MASS MEDIA PROGRAMMING FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ;A STUDY OF SUNRISE DAILY,A TELEVISION MAGAZINE PROGRAMME OF CHANNELS TELEVISION
1.1 Background of Study
Mass Media involves the use of different medium to transmit or disseminate information to the heterogeneous, audience, and these include the using of radio, television, newspaper, magazine, telephone, etc. to transmit message.
Communication has been easier through the help of these media, without these media, message would have been on one sided. New communication technologies have interestingly radically improved the mode of message transmission; they are also attempting to re-defense the concept of Mass Communication. Bittner (1989: 262) says New technology is changing the way we receive and consume. Mass communication is changing to encompass more specialized media.
The various Mass Media of communication are fast becoming the major instrument for promoting development. The impact of the media has been extended by a vast expansion of audiences which has taken place over the last quarter century aided by the “Transistor Revolution”.
Some of the dominant development problems in nation may includes: inadequate level of modern Mass Media facilities, lack of government support to provide finance for the various development programmes, high level of birth rate (rapid increase in population), stagnant economy, etc.
Though the government are doing their best to solve these problems in order to insight the nation on the proper use of the Mass Media.
The Media is important for the development of families, communities, villages etc. The media can change people’s altitude and educate people on new knowledge and behaviour.
According to Bitner (2005), communication is broadly subdivided into three parts mainly interpersonal communication, intrapersonal communication and Mass communication. While the first two are collectively known as human communication, the major concern to this is the latter (mass communication).
Communication performs diverse types of functions such as Social interaction, Business and Trade, exchange of ideas and spread of knowledge, Socio-Political Development, Socio-Cultural Integration, Socio-Economic development.
Stanley Baran defines Mass Communication as the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audience. John Bittner defines mass communication as messages communicated through a mass medium to a large number of people. Cited in Daramola (2003).
The mass media are often the practical means available for transmitting information quickly. The mass media have seemingly won the prestige of being regarded as indispensable vehicle, instrument and apparatuses for expressing the wishes, aspirations, opinion and fears of the people. Unquestionably, people depend, to a very large extent, on the information obtained from media to create images, from opinions and find their way in the midst of baffling statistics in political, social, economic and cultural and other spheres of life. McQuail, D (2000:47)
Concisely, the term mass media simply translates the modern means of giving news, opinion, education, entertainment, and agenda-setting to large number of people, especially through television, radio, newspapers, magazines and films. Joseph Dominick (2009) cited in Onuocha (2012), a medium is the channel through which a message travels from the source to the receiver (“medium” as singular “media” as plural). There are basically eight different mass media: radio, television, film, books newspapers, magazines, sound recording and the internet.
According to Wikipedia, Television is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black-and-white) or in color and in two or three dimensions and sound. It refers to a television set, a programme (“TV show”) or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for entertainment, education, news and advertising. The uniqueness of television is its ability to present audio, text and video at the same time. This uniqueness makes it standout above radio, newspapers and magazines.
The world of television is interesting as well as amazing – it is a medium with a double power of audio and visual. It is a medium that can be used to educate and enlighten people, and advertise products. The medium can also be used in bringing information on the environment, political, economic and cultural heritage to its audience. (Esiri and Onwubere 2014).