TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 5
Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 6
Operational Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A conceptual Review 8
Concept of Motivation 8 (a) Types of Motivation 9
(b) The Motivation process 10
(c) General Principles of Motivation 11
Concept of Motivational variables 12
Regular promotion 14
Enhanced remuneration 16
Job Enrichment 18
Training and development 21
Concept of Job satisfaction 24
Factors affecting job satisfaction 26
Motivational variables and job satisfaction 27
(B) Review of Related theories 28
Needs based theory of motivation 30
(C) Review of Relevant Empirical Studies 32
(D) Summary of Review Literature 35
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 37
Area of Study 37
Population for the Study 38
Sample and Sampling Technique 39
Instrument for Data Collection 39
Validity of Instrument 39
Reliability of the instrument 39
Ethical Consideration 40
Procedure for data collection 40
Methods of Data Analysis 40
CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
Demographic Characteristics of Respondents 41
Summary of findings 59
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Discussion of major findings 62
Implications of the findings 68
Limitations of the study 69
Suggestions for further studies 70
APPENDIX I 78
This study investigated the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Akwa Ibom State. The objectives of the study were to: (i) Determine the relationship between staff recognition and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State. (ii) Determine the relationship between promotion and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State. (iii) Ascertain how salary influences job satisfaction has perceive by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State. (iv)Ascertain how the level of job enrichment influences job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State (v). Determine how training and development impact on the level job satisfaction as perceives by Nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State and (vi) Determine if nurse and midwife educators perceived job satisfaction in their place of work. A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted for the study. No sampling was adopted, all nurse and midwife educators in schools of Nursing and Midwifery, Akwa Ibom State consisting of one hundred and sixty (160) subjects were studied. A researcher–constructed instrument “Motivational Variables and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MVAJSQ)” containing 53 items in two sections was used for data collection and was pretested using split half reliability with Pearson Product Moment Correlation which yielded r = 0.75. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistical procedure: mean, standard deviation and mean of means was 2.50. Hypothesis tested with Pearson Product Moment correlation probability value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The survey result revealed that nurse and midwife educators perceived recognition and promotion in their places of work, they were not enriched in their job placement and poorly perceived salary grade level, they were not satisfied with their job so the nurse and midwife educators should be made more attractive through the implementation of the special and enhanced salary structure to educators.
Background to the Study
Motivation is that energizing force that induces or compels and maintains behavior Nwachukwu, (2011). Human behavior is motivated and goal directed. The success of any motivational effort depends on the extent to which the motivator meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is a basic psychological process, and motivational factors show the competitiveness in the institution naturally along with perception, personality, attitudes and learning. Motivation is an important element of behavior (Ebrahim, &Wachtel, 2010). Shaffer and Shoben ( 2011) defined motivation as a socially learnt behavioral pattern involving need, desire, recognitions, rewards mechanisms and end results. Motivation is very important in a workplace as it may lead to employee satisfaction.Nurse and Midwife educators are employees in nursing educational institutions, and like other employees in other work organizations, they desireto be motivated through various means.
Motivational variables and job satisfaction are very essential in the lives of employees because they constitute some of the fundamental reasons for working in life.A motivational variable is a factor that exerts a driving force on actions and work output of employers in work situations and contribute to employee’s job satisfaction.Moreover, employees are the key drivers of prosperity and success of any institution or organization. Unless and until the institutions or work organizations recognize the effort and contributions of their employees and reward them accordingly, they will not be able to conquer the highest level of motivation and job satisfaction of the employees(Agbaragba,2010).
Motivational variables are those factors which when put in place act like a driving force that propels an employee to work to achieve a set goal for the organization. Motivational variables include such factors as recognition, promotion, remuneration, job enrichment, staff – training and development. Reward and recognition are advantageous to the employees in a way that it injects self-confidence (Khan, 2011). An employee looks forward to the day he will earn a promotion. Regular promotion is a reward for past performance and encouragement to help an employee to continue to excel. It is a vote of confidence and the employee who is denied promotion for a long time gets frustrated. How an employee perceives an opportunity for promotion influences job satisfaction.
Remuneration is another important motivational variable. Regular and good salary is a motivator of behavior. There are people who have to work in order to maintain a large family .If an individual works hard but does not receive what he considers as adequate remuneration for the effort expended, he could be dissatisfied (Nwachukwu, 2011).
