females have distinctive physical traits, characteristics and personalities. Triandis (1994) recognized that the content behavior of individuals is a consequence of both socially enforced rules and values and individual disposition, whether genetic, unconscious or conscious. Creativity may cause the rules and value changes overtime, cultures and societies are dynamic and ever changing but there has been extensive debate as to how, and how fast, they may change. Such debates are especially contentions when they involve gender/sex system as people have widely differing views about how much gender depends on biological sex. Early in life a person acquires a gender identity, and once a child has gender identity, he/she begins to assemble gender roles in masculine and feminine tracts not only are they different but are measured and valued. The feminine traits stress delicacy, dependency, emotionality, nurturance and verbal skills while that of masculinity borders on toughness, aggressiveness, independence (Alamveabee, 2005). Due to this inferred differences between the male and the female, society tends to assign more challenging tasks to men and more suitable or less demanding task to women (Pearson, 2000).
During the early years of this country (Nigeria) in 1922, women were not entitled to the same rights and privileges as men. Women were not allowed to vote as enshrined in the Clifford’s Constitution of 1922, restricting the electorate to adult males in Calabar and Lagos and were usually required to surrender control of their property to their husband upon marriage because of the patrilineal system which confers rights of inheritance on the male child (Igbuzor, 2012). Moreover, their educational and occupational opportunities were severely limited on the basis that every woman is supposed to consider motherhood as the principal purpose of her existence, she is expected to produce children, cook, clean, mend and wash clothes and take care of men and be subordinate to male authority (Oganwu, 1996).
Gender discrimination is the consequence of persistent inequality between men and women in all spheres of life (Jannatul, 2011). Gender discrimination is treating individuals differently in their employment specifically because an individual is a woman or a man (Busse, 2003). Discrimination occurs in various forms in everyday life as defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO 2003), any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, political opinion, natural extraction or social origin which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity and treatment in employment or occupation is discriminatory. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, banking was more of a male occupation and all bank tellers were men as the banking sector expands, more responsible positions were created and the state of the tellers which men occupied declined, women filled the positions vacated by men and today many bank tellers are women (Iloegbunam, 2006).
With particular reference to the banking sector in Nigeria, specifically within Ilorin metropolis, the study intends to find out the effect of gender discrimination in banks and how it affects employment decision.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contact, one being the employer and the other being the employee (Kaifi, 2013). It is further defined as an agreement between an employer and an employee that the employee will provide certain services on the job, and in the employer’s designated workplace, to facilitate the accomplishment of the employer organization’s goals and mission, in return for compensation. Employment decisions go beyond determining which employees are due for raises. Through regular, objective performance appraisals, managers acquire information to make and implement decisions about promotions, transfers, demotions, separations, and compensation within the banking sector.In most organizations, outstanding employees are recognized for their hard work and outstanding performances, and offered promotions. A promotion generally means rewarding an employee’s efforts by moving that person to a job with increased authority and responsibility.Downsizing has led many firms to rely on lateral moves or transfers instead of promoting employees. A lateral move can act as an opportunity for future vertical advancement because it can broaden an employee’s experiences and add skills (Ridgeway, 2001).