In the context of this thesis, “violence against women ” refers to any act or series of acts committed by any person against a woman who is his wife or former wife, or against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual or dating relationship which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering (Onukwe 2019).
An alarmingly high number of women all around the world are victims of some form of violence against women. It might range from something as minor as an assault on the body to something as serious and life-threatening as an emotional disorder or even death. The Nigerian women are not exempt from this myriad, and even though our constitution guarantees equal protection to all people regardless of gender, we cannot deny the fact that there have been a great number of pitiful women who have suffered violence at the hands of their cruel husbands, abusive parents or guardians, and even some of their employers. The Nigerian women are not exempt from this myriad. Iyke (2017)
The effects of violence on victims can be life-changingly severe. The impacts can be roughly classified into the categories of psychological and physical in nature. The psychological repercussions can include signs of trauma-related disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (also known as PTSD) as well as substance abuse. In addition to the direct impacts of abuse, victims are frequently forced to isolate themselves socially by their abusers, which can exacerbate the psychological symptoms that are already present. The term “physical effects” encompasses not just injuries but also long-term conditions like headaches, pelvic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome, among others. Of fact, not every woman will exhibit any of these symptoms, and even some women who have been subjected to violence might not display any of the signs at all. Emerson(2020)
The perpetuation of gender inequality is both a cause and a result of violence against women. It is a widespread and pervasive violation of the enjoyment of human rights and a fundamental hindrance to getting to a place where there is equality between the sexes. It has its origins in unequal power dynamics that have historically existed between men and women. The overwhelming majority of those responsible for the violence are male, whereas the victims are female. Because of this disproportionality, the issue of violence against women as a kind of systematic discrimination and inequality is framed in the way that it is today ties it in with commitments about gender equality.
In its General Recommendation No. 19, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women makes note of the fact that the definition of discrimination includes gender-based violence, which is defined as violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. The majority of countries have passed laws at the national level that adhere to the principle of non-discrimination, which is outlined in many international human rights instruments. (Skinnider, 2014).
The researchers therefore examine Incidences,causes and effects of violence against women in urban and rural area .This study can be of use to the relevant authorities in developing an intervention programme for women who have been victims of violence. In addition, the research has the potential to inform women about how they may protect themselves against any sort of discrimination that is directed toward women and how they can prevent being victims of violence.