Motivation in Nigerian State Civil Service
The book examined motivation and job satisfaction in Oyo State Civil Service.It also appraised the existing motivating packages for workers in the state and investigate the effect of staff motivation on job performance in the state. This was neccessited by the need to ensure effective job satisfac- tion in Oyo State Civil Service.
The book made use of questionnaire and simple random sampling method was adopted. The book revealed that Oyo civil servants have low job satisfaction,social relationship with co-workers, careers opportunities for promotion and salaries and wages etcThe book concluded that employees be well motivated by provision of amenities like salaries,bonuses and other entitlement which should be promptly paid to enhance their standard of living
1.1 Background to the Study
According to an axiom of management, people are the most important of all the assets of an organizational set up. The motivation of a worker depends on his needs and desires. The key to motivation is the satisfaction of desires. As long as an individual has an unachieved personal goal, he has the force to motivate him, our behavior consciously or unconsciously, is generally motivate distinctive individual behaviour are to a considerable degree subconscious and therefore not easily susceptible to examination and evaluation.
There has been persistent expression of dissatisfaction with the job attitudes and job performance of workers in public sector. This is due to the fact that the job is not attractive to workers. This inadequacy could be traced to the employee’s personal needs, job expectations and or innate states. Employees are usually more productive during a task simply because they want to do it, not because they feel they have to do it. Therefore, it seems evident that people or individuals will be prepared to commit themselves to their job to put in their best effort and loyalty to the job and to work towards the achievement of the organization targets if their goals are met on the job and if they are satisfied with the job. When one is positively motivated, it precipitates positive behavior hence positive performance.
According to Musselman and Hughes (1999) morale affects efficiency of operation. Morale is the result of combination of many complex attitudes, workers personal feelings and biases, their values, economic and cultural environment, degree of security physical health, emotional stability, realization of job expectations and the flow of communication between management and the workers. Many authorities believe that production rates are more sharply influenced by morale of the work force than by any other environmental factor. If employees feel that they are treated fairly well and good working conditions are provided, they are likely to have high morale to do their job.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The civil service is the instrument through which meaningful development in the country is achieved. This is accomplished when the civil servant uses his acquired skills to formulate and execute government policies geared towards development.
However, there is a strong evidence of deterioration about the work standard in the civil service. The behaviours of workers are characterized by such attitudes as laziness, absenteeism, lateness to work, hostility to members of the public; disloyalty and corruption. The expectations of civil servants are not met; hence, there is general laxity and inadequate performance in this sector. It is the general belief of civil servants that their counterparts in the private sector are better off with good standard of living. In view of this, they are not motivated to put in their best. This negative belief has created some problems in the attitude of workers in the civil service which has adversely affected job performance.
1.3 Research Question
in view of the problem raised, this study is therefore designed to seek answers to the following questions in line with the aims of the study
(1) What are the factors affecting job satisfaction among the Civil Servants un Oyo State?
(2) To what extent are the Civil Servant of Oyo State are satisfied with their job?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the research study are to
(i) examine the factor that motivate the workers of Oyo State Civil Service;
(ii) appraise the existing motivating packages for workers in the state ; and
(iii) investigate the effects of staff motivation on job performance in the State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense benefits to decision makers and human resource managers in organization when dealing with human problem such as the menace of low productivity as appropriate policy decisions that affect their personnel would be made.
The importance of workers motivation and job satisfaction should not be ignored by government as they promote the corporate objectives of the organization as well as the individual. This research study would therefore serve as a guide to employers of labour as it would give them the understanding of the workers. The study is also expected to provide additional information research in this area and to government for effective efficient performance in respect of task and allocation of scarce resources for a result oriented state.
