Media Influence On The Lifestyle Of Youths In Nigeria. A Study Of Private University And Federal University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1
Background to the study 2
Statement of the problem 3
Goal and objectives of the study 4
Research questions… 5
Justification of the study 6
Scope of the study 7
Limitations of the study 7
CHAPTER TWO 8
LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.0 Introduction 8
Literature review 8
History of new media 17
Interactivity and the new media 17
Social media and the youth 18
Use of social media 20
About social media sites… 21
Social network sites can enhance learning and safety 22
Enhanced connectedness Enables Affirmation of self 22
Concerns raised include: 23
Implications of Socially Interactive Technologies for Schools… 25
Use for Enhancing Learning and Psychosocial Development 25
2.7.6 Challenges for Schools to Meet 27
Theoretical framework 27
The Uses and Gratification Theory 27
Hypodermic Needle Model 31
Technological determinism theory 33
Limited effects theory 34
Relevance of the theories to the study 36
The future of social media 36
CHAPTER THREE 38
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 38
Research Method 38
Research Design 39
Rationale for Choice of Methodology 40
Target Population 40
Sampling Size and Techniques 41
Data Collection Tools and Procedures 42
Data Analysis and Presentation 42
Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments 43
: Validity 43
: Reliability 43
Ethical Issues 44
CHAPTER FOUR 45
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 45
Response rate 45
Respondents and University Profile 46
Names of the Universities 46
Gender Distribution 47
Level of study of the Respondents 47
Course respondents were taking in the university 48
4.3.7 Age bracket of the respondents 50
RQ1:How do the youth in Nigerian private and federal university use social media in their daily lives? 50
Hours spent on the computer by the respondents 50
The most common activity when the respondents is using a computer 51
The respondent most common social media 52
Place the respondents had computer access 52
Reliability analysis on the first objective, how the youth in Nigerian private and federal university use social media in their daily lives 53
Statements expressing opinions of the respondents about social media 54
RQ2: Do the youth in Nigerian private and federal university prefer social media as a means of communication as opposed to traditional methods? 57
Reliability test on objective two of the study 57
Benefits of social media 57
RQ3: What are the impacts of social media on the behavior change of youths in Nigerian private and federal university ? 60
: Effects of Social media 60
Other effects social media has had on the respondents‘ behavior… 61
RQ4: What are the risks that come with use of social media among the youths in Nigerian private and federal university .63
Risks Involved in Social Media 63
Other risks that are brought about by social media 64
CHAPTER FIVE 67
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 67
5.1 Introduction 67
5.1 Summary of the study 67
Major findings of the study 68
Conclusion of the study 69
Major recommendations from the study 70
Suggestions for further research 71
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
This research examines Media Influence On The Lifestyle Of Youths In Nigeria. A Study Of Private University And Federal University in Nigeria. Today, messages can reach audiences and target groups in real time and they can generate changes and tendencies. Crowds are becoming more powerful through technology, because technology has the ability to unite them.
According to Susan Greenfield, an Oxford University researcher in her article The Quest For Identity In The 21st Century, on Daily Mail UK 14th September, 2010, as growing numbers of people discover the potential of the World Wide Web and as they become active parts of it and as technology becomes even more advanced, expanded, accessible and sophisticated, current forms of communication will transform, taking advantage of the crowd sourcing phenomenon.
This research will find out what these social media are. What are their use in the lives of the University students and their implications on their behavior. New information Technology (IT) is almost everywhere and has dramatically altered the way we live. These tools have become valued elements of life in Nigerian private and federal university merely because they opened many doors to youth and allowed them to interact freely and markedly unlike at any other time in history. In Nigerian private and federal university , college and university campuses have been hit by new generations of youth coming from high schools with quite a decent knowledge about information technology and how to use its tools, especially cellular phones and computers. While any technology can be put to good or bad use, depending on the user, many parents have bought their children cellular phones and PCs so they may use them appropriately and effectively, mainly for learning purposes as well as knowing where they are at any time and come to their help if they need it.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The speed of Internet has changed the way people receive the information. It combines the immediacy of broadcast with the in-depth coverage of newspapers making it perfect sources for news and weather information. Even with the multimedia excitement of the web, Electronic mail (email) is the most frequently used application of the Internet. Many people, who have access to the Internet at school, home and at work place use the Internet for no other purpose than to send and to receive the mail. It‘s not just friends and co-workers that are receiving email. Wherever you look, the web is providing email addresses. This has made communication between the strangers easier than ever. Chatting is one of the more popular activities on the Internet- people can talk to anyone across the world.
