Issues of Bride Price in Marriage
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In the process of writing this research study, related relevant literature where reviewed. These enable the researcher to get access to work done by others. In similar topic which have gone a long way to assist the researcher to successfully carryout study.
2.1 DEFINITION OF UNSTABLE MARITAL HOME
In reviewing the relevant related literature the term “unstable home” as used in this research study referred to situation where by there is misunderstanding and constant quarrel between the married couple or husband and wife that may lead to disharmony and disintegration in the family. The modern oxford advance learner dictionary defined the term “unstable” as a state of not stable and steady on the part of a thing which is likely to fall at any moment. Thus Obadiah (1978) described the term unstable marital home as a situation which there is constant quarrel and fighting between husband and wife in an established marital home. In the light of the above ezewu (1989) explained further that reason for unstable marital home in over society could also be “ when marriage based on love and such love could be continued again, husband treated his wife badly and some other cases when a man marrying many wives or women leading to frequently lighting, and a man not having enough money to feed and clothe his family. Other cases which may bring marital home include when families split by death, desert ion in which one partner must have deserted the there for up to the period of many years and where about of such partner is know, defective home discipline a situation whereby every member of the family in marital home have the freedom to behave anyhow and the parents cannot control the, mother lacking in affection and hostile, fathers in this case o insanity of which one party between the married couple must have been of unsound mind and both the husband and wife could not live together again in an established matrimonial home.
2.3 UNSTABLE MARITAL HOME USUALLY LEAD TO DIVORCE
In a extreme cases unstable marital home at times lead to divorce among the married couple in the society especially when a marriage based on love and such love could not continued again and the husband and wife lives like cat and dogs life. There is no peace and harmony between the married couples, despite all efforts made to reconcile them in their difference and misunderstanding had failed. Thus as it is tradition of every community that when there is dispute between married couples for a fear of a break between them the two arbiters from either of the families have to be appointed so as to settle the dispute amicably and resolve their differences; it is after all this effort for reconciliation had fail and could not yield a fruitful result of that divorce could be the last option between the married couple. Thus okeke (1995) buttressed the statement further that in a situation whereby there is a constant quarrel and fighting between married, couple in marital home in the community, then in most cases it usually resulted into broken marriage or divorce. In a relate of further explanation Obadiah (1978) describe divorce as the dissolution of marriage, when a marriage is dissolved both parties shall be free from the obligation and bound of marriage. However various researchers carried out across different communities have show that marriage in a cultural setting of every community is expected to be a lifelong phenomenon, unless death parted either of married couple, if mot in a situation of divorce if resorted to by married couples because of the problems of unstable marital home, then it as its cultural and social effects and consequences and above all educational implication on the children in women day secondary schools. In this regard Ibooya (1999) states that divorce is abomination, most hateful dislike and above all against the warms and values of every community however unless it becomes inheritable that circumstances have warranted it and it cannot be helped that husband and wife must be separated because of dissolution of marriage. In the religion, both Christianity and Islam, divorce among the married couples is an act totally condemn by God. In Christianity for instance divorce among the married couple is not allowed and not authorized even through the mode of exercising it varies according to the denomination. It is totally disallowed by both the catholic and protestant church the only differences in it is that in the Anglican church, the bishop can grant divorce under very grave and exceptional circumstance as study carry out have revealed but the roman catholic mission completely prohibited divorce. In the light of the above divorce a phenomenon that is completely and totally forbidden in Christianity. In the bible Mathew 19 verse saying attribute to Jesus has been reported. As teachers in school will have many problems in trying to train these children to be good citizens. In a further related explanation the psychological atmospheric condition of the home of such as warmth love and instead the parent quarrel and always fight that brings instability in the home which go a long way to affect the emotional instability of the children as they are emotionally fragile and these problem will be carried over to the school that will also affect their performances. Thus Adeyemu (1985) explained that emotion is the mood of being conscious in which the feeling elements is predominant. It is a particular type of feeling that an individual has to a particular stimulus, provoke a person. Thus as the prevailing atmospheric condition of the home is not all that warmth, no affection and love, the parents may not be able to co-operate together to provide the much needed materials for the child to will enable him concentrate very well in his secondary education. Such as prosper feeding at home and even before going to school, provision of pocket money while going to school adequate basic requirement for education that provide an avenue for conducive learning such as writing material, text books, adequate clothing such as school uniforms and other required educational facilities. The affect will then be carried over to the school and the student’s academic pursuance in the women secondary school will be adversely affected. Adekale (2004) explain that the anxiety may then spread to the entire school situation and even transfer to ones doing of home work and other school assignment. Thus