INFLUENCE OF THE USE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SSCE STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY

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ABSTRACT

Education is a fundamental human right, and a key input in production and development of an economy. This explains why countries worldwide plan for and increase budgetary allocations to fund various educational programmes each financial year. There is however concern on the quality of education offered and performance of students in national examinations. The purpose of this study was to examine the Influence of the use of teaching and learning resources on the performance of SSCE students in chemistry. Four objectives were formulated to guide the study; the objectives of the study were to determine how availability of teaching and learning materials affect students’ performance, which was done by determining the availability of learning materials utilized in schools, the study also established how adequacy of physical facilities and human resources influence students’ performance and also assessed the extent of resource utilization and its effect on students’ performance, following provision of teaching and learning resources by the government to the public day secondary schools. The study used descriptive study design, and data was collected using three sets of questionnaires for the head teachers, teachers and students. The target population consisted of all the Free day secondary schools in the district, their head teachers, teachers and students. The sample consisted of 6 principals, 18 class teachers and 240 students. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), the analyzed data was then presented using frequency tables, means, percentages, pie charts and bar graphs. The study found out that teaching and learning materials were available and are utilized in schools, especially those used in classroom instruction, like chalks, dusters and charts except physical facilities are lacking and there’s gross inadequacy of human resources. This resulted to overstretched resources with annual increase in enrolment rates thus compromising the quality of education. Therefore the government should allocate more funds for TLR provision to improve the status and condition of physical facilities and employment of more teachers to be effective. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that similar research could be carried out in other parts of the country since different parts of the country have different characteristics. Further research could also include a study on Integration of ICT and e-learning to complement human resources.

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

            Background to the study

 

Education, according to Coombs (1970), consists of two components, inputs and outputs. Inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the input and output form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined.

Availability of teaching and learning resources (TLR) enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic performance in the students. Maicibi (2003) opined that all institutions or organization are made up of human beings (workers) and other non-human resources. He further asserts that when the right quantity and quality of human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing institutional goals and objectives. Consequently, every institution should strive to attract and retain the best of human resource. The economic austerity in recent times, coupled with the need for expansion of access to education, have combined to present educational planners worldwide with increasingly difficult choices in the allocation of available resources.

According to Department for International Development (DFID) in (Guidance note, a DFID practice paper, 2007) research evidence confirms that the most consistent characteristics in improving student performance are the availability of (a) textbooks and supplementary Teaching and Learning Materials (TLM), (b)  well trained, prepared, supervised and motivated teachers (human resources and

(c) Adequate physical facilities. DFID further asserts that most African countries like Malawi and Zimbabwe continues with monopolistic state primary textbook provision for TLM via the Malawi Institute of Education, with the active support of the donor community. Tanzania on the other hand is on the verge of re- introducing sole source textbook supply from the private sector and perhaps re- creating a new state textbook provision system. In Kenya, the government is considering a proposal from the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) formerly Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) to form itself into an educational publishing parastatal. Development Partners (DPs) have recently supported sole source textbook supply monopolies from the private sector in Ethiopia and at secondary level in Uganda. Sole source supply is often justified on the basis of lower costs and has on the other hand strongly contributed to complaints by schools with regard to poor quality textbooks and irregular, inaccurate and ineffective book distribution (DFID, 2007).

In recent years, access to computers and the internet has generated interest in the provision of e-materials. Where the internet is unavailable, unreliable or unaffordable, the development of local school networks and the provision of e-materials to schools on compact disks (CDs/ flash disks can support e-learning via school servers and networks. But e-based learning in many developing countries and transitional economies have proved to be very expensive. TLM are often seriously underfunded alongside physical facilities and human resources. It  is not surprising; therefore, that literacy has become a major problem in many countries when students and teachers have so little to read (The World Bank, 2001). The physical, material, human and financial resources invested in schools influence not only the education provided to students but also aspects of teachers and student motivation and consequently the educational outcomes.

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) shows that resource shortages hinder instruction and lower student performance (OECD, 2007). In addition, inequalities in student’s educational performance often reflect disparities in the resources invested in schools (OECD, 2008). Johan (2004) states that educational outcomes in schools are closely linked to utilization and adequacy of teaching and learning resources in different ways; poor utilization, underutilization, unqualified educators brings forth low educational achievement. The inadequacy of physical and material resources in schools is a major factor responsible for learning outcome of students. Schools that do not have adequate facilities such as workshops, laboratories, classrooms, teaching learning materials are unlikely to post good results.