Job enrichment contributes a lot to job satisfaction. It is believed that the nature of job or work in the present job is one of the factors that influence job satisfaction. Management can motivate employees by designing jobs so as to satisfy motivational needs. Any job that robs employees of their needs for achievement, recognition, acceptance and self-fulfillment will tend to dissatisfy them (Nwachukwu, 2011). Management should find out if the job is fascinating, routine, satisfying, boring, pleasant, tiresome, challenging or frustrating. Whether an employee works hard or not, derives satisfaction from the job or not is influenced by the way he perceives the work he is assigned to perform (Akpan, 2011). Training and development is an important factor in fostering personal and academic development of the employee. Training is an important motivator and training of employee brings about personal and enhanced development. If employees are trained, their level of education will be updated and there will be increase in skills. When employees are motivated through recognition, regular promotion, remuneration, job enrichment, training and development, it is likely that job dissatisfaction will be eliminated (Van-Knippenberg,2010).Motivation within an organization remains high if a worker perceives that there are opportunities for personal development or professional advancement, if he feels capable of completing tasks correctly and is involved with various organizational decision-making and goal-setting processes.
Irrespective of the relationship which may exist between motivational variables and job satisfaction different individual or groups may perceive it from different perspectives. Perception is the ability to see, hear or become aware of something through senses. It is the way in which something is regarded understood or interpreted. Nzuve and Nduta 2014 opines that perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Motivation can be reduced if the worker perceives a lack of opportunity for growth, a lack of involvement or a lack of opportunities to demonstrate any creativity.Motivating employees to complete their work correctly and on time is one of the major tasks of management. Changing an employee’s perception of his place within a company is sometimes an effective way of improving organizational behavior constructively. Employees who perceive that they have a greater control over their work lives will likely be more motivated to excel within the organizational structure.(Kalisch, Lee &Rochman 2010).
Job satisfaction is the ability of the job to meet employee’s needs and improve their job performance. Job satisfaction is another important variable in an employee’s expectation from work place, Mitchell and Lasan (2011) described job satisfaction as the most important and frequently studied attitude in the field of institutional behavior. It is so important that its absence often leads to poor performance and reduced institutional commitment, and lack of job satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Alexander, Lichtenstein &Hallnan 2011: Jamal, 2011). Sometimes employees may quit their jobs from public to private sector and vice versa due to lack of promotion and late payment of salaries (Akpan, 20011). So job satisfaction can be motivated by the availability of recognition, promotion opportunities, pay satisfaction, job enrichment, training and development (Bolarin, 2011, Gemen, Xhenandex, Kasier, Paradisand Robinson, 2011). This study set out to investigate the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of Nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Statement of the Problem
Motivation and job satisfaction are very essential to the institution/work organization and to the individual employee because they form the fundamental reason for working in life (Dweck, 2010).Job satisfaction is the whole matrix of job factor that makes a person like his work situation and be willing to head for it without distaste at the beginning of his day work (Srinivanan and Ambedkar2015).It is the extent to which employees enjoy their work, by means of satisfiable motivational variables. Job satisfaction is supposed to be an essential element for the maintenance of the workforce of any organization. Ahigh level of job satisfaction is supported to engender quality service delivery and reduce staff turnover in any organization including educational institutions.
Unfortunately, nurse and midwife educators are not in agreement in their perception of how the level of job satisfaction is influenced by motivational variables such as recognition, promotion experience, remuneration, job enrichment and training. It is important that correct relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction be determined because research findings has showed that the job satisfaction of employees in general and more specifically nursing staff is on the decline worldwide (Rasa, Akhtar, Husnain and Akhar 2015). The researcher observed that in Akwa Ibom State these days, many employees are changing work and many have left to other countries in search of greener pastures. This seems to mostly affect the nursing educational institutions as many educators are not performing effectively in their teaching environment, are late to classes, even sometimes absent themselves from classes. Some engage themselves in commercial activities and as such move from one office to another.
