Nutrient and anti nutrient analysis of Veronia cinerea
Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae), commonly known as purple fleabane, ash-coloured fleabane and Sahadevi , is used for the treatment of inflammation , diarrhoea, cough, smoking cessation ,, asthma , Parkinson’s disease  and leprosy . The plant also has immunmodulatory  and nephroprotective  actions. The leaves are useful in the treatment of conjunctivitis and tumours , whereas the seeds are useful in alleviation of worm infestation, psoriasis and leucoderma. The roots are used as an antipyretic . V. cinerea contains vernolide-A and vernolide-B (two novel sesquiterpene lactones) ; β-amyrin, lupeol and their acetates; and β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, α-spinasterol and phenolic resin in the whole plant . In addition, the leaves contain urticifolene (new polyene), lutein (carotenoid) and sitosterol (triterpenoid) ,. The stem, bark and leaves contain lupeol, 12-oleanen-3-ol-3β-acetate and stigmasterol ,. The roots contain δ-amyrin acetate, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin and α-amyrin . The anti-inflammatory potential of alcoholic extract of V. cinerea flower was studied by adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats . The methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaf showed potent anti-inflammatory activity when studied in acute (carrageenan-induced, histamine-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw oedema) and a chronic model (cotton pouch-induced granuloma) . The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of various extracts of V. cinerea leaf in methanol, chloroform and ether have been proven . The antibacterial potential of leaf extracts ,, and flower extracts of V. cinerea has been explored . The current literature indicates that pharmacognostic parameters have not been established for V. cinerea, and that antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities have not been explored for the stem. This study aimed to establish pharmacognostical parameters and to explore the antibacterial action of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of stem of V. cinerea. Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-80) was used as the test bacteria for screening of the antibacterial activity of prepared extracts of V. cinerea and ciprofloxacin was used as a standard antibacterial drug. The anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous, ethanolic, hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of the stem of V. cinerea was studied by carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and diclofenac sodium as a positive control.