 

Studies done in the past on the relationship between TLR and performance include, Likoko, Mutsotso & Nasongo (2013) in the study on adequacy of instructional materials and physical facilities and their effect on quality of teacher preparation in colleges in Bungoma county and a study done by Mbaria (2006) on the relationship between learning resources and performance in secondary schools in Ndaragwa district. All the above studies indicate that TLR were higher in higher performing schools than in low performing schools and that there is a significant difference in resource availability in the higher performing schools and low performing schools. Also indicate that most institutions are faced with challenges such as lack of adequate facilities like libraries and inadequate instructional materials and these factors tend to have a negative effect on the quality of graduates produced. Adan (2011) in the study on challenges faced by head teachers in implementing chemistry education programme also posits that there is a major challenge on adequacy of physical facilities in most schools in the district, the only adequate materials available are textbooks, but the schools are in dire need of facilities like classrooms, toilets, desks. Chairs, laboratories as well teaching aids, and recommended that a larger percentage.

Statement of the problem

 

Teaching and learning resources (TLR) are the most visible components of government educational provision and their absence is often noted by stakeholders. The Cameroon  government has taken a number of measures in the previous years to improve and promote FDSE, this is evident in the increased expenditure channeled to this program. One of the policy statements is that a great proportion of education expenditure should be channeled to TLR. (National Policy of Education (NPE), 2012). If this policy were properly planned for and implemented, there should be enough TLR in most if not all secondary schools.

 

TLR play a paramount role in the teaching and learning process and inevitably the student’s academic performance. This calls for provision of adequate TLR on the performance of SSCE students in chemistry. The SSCE STUDENTS IN CHEMISTRY are faced with a mirage of problems which include inadequate provision of TLR as a result of poor planning .

 

Purpose of the study

 

The purpose of the study is to examine the Influence of the use of teaching and learning resources on the performance of SSCE students in chemistry

The specific objectives of  the study are;

 

  1. To determine how availability of teaching and learning materials used in teaching and learning  chemistry among  SSCE Students  affect students’ performance
  2. To establish how adequacy of physical facilities influence students’ performance in Chemistry
  3. To establish how adequacy of human resource influence students’ performance in Chemistry
  4. To assess extent of resource utilization and its effect on students’ performance in chemistry subjects

 

Research questions

 

The research questions of the study are:

  1. To determine how availability of teaching and learning materials used in teaching and learning  chemistry among  SSCE Students  affect students’ performance
  2. To establish how adequacy of physical facilities influence students’ performance in Chemistry
  3. To establish how adequacy of human resource influence students’ performance in Chemistry
  4. To assess extent of resource utilization and its effect on students’ performance in chemistry subjects

 

 Significance of the study

 

The research aimed at assessing the Influence of the use of teaching and learning resources on the performance of SSCE students in chemistry . the results may be useful to various institutions and education authorities involved in policy formulation, development, implementation and more so personnel in the in formulating policies to improve adequacy of TLR in schools. It is also hoped that the study will consequently increase literature on availability of TLR to assist education evaluators establish ongoing education quality monitoring networks and improvement processes, to guide teachers to improve use of TLM by using instructional strategies for appropriate delivery of curriculum; hence inform policies in teacher education. The research findings may also be used to form a basis for further research involved in planning for TLR used in schools

 

Limitations of the study

 

Limitations are factors which may affect the study (Nachmias & Nachmias, 2009). Since the study aims at finding out the Influence of the use of teaching and learning resources on the performance of SSCE students in chemistry, respondents had reservations to share information with regard to adequacy of resources in their schools in relation to performance since they mistook the researcher to be on a fault finding mission. But the researcher physically visited the schools and explained that the study’s aim was only for academic purposes.

Delimitation of the study

 

The study covered all SSCE Students In. Secondly the study was only carried out in SSCE Students In Chemistry leaving out boarding schools. This was based on the fact that SSCE Students In Chemistry have been performing poorly in national examinations compared to public boarding secondary schools. Though there may have been other factors that influence performance in the SSCE Students In Chemistry, the study concentrated only on availability of TLM, adequacy of physical facilities and human resources and the extent of utilization of all TLR.

 

Definitions of significant terms

 

This section gives definition of all significant terms as were used in the study.

 

Academic performance refers to school mean score in SSCE students performance  performance

 

Academic qualification refers to the highest level of schooling attained by a teacher

Access refers to making education affordable or available to the targeted groups

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