there is the problem of unstable marital home in an established family the spirit of parent to cooperate together to constantly visit the woman secondary school where their children and words are acquiring education, so to enable they have firsthand information about what is happening to their children and wards in the school as a way and process of monitoring their progress while in the school may not be there. This is very important because of their attitude of the students in women secondary school today and the rate of their irregular attendance is very alarming. Thus Yusuf (2001) state “that irregular attendance among student in women’s secondary schools is in form of student lateness and absentees are in from school regularly. In relation to this Schram (2000) explained further that “there is need for parent to presently check the school they can for themselves what their children are being taught” parents sitting down at home and wasting for their children to bring their exercise book is not enough, parents must endeavor to visit the school occasionally. In the light of the above Tugbiyele (2001) explain further to buttress this important desertion that, there is need for co-operation between the parent and all other agencies that would help in the development of education of the child while the parent are paramount. The importance of the home background on the educational pursuance of a child cannot be emphasized. Thus home background according to Crowder (1995) is described as the details that explain something of one’s family and up bringing Durojaiye (1976) contended that is a term of great importance in educational progress and its influence begins early. Thus as there is unstable marital problem from home for instance, a child is born and to be brought up where conducive home background and environment can be established for a children training, socialized upbringing and to be educated. This is due to the facts that the task of training the children so as to enable him become useful to himself and to the member of the society is enormous as both the parent and the member of his immediate circle have to make a concerted effort towards the training and upbringing of the child. Thus Omolola (2000) explained further that “the challenge of parenting is serious and highly involving. It requires mental and spiritual strength for him to be successfully, parent supposed to be resolute focused and determined”. The prevailing circumstance that surrounds a child in his home then will not give room for a parent to stand and join hand as one body in training and educating a child in secondary school as there unstable marital problem in the home a child was born and to be nature to growth. The research study carried out indicate that the interest of student may have schooling especially at the secondary school level depends on the value the parent attach to education and orientation given to a child right from his tender age about importance of education. Hence a common adage says that charity begins at home. Helen and Onasanyan (1999) states further that the home also prepares children for school but it depends on the orientation given to them. This in prepare for life in school. The family is said to be basic unit of the society. Ejikeme (1993) what goes right or wrong in the family affect the large society in a very significant way. The learning theory Brehn and Kassin (1994:355) holds that behavior is learn through observation of other as well as through the direct experience of reward And punishment. The orientation given to the student’s right from onset and importance attach to education by parents to determine whether a child will develop a positive or negative attitude towards attending secondary school where by a child will be regular, punctual and concentrate in the study of his assignment and home work and at the end, reap the benefit of his effort in education. In relation to this sharrock (1970) explain that parent relationship with their children during their secondary school years, parent attitudes to schooling and general set values at home during period all influence their children ability to profit from their education. Hence there is instability and disintegration in an established family in a matrimonial home as a result of dissolution of marriage between difficult for a parent to carry out this noble duty full in training and educating the children as expected as both couple has separated compare to the time if the two would have been together in marital home. Thus Obediah (1959) explained further that “the children may not have adequate attention may lack discipline and may not be able to profit properly from secondary education which may even develop negative attitude towards education which may even affect their performances and may become school dropout. The children from the broken homes as a result of unstable marital home may become a problem to themselves as they may not be able to profit properly from secondary education and they may letter constitute a problem to the society. Because they lack back the quality which promotes harmonious living in the society. They may become indiscipline hooligans, juvenile delinquent and what is popularly known today as “Area Boys”.
This chapter concern with the method and procedure followed by the researcher for collecting data facts and information that cover this research study. This method and procedure is sub-divided into following heading.
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Historical Background
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Instrument Validity and reliability
3.7 Administration of instrument.
3.8 Method of data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
This section deals with the techniques and procedure applied that enable the researcher to obtain data fact and information necessary to help the researcher in carrying out the research study successfully.
This study is indeed a survey kind of research. It is specifically a combination of public opinion survey and across sectional studies. It is believed that data collected could be successfully used in the analysis of the hypothesis.
3.2 The Historical Background of Bida
The ancient town of Bida is located on the latitude 90:06N and latitude 60:01 on the Nupe Sand Stone formation. It is located 19km south east of Minna the Niger State Capital. The town is situated in valley created by erosion and I lanzu stream, one of the tributaries of Gbako River.
