Background to the Study

The inadequate supply of clean drinkable waters and the frequent pollution of existing supplies create very grave health problems for people in developing countries like Nigeria. Water serves as a vehicle for the transmission of diseases like typhoid fever, cholera, rashes, diarrhea, dysentery, Gastro-enteritis etc which have contributed immensely to the stagnation of the economic development of some of these nations (Okoufu et al., 1990).


In Nigeria, several studies have been carried out in urban areas on ground water contamination (Awalla, 2002; Akpabio and Ebong, 2004; Egbulem, 2003; Ahmed, 2003; Adebayo and Bashire, 2002). The uniform findings from these studies is that groundwater is highly contaminated and clinically unsafe for human consumption. With increasing population densities of urban areas and the corresponding increase in demand for social amenities, it has become increasingly difficult to meet all the water requirements in quantity, regularity and quality. The public water supply is generally inadequate and in most cases inaccessible, the supply is intermittent and unreliable thus resulting into high degree of population densities and concentration of socio-economic activities, it has become increasingly difficult to meet all the water requirements.


The public water supply is generally inadequate and in most cases inaccessible, the supply is intermittent and unreliable, thus resulting into high dependency on unsafe supplementary sources such as streams, hand dug wells and ponds (Kakulu and Osibanjo, 1992; Olajire and Imeppeoria, 2001; Nnodu and Ilo, 2002; Owuama and Uzoije, 2005; Ocheri, 2006; Maxwell et al., 2010). Concern over the quality of water harnessed especially from the hand dug wells have received wide attention among researchers (Ovrawah and Hymore, 2001; Ehinola and Coker, 2002; Nnodu and Ilo, 2002; Ogunbadewa, 2002; Omofonmwam and Eseigbe, 2009). Consistent in their findings is that water from hand dug wells are polluted through physical processes, geochemistry of the environment and anthropogenic activities. Consequently consumers of such waters are exposed to series of health risks. This study investigated the bacteriological characteristics of well water in the study area.

Statement of the Problem

Water has been recognized as a potential carrier of diseases and in line with frequent outbreak of typhoid fever, cholera and other water borne diseases; it is pertinent that water be adequately checked and possibly treated particularly well water which is the focus of this work.

Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the Microbial Contamination Of Well Water Within Makurdi Meteropolis

The study made up of the following specific objectives;

  1. To investigate the bacteria commonly present in well water in Makurdi
  2. To find out the extent of microbial contamination in well water in different areas of Makurdi
  3. To identify the source of the microbial contamination of well water within Makurdi Metropolis.

Scope of the Study

The study is limited to Makurdi metropolis.Both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters are considered. The physico-chemical parameters considered are; Turbidity, Potential Hydrogen (pH), Total Dissolved Solid, Iron, Colour, Conductivity, Odour, Chloride, Fluorides and Nitrate while the bacteriological parameters include: Coli- form and Escherichia Coli (E-Coli).

Significance of the Study

The study is significant because it will aid in policy formulation by relevant government agencies and institutions in the formulation of policies regarding water production and distribution in Makurdi metropolis. The study will be of immense importance to members of the public as it can go a long way in enlightening them on the dangers of drinking unsafe and unhygienic water without treatment. The study will act as a guide to scholars and researchers who may wish to carry out research in a similar area especially as regards water quality.