IMPACT OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN 21ST CENTURY

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Introduction

On a daily basis, policymakers, economists, researchers, the general public, and private businesses employ information and communication technology. Seminars, conferences, and workshops on the importance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are organized every year across the world, emphasizing its value for both society and individual growth. According to Curtin (2002), information and communication technology is a set of tools and applications that use electronic means to capture, store, process, transfer, and display data. According to Ogechukwu and Osuagwu (2010), information and communication technology is the processing and maintenance of data as well as the use of all types of computer communication networks and mobile technologies to mediate data. Information and communication technology includes radio, television, cellular phones, computer and other network hardware and software, satellite systems, and other communication devices and applications, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning. Information and communication technology is employed in a variety of situations in the twenty-first century, including education, health care, agriculture, and libraries, among others. One method that ICT is employed in education is through computer assisted instruction. Computer assisted instruction is the use of a computer for instructional design, delivery, and evaluation (Aginam, 2006). The location, culture, and type of ICT available, as well as how it is set up and maintained, all influence the utility of ICT.
A self-learning technique that involves the student interacting with pre-programmed instructional resources is the use of a computer for instruction. Computer for instruction, according to Wikimedia (2008), is an interactive educational technique that uses a computer to display instructional materials and track student progress. By mixing text, images, music, and video, computer assisted training improves the learning process. Tutorials, drill and practice, simulations, and problem-solving strategies are used to impart concepts and test students’ understanding. Because of its variety in the use of multiple choice questions, as well as the provision of instant feedback, a summary of students’ performance, practice exercises, worksheets, and text, computer assisted education benefits both teachers and students (Ajayi, 2005).
Computer assisted instruction, according to Ayo (2001), is the use of a computer system and communications equipment to process information during classroom education. It refers to a variety of educational resources and tools (software) given via computer. According to Akuegwu, ICT instruments include desktops, laptops, video machines, multimedia projectors or power point, digital cameras, internet facilities, computer networks, telephone, e-library, television programmers, and data bases (2011). Word processors, spreadsheets, tutorials, simulations, electronic email, videoconferencing, and virtual reality are all examples of ICT in education today (UNESCO, 1999).
According to research, computers have been demonstrated to foster creative educational practices and make difficult-to-implement instructional methods such as simulation or cooperative learning more viable (Roblyer, Edwards and Havriluk, 2004). Furthermore, most educators believe that when computers are used properly, they can improve student learning outcomes and effectiveness (Wang, 2001). Computers, the internet, and other associated technology can surely aid the shift of the classroom environment into a learner-centered one if teachers are properly trained and supported. Pedagogical design for effective computer utilization, not the availability of technology, is the most important element impacting learning efficiency (Mandell, Sorge, Russel, 2002).

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