Introduction of social media networking sites has facilitated communication. These are web-sites where users can create a profile and connect that profile to others to form an explicit personal network. They are web-based services that allow individuals to:
- Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system
- Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection
- View and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the
The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.
Through social media, people can use networks of online friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends or create real life friendships through similar interests or groups. Besides establishing important social relationships, social media members can share their interests with other likeminded members by joining groups and forums. Some networking can also help members find a job or establish business contacts. Most social media websites also offer additional features. In addition to blogs and forums, members can express themselves by designing their profile page to reflect their personality.
The most popular extra features include music and video sections. The video section can include everything from member generated videos from hundreds of subjects to TV clips and movie trailers (You tube).
It is therefore the aim of this study to establish the impact that these social media has on the young individual‘s behavioral change.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study will try to find out Media Influence On The Lifestyle Of Youths In Nigeria. Technology has many positive aspects but, in the wrong hands, it can become dangerous. For the young people it is experiments to do what they feel is good or exciting to them and the friends and at the same time avoid adult supervision. Livingstone (2008) opines that for teenagers, the online realm may be adopted enthusiastically because it represents ‗their‘ space, visible to the peer group more than to adult surveillance, an exciting yet relatively safe opportunity to conduct the social psychological task of adolescence – to construct, experiment with and present a reflexive project of the self in a social context, as well as, for some, for flouting communicative norms and other risk-taking behaviors.
Technology brought about social media which is a valuable tool but is somewhat misused by today‘s youth. The two main forms that the youth use to access social media are cell phones and the Internet which have brought about major changes in their lifestyle.
With the current exposure and easy access that the youth are able to get out of these mediums, this study will establish the impacts it has have on the youth. Issues that are expected to arise out of this research include exposure to problematic materials, online victimization of youth, exposition to unnecessary online marketing and advertising, exposure to dangerous online behaviours, issues of identity theft, the emergence of digital divide and generation gap between parents and the youth.
According to Ritchel, Matt in an article, ―Growing up Digital, Wired for Distraction.” on The New York Times. 21 Nov. 2010, others include wastage of time, building of shallow and harmful relationships, and, eventually, causing rather than alleviating, users‘ depression, loneliness, social isolation, and withdrawal among others.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The goal of this research is to address the impact and implications of media on the Nigerian youths especially those in private and federal Universities on the way they are using these medium and the consequences of that use on their behaviour.
- To determine how the youth in Nigerian private and federal university use social media in their daily lives
- To determine if the youth in Nigerian private and federal university prefer social media as means of communication as opposed to traditional
- To find out the impacts social media has on behavior changes among the Nigerian private and federal university.
- To determine the risks that comes with use of social media on the Nigerian private and federal university
The following research questions guided the study:
- How do the youth in Nigerian private and federal university use social media in their daily lives?
- Do the youth in Nigerian private and federal university prefer social media as a means of communication as opposed to traditional methods?
- What are the impacts of social media on the behavior change of youths in Nigerian private and federal university ?
- What are the risks that come with use of social media among the youths in Nigerian private and federal university ?
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that the findings of this study will bridge the gap of lack of sufficient information on the effects of social media on the youth and behavior change. The findings of this study may also be useful to the policy makers in various sectors of the government. For instance, in the educational sector curriculum developers will be informed when developing curriculum for the youth. In the health ministry, it will help doctors especially those dealing with counseling of the youth to know which tools to use to effectively communicate to the youth. The results of the study are likely to influence further scholarly research by other researchers who may be interested in this field of knowledge and initiate appropriate mitigation.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study seeks to find out the impacts of social media among the youth on behavior change. While the study recognizes that new interactive technologies have impacts on other age groups outside the youth bracket, and as such this study will limit itself only to the youths in Nigerian private and federal university .
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is limited by time and financial resources and as result the research will have to source for more financial resources and use alternative means. Since few similar studies have been done especially in institutions of higher learning, there is limited empirical literature on the area of impacts of media on behavior change especially in the context of Nigerian private and federal university . Another expected limitation is that the youth might fail to give correct information on the basis of invasion of their privacy. The researcher will explain to them that the study is purely for academic purposes and not motivated by any other interests whatsoever.
The researcher will basically proceed with assumption that she will be able to locate the respondents and that they will be willing to co-operate and give truthful and sincere answers to the items listed in the questionnaires.