1.6 The Scope of Study
Considering the large population of the Oyo State Civil Service, it will be difficult and time consuming to include all the population of civil servants in the state. Therefore, the study focused on six ministries. The Miniseries are office of the Governor, ministry of Works and Transport, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Lands and Housing. The criteria for selecting these ministries are based on the fact that their programmes and activities are geared towards the development of the state and the fact that they provide extensive services to the largest population of the state, hence, their impact is felt throughout the state. In addition, the population of these ministries is expected to be a representative sample of the characteristics of the whole civil service as the population of the selected ministries represents a larger proportion of whole civil service population.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The system of records keeping at Oyo state civil service commission made it difficult to collect and retrieve data necessary for adequate analysis of data collected for the study. The time for the research study is not enough for an extensive work to be done. It was not easy to carry out a comparative study of all the Ministries in Oyo state because of fund. Definition of Terms
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for the purpose of this study
The drive to satisfy a want or achieve an outcome. In this study, what motivates the labour to put up certain action and what comes out of it?
The psychological disposition (attitudes and feelings) of workers towards his job. It refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied as a result of a job factor.
The collective attitude of workers towards one another, towards their employer, the management, or their work.
The enthusiasm and dedication which an individual demonstrates at his job as he gets deeply absorbed in it in a bid to achieve corporate objectives.
Management is a process by which a co-operative group directs the actions of others towards a common goal (objective). In this case, management is used to mean senior management, except otherwise state.
The process whereby employees learn the skill, knowledge, attributes and behaviours necessary to in perform their job effectively.
The general disposition of the management which employees perceive as friendly or hostile, conductive or unconductive and which affect their job behaviour and consequently performance.
A REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
Many employers of labour have come to realize that people are the most important of an organization. They concerned themselves with how the workers would be brought together to work for the fulfillment of the corporate of the organization. According to A. K. Ubeku (1975) “of all the assets of a business organization, people are the most important”. Motivation of workers in an organization is very important as it leads to the development of the individual and improve his job performance. Modern managers in an organization use personnel policy to motivate workers with a view to creating a conducive working situation where workers could attain self-actualization. Motivation creates a sense of success and security in the workers when his/her work is recognized as contributing to the aims and objectives of the organization.
The classical approach to motivation has been the “correct and stick” method. The correct being money and the stick taking the form of physical punishment. The assumption has been that people would work harder and produce more if substantial financial rewards are placed before them or threatened with either dismissal or physical punishment. The classical theorists felt that workers could attain job satisfaction if their productivity and pay are maximized. This was not to be as money could motivate employees to a certain point only.
Managers have also come to realize the importance of job satisfaction to workers. This is due to the facts that a worker who is satisfied with his/her works would put up an enhanced job performance while the reverse be the case for the dissatisfied worker. Thus, the success or failure of any organization is a function of how satisfied its employees are with their work. A well-motivated worker could put up a high job performance because of the satisfaction he derived from his work.
2.2 The concept of motivation and job satisfaction
The word motivation is derived from the Latin word “movere” meaning to move. Motivation is therefore the process of arousing movement. The movement referred to being behavioural movement. Some theorists had asserted that people behaviour is determined by a complex interaction between the unconscious drives and the environment. Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal directed manner.
The term motivation refers to goal directed behaviour. Goal directed behaviour is characterized by the process of selecting and directing certain actions among voluntary activities to achieve goals. Motivation can be defined as the state of an individual perspective which represents the strength of his propensity to exert towards some particular behaviour.
The word Motivation is derived from motives. The definitions of motives are as follows:
Motives are expression of a person’s needs, hence they are personal and internal.
Motives are acquired determinants that regulates the patterns of action and that arouse ore activate behaviour. They are the learned determinant of behaviour.
Finally, Eze (1984) defined motivation as “a psychological process initiated by the emergence of a need in the organism which leads to a goal-directed behaviour/action aimed at satisfying the need”.
Davis (1981) defined job satisfaction as “the favorableness with which employee view their work”. It is an indication of the congruence between the worker’s expectations from his job and the actual rewards offered by the job.
Eze (1984) defined job satisfaction as the “sense of well-being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an individual when he obtains regard, consequent upon his job performance, congruent with or very nearly congruent with his expected equitable reward.
