Background to the Study
Personality can be defined as consistent; unique and organized set of characteristics of a person; determined by environmental (e.g., culture, social class, family) and genetic factor that influences his or her cognition, motivation and behaviors in various situations .
Where personality is said sum total of our behavior, there are some personal factor that leads parental expectation toward children. Parents’ belief, knowledge, cognition, schema, judgment, child rearing belief, parent child interaction , dimensions of home environment and other parenting behavior and pattern have impact on parental expectation. Hence, nature and degrees of expectation among parents varies. McArdle and Duda’s (2005) study showed, parental expectation were positively related to parent’s personal standard only and parent’s self-esteem was predicted by high perceived parental expectation. Conversely, maternal depressed mood is associated with both low maternal expectations and low maternal expectations for children’s coping are related to overprotective parenting .
Parents’ personality play a key role towards the children development in all perspectives, such as social, emotional and educational. According to Kordi & Baharudin(2018) and Akbar, Asrar, Younes, Chisthi (2015) parenting style is a psychological arrangement that characterizes the strategies which are commonly practiced by parents to raise their children that includes the attitudes and behaviors of parents. Parents’ personality affect child’s self-development, self-esteem and academic performance.
A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child. Parenting practices refer to specific things that parents do while raising their children. These can refer to the imposition and use of schedules, rules, expectations, punishments, rewards, etc. Basically, parenting practices can refer to any type of regular interaction that a parent has with their children, Alley, 2014. But Heller, (2014) argued that parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in individualistic countries like Germany spend more time engaged in face-to-face interaction with babies and more time talking to the baby about the baby. Children develop skills at different rates as a result of differences in these culturally driven parenting practices. Children in individualistic cultures learn to act independently and to recognize themselves in a mirror test at a younger age than children whose cultures promote communal values.
The role parental involvement is also significant in children’s academic outcomes and have also been related to the provision of educational toys, answering inquiries, and engaging in dialog with them about their experiences. Furthermore, having access to a computer at home and living in a family with a medium to high level of engagement in out-of-home activities such as visiting libraries were linked to optimal developmental outcomes for children (Le et al., 2021). Given the importance of parental involvement in boosting children’s outcomes, it’s not unexpected that there’s been a lot of curiosity about what factors influence the kind and frequency of parents’ involvement in activities with their children. Reduced cognitive stimulation in the home has also been linked to single parenthood and insecure employment (Martin et al., 2022). Even though these results tell us a lot about how economic disadvantage affects parent involvement. Giallo et al. (2013) study reveal that less attention has been paid to the psychosocial characteristics of the parent, child, and family setting that may affect how much time parents spend with their children at home. Based on the above-mentioned literature and gaps there is a need to further explore the impact of various parenting styles on early childhood learning with parental self-efficacy as a mediator. Additionally existing studies have mostly focused on structural or socioeconomic variables, implying that parents with less education who are from a lower socioeconomic standing and are experiencing financial difficulties, are less responsive to their children and provide less learning stimulation.
Thus, until a few decades ago, parents and even educators thought that the only thing children need from the day they are born through their development processes is to be provided with the proper physical needs i.e. food, shelter, fresh air, clean and hygienic environment. It is thought that if all these are available, then the best have been done for the child to attain normal development. However, we now know through modern psychology that to provide only physical needs is not enough. The emotional attachments of young children to their parents (and other caregivers) remain a cornerstone of psychological well-being in early childhood and in later adulthood.