The present day Bida come into existence in the 16th century and supports a population of about two million people. And above all Bida is the traditional headquarter of Nupe Kingdom all the world. The first setter were believed to be decedents of Uggha Nafili who were said to have migrated from North-East African through Nabia and from there to the Nupe land during the period of Sahara trade. The first effective Nupe dynastic was founded by Mallam dendo a learned Fulani court adviser who rose to prominence and power after deposing Majiya the then Etsu Nupe at Raba who rutted from 1767-1777. At the death of Mallam Deando in 1832 his eldest son called Usman Zaki become the first Etsu-Nupe i.e Emir in Bida and was succeeded by Estu Masaba in 1859 and resigned for fifteen years. In 1837, Umaru Majigi become the third Etsu-Nupe and resigned for in 1884 when he finally left for the world beyond. After his death Abdul-Malik succeeded him immediately and resigned for eleven years (1884-1895). The fifth Etsu-Nupe was called Abubakar and his tenure saw crisis because of the coming of the British men through the River Niger. He resigned from the year 1895-1901 when he was finally sent to exile by the missionaries because of his uncompromising attitude towards the white men. Abubakar was immediately succeeded by Muhammad Makun who was the eldest son of late Etsu Umaru Majigi the third Etsu. In 1935, bida had its ninth Emir under the leadership Muhammad Ndayako and his regime was said to be the most successful because it brought about social and educational development. He died 1962 may his soul rest in perfect peace. The tenth Emir of Bida was Usman Sarki appointed to the throne in late 1962, the period between his appointment and the death of his predecessor witnessed a state of emergency. Usman Sarki was then immediately deposed by the people and King makers of Bida Emirate as a result of political instabilities during his tenure. He was immediately succeeded by Mallam Musa Bello as the eleventh Emir, of Bida. He died in January 1975. The year 1975 was the appointment of the 12th Etsu Nupe Alhaji (Dr.) Umar Sanda Ndayako and led on 2003. The 3th Etsu Nupe was then appointed he is Alhaji Yahaya Abubakar who is equally the incumbent Etsu-Nupe. The indigenes of Bida are mostly muslim but still very much accommodate people of other different religions sets. Although we had initially stated that this inhabitants are Nupe, large number of other, ethnic groups of Nigeria are found and some few foreigner from both African and non-Africa countries could be seen on serious note, Bida people are industrious, law abiding citizens and also very religious. There are quite a borne water. National, electricity, telephone services, post office, commercial banks, radio stations, National Television Authority, there three institutions of higher learning in Bida namely Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State Polytechnic, Bida Campus and School of Nursing Bida. Moreover, there are more than ten public secondary schools and many private secondary schools in Bida town. There are also recreational homes, gardens, clubs, parks and many others for people of all ethnic and religious groups.
3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY
The population of study as used in this research study comprises the inhabitants, natives, indigenes and residential that spread across the street avenues and residential quarters within the Suleja Local Government area of Niger State. infact, there are many streets avenues residential street that spread over the local government area. The populations in the research study also include the males and females which form the home that constitute the background of the students in various secondary schools. The population of the study in the area of the research study that is Suleja Local Government area.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
In the process of collecting data the researcher selected (4) avenues streets and residential quarters as the sample of the study, simple random, sampling is to be used in selecting. The areas avenues street and residential quarters.
Thus nine of such areas were arranged in numbers and odd numbers i.e 1,2,5 and 7 were selected for the study. In the process the total of our four hundred (400) respondents i.e one hundred fron each of the areas is used, thus out of the sample population two hundred (200) are males and the remaining two hundred (200) are females who are the respondents which is favourable enough to give a normal expected distribution.
There are also many secondary schools that are both public and private secondary school that spread scross the local government area. A total of four (4) secondary schools were used as a sample for the research study.
Simple random sampling was at the same time used in selecting the secondary schools in the process nine of such secondary schools were arrange in number and odd numbers 1,2,3,5,and7 were equally used for the study. Thus the total of four hundred (400) respondents i.e one hundred the sample population two hundred (200) are females respectively which is also favourable enough to give a normal acquired distribution.
This indicates the technique and procedure for the data facts and information obtained for an effective measurement.
The method used in collecting data facts and information would be through the use of questionnaire. The questionnaire would be used based on formulation and designing of questions that’s cover the research study to be answered by respondents accordingly.
The questionnaire used is made up of twenty items it contains two section A and B section, “A” is the respondents background information comprising sex and educational status while section ‘B” I s made up of twenty (20) items on the effects of unstable marital home on the women secondary school students performances the respondents are to indicate by ticking of appropriate edam the extents to which statement affects them.
3.6 INSTRUMENT VALIDITY AND REALITY.
The instrument used in this research study, the data and facts collection was through the questionnaire method. The instrument is valid because it measures the educational variables the researcher intended to measure. In addition, the item of question appears to deal with the relevant content as it is related to the research topic. The effects of unstable marital home on the women secondary school student performance. Thus a lot of student was carried out to determine how reliable the instrument is. The test give consisted responses indicating that the instrument is reliable. Thus, also serve as an adequate sample opinion of the respondents from the area selected for the research study on the subject matter. The variable that affects the student in their academic performance in secondary school from various home and families are the same.
This is due to the fact the student’s attitude or bahaviours and seriousness in their academic performances in secondary school depends to the large extension prevailing psychological atmospheric condition of the home such as that of the warmth love, peace and stability among the member of the family. This had made the successfully carried out this research study. The data and facts collected are reliable because the variables from the women secondary schools are the same.
This refers to actual channel or process followed by the researcher to successfully carry out the research study in which data were collected that has helped in the research. The instrument used were addressed and administered on the respondent on the area school selected for the research study, in the process out of twenty (20) questionnaire distributed to parents eighteen (18) were able to be retrieved from them. This give the total percentage of one hundred and eighty (180) from the respondents to the researcher despite the repeated visit to their home within the time stipulated.
On the other hand, out of the total number of four hundred (400) questionnaires distributed to the students in order to give a favourable normal distribution all were retrieved from then within stipulated time.
The response obtained and gathered from the respondents views on the analyzed according to their opinion and views on the subject matters. The result collected was than analyzed.
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS.
This is the process the data and facts obtained and gathered from the respondents according to the subject matter where than analyzed using the percentage for the overall response and problem will be according to the section and their responses are to be arranged serially in accordance with the questions.