According to Kevin J. Russel, job satisfaction is “a function of the importance attached, by the workers, to the extent to which needs are generally met in the work situation relative to the way in which these workers have ordered their wants and expectations (orientation to work)”.
These definitions stated above have one thing in common: a recognition of the fact that an individual’s expression of job satisfaction is an emotional effective personal response as a result of his estimation of the degree to which some facts of job reality is congruent or incongruent with values. In order therefore to understand or describe an individual’s job satisfaction, one needs to have a good understanding of that individual’s total personality and value system.
Ejiogu (2009) stated that people’s perceptions of their job situation will be directly related to the values which they place on the various aspects of their job and its environment as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
From Wikipedia (2010) job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position.
2.3 The Relationship Between Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
As seen above, motivation is quite different from satisfaction. While motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want of goal, satisfaction rears to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In other words, motivation implied a drive towards an outcome and satisfaction involved outcomes already experienced (Koontz, O’Donnell and Weihrich, 1981). Motivation, therefore, precedes satisfaction.
In most work situation in Nigeria and elsewhere, the same factor affect job performance could also affect job involvement, job satisfaction, job attitude and work motivation.
2.4 The Early Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction
In the early years of industrial revolution and after, profit maximization triggered the industrialists to search for ways and means of motivating workers for higher productivity. They want to make profits as much as possible through increased productivity. According to this view, the way to attract employee to work is to offer them attractive pay and the way to attract employees to work is to offer their attractive pay and the way to increase productivity is to constantly raise salaries. Motivation of workers through non-monetary rewards was never thought of by these early industrialists.
The early industrialist tied motivation to financial reward (increased pay) which would in turn give workers satisfaction.
The early theories on motivation and job satisfaction are as follows:
1. Classical Theory/School
2. Human Relation School
3. Structuralists School
2.4.1. CLASSICAL THEORY/SCHOOL
The development of modern management started about the beginning of this century with the classical school led by Frederick W. Taylor. This classical school preached Scientific Management, which combines the study of physical capabilities of a worker with an economic approach which views man as being driven by the need to earn his livelihood.
The classical school advocated that if material required was closely tied to work efforts, the worker would respond with the maximum performance he is physically capable of doing. Taylor and his followers saw the worker as a functioning appendage to the industrial machine. Following this, the teaching of the classical school had been referred to as the Machine Theory of Organisation. The school assumed that the most efficient organisation would also be the most satisfying one, because it would maximize both productivity and workers’ pay and consequently job satisfaction. However, Taylor never thought off non-monetary regards.
2.4.2. THE HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL
The excesses of the Classical approach came to be modified by the teaching of the human relations School which was heralded in by Professor Elton Mayo and his associates in the Hawthorne experiments. These experiments were carried out at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne works in Chicago, U.S.A. between 1927 and 1932, were aimed at exploring the relationship between physical environment and productivity. The study was especially aimed at finding out the effect of illumination on productivity in the plant. The researcher discovered that when lighting was illuminated step by step over a period of time, production increased correspondingly. On the other hand, when the researchers decided to decrease the illumination in the plant, production continued to rise and did so until the lighting was no longer brighter than moonlight.
The major findings and conclusions of the Hawthorne Experiment are as follows-
(i) The level of production is set by social norms, not by physiological capacities;
(ii) Non-economic rewards and sanctions significantly affect the behaviour of workers and largely limit the effect of economic incentive plans;
(iii) Often, workers do not act or react as individuals but as members of groups;
(iv) The importance of leadership for setting and enforcing group norms and the difference between informal and formal leadership;
(v) The importance of communication, participative decision-making and democratic leadership in an organization.
The Human Relations School assumed that the most satisfying organization would be the most efficient and so the organization structure and work should be related to the social needs of the employees. The rationale of the argument is that if employees are made happy, they will co-operate fully with the organization in their efforts and so increase organisational efficiency and productivity.
Peter Drucker has criticised the views of the human relations school as being too employee centered.
