PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS IN KANO STATE SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SCHOOL BOARD
1.1 Background to the study
Technical education programme in Nigeria evolved in response to technological an industrial needs of the people. It has received the backing of the National Policy on Education (NPE 1977 revised in 1981). The fields of science, Technology and Engineering have got much to offer in the area of economic development and provision of modern conveniences to mankind. This is why governments, institutions and managements emphasize the need for practically oriented technical education curriculum and the need also to provide effective teaching of technical subjects in Nigerian colleges (Nkeweke 2007).
For anybody to assume the duty of serving as a technical teacher, such a person is expected to possess the needed competencies for imparting technical knowledge and skills, especially now that the emphasis is on competency-based learning (Davies 2001) Today, efforts are geared towards retrieving Nigeria from the shackles of technological dependence This is why the Nigerian youths are encouraged to be creative and inventive oriented through participation in introductory technology, technical education and engineering studies (Wokocha 1985).
Technical teachers have to provide quality technological training that keeps pace with quality control in technology education This means that the technical teachers have to plan their lessons based on good instructional objectives as well as see the learners through practically. Furthermore. the benefits of technology cannot be over-emphasized Whereas science produces knowledge, technology produces gadgets. Technology applies scientific knowledge in providing solutions to practical problems that plague and puzzle mankind. Technology is the capacity to ensure that human needs are supplied through the utilization of tools and machinery In other words, mankind put in labour so as to come out with inventions and discoveries to satisfy his needs, This explains why people undertake farming work to obtain food, build houses to obtain shelter, weave and produce clothes to wear against adverse weather- conditions Mankind also works to discover electricity, pipe-borne water, and many other modern conveniences (Nathaniel 2002).
Despite this usefulness of technical education, vocational and technical education in Nigeria are bedeviled with certain constraints (Aghenta 1985) Technical education contends with training that borders on acquisition of knowledge and skills in woodworks metalwork, electrical/electronics, welding and fabrication, building, auto-mechanics etc including workshop organization and management There are five technical institutions in Nigeria outside the universities namely- pre-vocational and vocational schools at post primary level: the technical colleges, the polytechnics and the colleges of education (technical) at the post secondary level established to provide a base for technological take off of this country, which according to Ekpenyong (1995) are being crippled by lack of funds and inadequate infrastructures. There is doubt also if the technical college teachers are adequately motivate to do their Jobs as facilitators of knowledge.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Government has adopted education to effect changes in the society. In the National policy on education (2004) states that education can be used as a tool for those changes, but today the reverse is the case. The current problem militating against the education objective in Nigeria is the problem of funding. In most schools, materials for teaching and learning are not available; where there are insufficient learning environment in our school is characterized as mortally blighting, dilapidated and acute under funding of consumable materials and replacement of worn out tools and equipments which most schools are experiencing. This is so devastating that virtually practical work is out of the question (Nwachukwu, 1994) and as a result the product of the system is half baked.
Another problem is that Nigerians have accorded vocational and technical education lower status. (Fafunwa 1974) it has contributed greatly to poor technological transfer, Lack of creativity and respect for wealth without adequate labour are also contributing factors, unlike what happens in developed countries where dignity for labour and creativity is highly respected.
More so, the problem of over population of the schools with students, the increase intakes of students enrolment of children in the school has created problem for career guidance and counselling in the school system. It becomes almost impossible for the school teacher or principal to attend to large number of student enrolment in the school. These have affected education for skill acquisition in Nigeria education system.
Finally, the problem of poor policy implementation at all levels of education in Nigeria. The educational policies laid down have never been strictly adhered to because those involve in the planning are not professional teachers.
1.3 Research Questions
To guide the scope of this study the following questions have been formulated.
- To what extent are TVE learners exposed to learning contents that are applicable for indigenous survival?
- What impart did the colonial era have on technical education programme?
- What are the effects of poor facilities/lack of appropriate textbook on technical education?
- What is the position of teachers in technical and vocational education?
- Would teachers and students of TVE programme perceive teaching and learning resources to be of both local relevance and future usefulness towards building a sustainable society?
1.4 Purpose of the study
The study is aimed at finding out the problems and prospects of teachers in Kano state science and technical schools board.
Specifically, the study intends to bring out the prospect in teaching technical education for there to be development in the Kano state and remove idleness and crime among young school graduates, to examine the various fields in vocational education that can be taught like the field of Agriculture, home economics, business, technical, trade and industry and health related fields. The schools as presently constituted do not meet or have the basic teaching aids to meet the needs of secondary school students. To examine the growing need on the part of the young graduate (secondary school leaver) population for general and specialized education in addition to specific courses geared to enhance employability. The primary objective of this study is to look at the prospect of vocational education providing trained manpower in the applied science technology and business particularly as craft advanced craft and technical level.
Secondly, in providing the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agriculture, commercial and economic development. Thirdly, making known that vocational education gives training and impart the necessary skills to individual who shall be self-reliant economically. Thereby developing the local government area and removing joblessness and idol youths from the street. The secondary school leaver becomes an asset to himself/herself and the society.
Poverty will be eliminated and parents will be liberated from financial burdens. The secondary objective is to highlight and proffer solution (recommendation) to issues raised.
- Infrastructural facilities should be adequate in all secondary schools.
- Education industry should be well funded and vocational education should be given lion share.
- Nigerians should be enlightened on the importance of skills acquisition.
- Nigerians should have positive attitude to work and youths should be given freedom in career choice.
- Special allowances should be giving to vocational education teachers.
- Funds allocated to education should be monitored to prevent fraud.
- Regular in-service training should be given to vocational education teacher and allowance should be paid to them at the end of the programme.
- Every secondary school must have guidance counsellors.
- Vocational education be re-titled
1.5 Significance of the study
Education for improvement has to be person-centre, problem oriented and community centred and planned in the light of the social changes in our nation/society and problems of our world today. These social and world situations are related to environment, population explosion, inflation, poverty and unemployment, health and dietary problems, crime and drug abuse, child and spouse abuse, teenage pregnancy, the threat of war etc. (Fleck 1980). Vocational education should be adapted to solve the many problems of living and the many variations of family life styles.
The technical education of youths is considered by many to be a process rather than a programme – a process that helps the individual to develop social, economic and occupational competence. It may be carried out in institutions, on the job, in formal or informal situations. The activities planned for the training process may be distinguished as programmes. Hence the education received may either be preparatory or supplementary.
1.6 Scope of study
Considering the fact that all secondary school use the some curriculum with the same minimum standard, under the management and control of post primary education board, the study focus was on Kano state science and technical schools board.