nstructional Approaches And The Teaching Of Agriculture In Secondary Schools
This study was carried out to investigate the instructional approaches and the teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in Uruan Local Government Area. The population of the study consisted of all the Agriculture teachers in all the nine (9) secondary schools in the study area totaling eighteen (18) teachers. Two research questions were posed to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the nine (9) public secondary schools and eighteen (18) teachers for the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage statistical method. The result of the findings revealed that discussion and demonstration instructional approaches will bring about very effective learning among chemistry students. The study also revealed that guided-inquiry instructional approaches when applied properly by the teachers will Influence the learning process positively in secondary schools in Uraun Local Government Area. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers should use learners’ centered approaches in the teaching and learning of Chemistry as this will help to arouse students’ interest towards the learning of Chemistry.
1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional approaches are decisions about organizing students’ materials and ideas to provide learning. It is viewed as both the teaching method and the materials used in the process of teaching instructional approaches determine the technique a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives. Some of these instructional approaches include demonstration, discussion, and lecture approach among others. Instructional approaches are the most specific category of teaching behavior. They are necessary for procedural purpose and for structuring appropriate learning experiences for questioning, discussion, directing, , explaining and demonstrating. Hence, students learn by doing, making writing, designing, creating and solving.
Skill in the selection and utilization of appropriate instructional approaches are required of the teacher for effective teaching. There is no one best approach to instructional delivery. Effective teaching demands that the teacher must possess some basic ability to organize, coordinate and utilize personal qualities, objective and competency in lesson preparation, presentation and evaluation. Besides, he or she must be able to motivate the learners, make students active participant in learning, use appropriate techniques and facilities to enhance effectiveness in instruction. Teachers are also expected to implement a variety of instructional techniques in order to meet the objectives as well as address individual student’s interest and needs. However, Eddie (2010), viewed instructional approaches as any conscious device intended for the use in the process of interpreting a given curriculum content. Accordingly there have been a contentious quest for the most effective technique to teaching and learning Agriculture. A number of approaches abound in teaching the science. Some of these are discussion, demonstration, discovery, project, problem-solving methods and so on.
As noted by Ekanem (2011), the approach to be chosen varies from subject to subject and from one topic to another. Though, no topic could be totally effective in all situations. Instructional approaches are used in the presentation of lesson to help the students learn by ensuring the smooth delivery of the instruction.
Bajah (2011) defined instructional approaches as decision about organizing students, materials and ideas to provide learning. It is seen as both the teaching method and the materials used in the process of teaching. Instructional approaches determine the technique a teacher may use to achieve learning objectives.
Quite remarkably, poor academic achievement by the majority of students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional approaches by teacher to impart knowledge to learners. Substantial research on the effectiveness of instructional approaches indicates that quality of teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunda (2011) observed that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching approaches that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concept to be covered. In view of the above stated problems of teaching and learning, this study become necessary to investigate the effects of instructional approaches in teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in UruanLocal Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many instructional approaches exist in education. All the approaches are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little attention is considered by the teachers when selecting the approaches to be used in their lesson delivery. Also there are complaints by the teachers, parents and educational stakeholders that the methods used by teachers in teaching the students are not effective and these have negated students’ academic achievement. It is also observed that students cannot easily follow instructions in class, and so lessons become dull and boring, and these also engender negative attitude, low interest and poor performance among students. The researcher therefore deemed it necessary to reexamine various instructional approaches that may be appropriate in the teaching and learning of Agriculture in secondary schools. Other problem of this study is to identify the instructional approach(s) used by teachers in teaching Agriculture and its effect on students’ academic performance in Agriculture in secondary schools. The problem of this study was to identify the instructional approaches used by teachers of Agriculture in teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in UruanLocal Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate instructional approachesand teaching in secondary schools in Uruan Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:
- determine the link that exists between discussion instructional approach and lecture approach in the teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools.
ii determine the connection that exists between discussion instructional approach and lecture approach in the teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study was designed to explore instructional approaches for teachers, principals, government and students.
- The study will be beneficial to the teachers in that they will be able to select appropriate instructional approaches and materials to suit different lesson for effective teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in UruanLocal Government Area.
- It will help the teacher and the students to realize that the understanding of lesson in Agriculture can be highly improved through the right choice of teaching techniques and class activities rather than talk and chalk technique.
iii. The study will provide the necessary tool for the understanding and evaluating the problem associated with instructional approaches and the teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in UruanLocal Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- What is the difference in academic achievement between students taught Agriculture using discussion instructional approach and those taught using lecture instructional approaches in secondary school?
- What is the difference in academic achievement between students taught Agriculture using demonstration instructional approach and those taught using lecture instructional approaches in secondary school?
1.5 Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to examine instructional approaches and the teaching of Agriculture in secondary schools in Uruan Local Government Area.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The study was affected by insufficient time,and funds. Only public secondary schools were used for the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Instructional Approaches: Is the process or manner by which an instructional module, instruction phase, or an entire course is delivered and which may include discussion, demonstration and lecture approaches etc.
Teacher approaches: Are the techniques or methods that a teacher can adopt to meet the various learning objectives.