While the Classical and Human Relations Schools differ in their emphasis on either the formal or informal aspects of the organisation respectively, both had failed to see that productivity and workers satisfaction are inherently opposed philosophies. This has been left for the Structural School to sort out. That is the basic contradiction between a company’s quest for relationally and profit and the human search for happiness freedom of action.
The Structuralists see the company organization as a large, complex, social unit in which many social groups interact while these groups have common interests like the economic viability of the organization, they also have some other opposed interests like how the gross profits of the organization are to be distributed. The two groups within the organization whose interests frequently come into conflicts are management and workers, although by no means the only group envisaged by the Structuralists. Essentially, rivalry and conflicts between organizational groups are inevitable and, perhaps, occasionally desirable.
Peoples’ behaviour is motivated by common basic needs. These needs vary in degree with gender, generation, culture, maturity and other life circumstances. If appropriately structured, a person’s job can help meet these needs, which leads to job satisfaction and job performance.
A lot of research has been done in the area of motivation in relation to the area of organizational management. Researchers and authors agree that motivation is very crucial to the issue of job performance but they differ with regard to the things that motivate.
Vroom (1964) sees motivation as a process governing choices made by persons or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity. This implies that motivation propel an individual to prefer one job to another.
Some researchers assumed that variables such as amount of reward are motivational variables that directly influence the strength of incentive motivation. The implication of this is that extrinsic motivation has greater influence on one’s (workers) performance. This seems to be in agreement with Skinners operant conditioning principle which states that “behaviours are governed by their consequences”. This is to say that if the consequence is positive, there will exist a better performance (behaviour) from the worker. In other words, an individual’s willingness to perform and the effort he will be willing to put depend on the reward he will get from the performance of such activity.
There are propounded theories which are sophisticated in nature. Some laying credence to or supporting the above viewpoints and others contradicting them. Some of these theories would be discussed since this review cannot comprehensively discuss all of them.
In addition, the literature review will include motivation, job performance, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Nigeria Civil Service and Oyo State Civil Service.
2.5 Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
The need theory was originally advanced by Abraham Maslow (1938). According to him, people are motivated to satisfy a hierarchy or sequence of needs. He opined that man is a wanting being and what they want depends on what they already have. Maslow recognizes five (5) different needs that motivate individuals to work. These needs are as follows:
2.5.1 Physiological Needs: These are considered to be basic biological functions of the human organisms and the most important of all human needs. They include the need for food, water, air, sleep, sex, rest, cloth and shelter. An individuals who lacks any of all these physiological needs is disturbed in mind. In addition, if these needs are unfulfilled, the higher needs will not be recognized.
2.5.2 Safety Needs: It is only when the individual meets the physiological needs that he tries to focus his attention on the next set of needs in the hierarchy, that is, the safety needs. At this level of the hierarchy, the employee is preoccupied with the safety of his life and property. He is also more concerned with stable situations and the security of his job. The needs for his personal and property, safety, stability and job security, therefore, have high influence on his perception, feelings and behaviour and he becomes restless until he meets them before he moves to the next set of needs in the hierarchy.
2.5.3 The Social Needs: Having satisfied both physiological and safety needs, the man is motivated by the next level, the social needs. Man has a need for people generally and likes to be a member of the group of his choice. Few men are loner’, majority of people have a gregarious instinct and want to form friendships, groups, associations and unions. Man will react vehemently against any obstacle to the formation of groups, associations and friendships. In the same way, anything which governs the structure of man’s association once formed, will be opposed. In other words, individuals tend to identify with group objectives and anything which appears to threaten these objectives will meet with strong resistance. Thus, the need to belong to groups and be loved by the group members and the management or supervisors or managers is a very powerful force in the individual worker.
2.5.4 The Self-Esteem Needs: Everyman has a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, usually high evaluation of himself for self-respect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others. We like our status, we enjoy the reputation for ability and we also like our achievements to be recognized. When egoistic needs are met, the result is a strong, capable self-confident person. Contrarily, thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, weakness and helpless. These feelings in turn give rise to either basic discouragement or neurotic trends.