Methods Of Teaching History In Junior Secondary Schools
This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study. It also gives the conceptual framework and definition of key terms.
Teaching methods are used to impart knowledge to students they are the means by which the teacher attempts to impart the desired learning or experience (Ndirangu, 2007). The choice of a particular method of teaching by the teacher determined by number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve availability of teaching and learning resources and the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if convectional teaching aids are not available, evaluation and follow-up activities and Individual learner differences (Ndirangu, 2007).
The methods used in teaching vary from one country to another, depending on the information or skills that is being taught and also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the student. Various studies had been conducted concerning teaching methods, for example Asikhia (2010), found that, qualification of teachers and students’ environment factors do not influence students poor performance but teachers’ methods of teaching influence poor academic performance. Furthermore, the methods of teaching are dictated by the medium of instruction for example, where English is used, the method of instruction has to be more interactive than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005). It also argued that classroom teachers urgently need to know more about effective strategies for teaching English learners (Thompson, 2004). The commonly used teaching methods especially in developing countries are teacher centered (Guloba, Wokodola, and Bategeka, 2010), which are viewed to be somewhat ineffective in the impartation of knowledge.
These methods are no longer used in other counties. Problem-life learning as a teaching method is becoming increasing popular in education institutions as a tool to address the inadequacies of tradition teaching methods since its approaches do not encourage student to participate in the learning process (Teo and Wong, 2000). However, more recently there is an argument in education industry to adopt a learner- centered paradigm shift (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought are advocating participatory methods of teaching (Sajjad, 2011).
Despite these arrays of teaching methods being advocated in literature there is no one universally accepted method. The question still remains is which of these teaching methods contribute to failure or success of students’ performance especially in developing countries like Nigeria where the causes of poor performance in secondary schools is not well understood.
Students’ performance in History among Nigeria secondary schools has been poor, and one of the reason cited is the type of methods of learning-teaching used. Education in Nigeria especially in community (ward) secondary schools, the majorities of students have failed or have not shown good performance in the examination results in summative evaluation (Laddunuri 2012). Marikinyo (2003), believes that the falling level of academic performance is attributed to teachers non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Several studies have been conducted about teaching methods in secondary schools in many parts of the world on students’ performance, for example in USA (Haas 2002), Pakistan (Sajjad 2011), Nigeria (Barneka 2012), (Asikhia 2010), Uganda (Guloba, Wokadala and Bategeka, 2010) and Kenya (Njoroge et al., 2014). These studies indicated that the type of teaching methods used by teachers have an impact on students’ performance.
Most of the studies conducted in Nigeria concentrated on factors affecting students performance and policy making rather than how teaching methods influence the Students’ performance example (Laddunuri 2012), (Kkairuki, 2009) and (Kat ram, 2007). Another study by Mruma (2013) examined motivation of teachers in Secondary Schools. None of these studies have specifically examined the effect of teaching methods on student performance. This study bridges the gap and it examined Methods of teaching history in Junior secondary schools Lagos state, Nigeria.
The specific objectives guided this study were as follows;
- To identify teaching methods used in instruction of history in public
Secondary schools in Lagos state.
- To assess students’ perception of the appropriateness of teaching methods used in teaching in public secondary schools in Lagos state.
- To determine the extent to which teaching methods impact on students’ performance in public secondary schools in Lagos state
The study answered the following questions
- What are teaching methods used in science history in public secondary school?
- What are students’ perceptions on the appropriateness of teaching methods use to teach history in public secondary school in Lagos state?
- To what extent teaching methods impact on students’ performance in public secondary schools in Lagos state?
The study is worth of academic research on the following grounds:
First, the study was expected to reveal the impact of teaching methods on students’ performance in secondary schools and contributes to the body of knowledge. Second, the study expected to provide a foundation for future researchers on literature for the topic of effects of teaching methods on student performance in science subject in secondary schools. Third, the study findings expected to beneficial to policy makers especially the Ministry of education and vocational training to put forward policies that would greatly encourage fair distribution of resources in public institutions if better results are to be obtained. Fourth, the findings also expected to benefit teachers of Secondary Schools in Lagos state since it gave the ideas of most suitable teaching methods for use in History. Finally, the findings of this research expected to add the body of knowledge on teaching methods and also basis for future research.
The study was focused on Methods of teaching history in Junior secondary schools. The targeted population was students taking History for at least one year. Two other categories are history teachers and school inspectors. Since teaching methods are so many in numbers the study was only concentrated on 7 of them which are citation, brainstorming, discussion, demonstration, lecture, presentation and seminar.
Teaching methods is defined as a way of carrying actual teaching in the classroom (Ndirangu 2007). Teaching method refers to the variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process (Kimweri 2004). Participatory methods are methods which enable learners to be active involve in the learning process either as individual or group (Musuko 2010). Teacher –centered method of teaching is the process of communication where very little or no room for active participation of learners (Kimweri 2004). Performance is the degree to which individuals achieve job or organization’s goals with effectiveness and efficiency. (Utuoh, and Mowo, 2000).
This party presents literature review which is divided into two parts namely theoretical and empirical literature.
Teaching methods has been defined as in different ways depending on the philosophical situation taken by the researcher as discussed hereunder, Kimweri (2004) teaching method refers to variety ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process. This means the way of organizing the participants and the type of methods to be used will be determined by different factors i.e. number of students, age and the topic to be taught.
The study taking the definition which is teaching methods is the means or strategies employed by the teachers in attempt to impart knowledge to the learners (Asikhia 2010). It also defined as the strategy or plan that that outline the approach that teachers intend to take in order to achieve the desirable objectives (Osokoye, 1996) in ibid this involves the way teachers organize and use technique of subject matter, teaching tools and teaching material to meet teaching objectives.
There are two categories of teaching method namely, teacher-centered method and learner-centered methods of teaching (MIE 2004) Learner-centered instruction refers to the students’ construct their own understanding of content, develop a personal feeling that the knowledge is their own (Jacobson and Kauchak, 2009). Therefore student centeredness implies the heavy emphasis on enquiry and problem-based learning involves on making student as the centre point of learning and group work. Each of this method is discussed in detail below:
(i) Question and answers (citation) method
Question and answers defined as a method both for teaching and oral testing based on the use of questions to be answered by the pupil (Mtunda and Safuli, 1997) in (MIE, 2004) Questioning techniques is one of the basic and successful ways of stimulating students thinking and learning (Ndirangu, 2007) it is applicable to all teaching approaches and methods.