The foregoing problem stimulated the interest to investigate the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife Educators, in Akwa Ibom State. In addition there are few or no literature on this topic in Akwa Ibom State. This study will therefore form a baseline study and contributes to fill in the gap in knowledge. The above identified problems necessitated the desire to carry out this research on the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived bynurse and midwife educators in Schools of Nursing and Midwifery of Akwa Ibom State.
However, the specific objectives are to;
(1) Determine the relationship between staff recognition and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State.
(2) Determine the relationship between promotion and job satisfaction asx perceive by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State.
(3) Ascertain how salary influences job satisfaction has perceived by nurse and midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State.
(4) Ascertain how the level of job enrichment influences job satisfaction as perceived by Nurse and Midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State.
(5) Determine how training impact on the level of job satisfaction as perceived by Nurse and Midwife educators in Akwa Ibom State.
(6) To determine if nurse and midwife educators perceived job satisfaction in their place of work.
The following research questions were formulated in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These are:
(1) How do nurse and midwife educators perceived the relationship between staff recognition and job satisfaction in schools of nursing and midwifery of Akwa Ibom State?
(2) How do nurse and midwife educators perceived the relationship between staff promotion and job satisfaction in schools of nursing and midwifery of Akwa Ibom State?
(3) To what extent does remuneration influence job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery of Akwa Ibom State?
(4) How does nurse and midwife perceived the influence of job enrichment and job satisfaction e in schools of nursing and midwifery of Akwa Ibom State?
(5) To what extent does training and development enhance job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery of Akwa Ibom State?
The following research hypotheses stated in their null form were formulated to guide the objective of the study. They are
Ho1: There will be no significant relationship between recognition and job satisfaction as perceive by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery Akwa Ibom State
Ho2: There will be no significant relationship between promotion experience and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Ho3: There will be no significant relationship between remuneration and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Ho4: There will be no significant relationship between job enrichment and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Ho5: There will be no significant relationship between training and development and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State.
Significance of Study
The findings of this study will be significant in diverse ways. Academically, it will form baseline knowledge about motivation and job satisfaction and will be a source of literature for other related studies in nursing literature.
The study, apart from providing a baseline information through research, it will be of help to the management of Akwa Ibom State, Ministry of Health to know how best to motivate educators to stimulate them to action, commitment and to achieve a desired task as motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, sustains behavior and performance. The study will also be useful to the Akwa Ibom State government to formulate policies relating to motivation, to achieve high level of job satisfaction among nurse and midwife educators in its schools of nursing and midwifery.
The study had the potential to show if educator’s motivation and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative outcomes such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced. Students will stand to benefit from the outcome of this research study as the students nurses will imbibe the culture of hard work and academic discipline to become future excellent educators. To the institution it will change the performance positively.It is also expected that findings from the study will be useful in creating awareness on the types of motivational variables that are influential to job satisfaction and how they can be utilized to achieve derived results. In a nut shell, all impediments leading to motivation and job satisfaction will be brought to the fore with a view to solving them for effective teaching and learning and for the laying of a solid foundation for the future educational emancipation of the nation’s future nurse and midwife educators.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study was limited to the relationship between motivational variables and job satisfaction as perceived by nurse and midwife educators in schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State and was carried out in all the schools of nursing and midwifery in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria and it was limited to studying the various motivational variables and job satisfaction. The focus was on investigating the level of relationship between motivational variables such as recognition, promotion, remuneration, job enrichment, training and development and job satisfaction as perceived by educators. Reason for the choice of the research study was that no study has been done in this study area.
Motivational variables: Motivation itself is a concept which tells of an inner drive to propel an individual towards a direction – usually, goal attainment. Motivational variables in this study refer to recognition, promotion, remuneration, job enrichment, training and development as measured by the motivational variables questionnaire.
Recognition: A situation where a nurse or midwife educator is noted for an achievement and is adequately commended
Promotion: when a nurse or midwife educator is taken from one level of the cadre to another in an upward or forward direction as and when due.
Remuneration: This is a reward, mostly money that is given to a nurse or midwife educator for the work he/she has done.
Job Enrichment: This is a situation where an educator is given much responsibilities such that the work he/she does is more than what it was before
Training and development: Training entails giving a chance to an education to learn of something new, while development is a programme designed to advance the educator’s knowledge in a field he has already had knowledge in.