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NEWSPAPERS COVERAGE OF ENDSARS PROTEST IN NIGERIA. A STUDY OF SELECTED NEWSPAPERS

NEWSPAPERS COVERAGE OF ENDSARS PROTEST IN NIGERIA. A STUDY OF SELECTED NEWSPAPERS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The capacity of the mass media to create awareness on any issue in modern society has come to be recognized. Society, therefore, depends mostly on the mass media for its information and communication needs. The functions of the media in the society have been identified as surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of society in responding to the environment, transmission of social heritage from one generation to the next and providing entertainment (Wright 1959:9).

According to Wright, “surveillance refers to the collection and distribution of information concerning events in the environment both outside and within any particular society”. This  is the news function of the mass media. Correlation includes “interpretation of information about the environment and prescription for conduct in reaction to these events. This is the editorial or opinion function of the media. Transmission of social heritage according to Wright “focuses on the communicating of knowledge, values, and social norms from one generation to another or from members of a group to newcomers”. This is the education function. Entertainment includes “communicative acts primarily intended for amusement, irrespective of any instrumental effect they might have” (Wright 1959:9).

An understanding of these functions and their discrete nature is needed by advocacy practitioners and academics to understand how the media functions. Thus, a newspaper, for example, might report a conflict news story (surveillance) and follow it with an editorial or opinion on how to stem the conflict (correlation) and feature stories on educating the public on the ultimate futility of conflicts (education) and a cartoon or illustration on the need for peace (entertainment).

McQuail quoted by Watson (2003:104-105) further explains these functions under five headings- information, correlation, continuity, entertainment and mobilisation.

Information: Providing information about events and conditions in society and the world; indicating relations of power; facilitating innovation, adaptation and progress;

Correlation: Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and information; providing support for established authority and norms; socialising; co- ordinating separate activities; consensus building; setting orders of priority and signalling relative status;

Continuity: Expressing the dominant culture and recognising sub-cultures and new cultural developments; forging and maintaining commonality of values;

Entertainment: Providing amusement, diversion, and the means of relaxation; reducing social tension;

Mobilisation: Campaigning for social objectives in the sphere of politics, war, economic development, work, and sometimes religion.

However, the activities of the media are carried out within certain constraints which may be socio-economic, psychological or political which affect how these activities are viewed by the society. Factors like ownership, location, orientation and the economics of media production among others may colour the role of the media in society. These conflicts of role perception have been manifested in comments on the role of the media in conflict situations. All stakeholders seem to have divergent views on the role of the media. The position of people at the helm of affairs in government was poignantly brought to the fore in 1985 by then Prime Minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher told a gathering of attorneys that democracy “must find a way to starve the terrorists and hijackers of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend” (Picard 1990:314). The oxygen of publicity referred to above is a summation of the role of the media in airing the views of “terrorists” and hijackers.

In Nigeria, government officials at the highest levels consistently find the media as the culprit in the many violent conflicts that have bedevilled the nation. About a month into his appointment as National Security Adviser (NSA) to the Nigerian President, Sambo Dasuki

had already accused the Nigerian media of contributing to the security challenges of the country, “My experience with the media has so far not been a good one… In most of the places I visit, the media have been one of the problems and it is all these idea of sensational journalism that everybody wants to publish a story that is not necessarily a story, to make good headlines.” (The Punch, July 6, 2012:1-2)

Background to the study

The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was created in Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017).

It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover  operations  against  armed  robbers.  Within almost  two  decades  of  its  creation,  the  unit  has  spread  across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.

The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality.

The  Nigerian  movie  industry,  Nollywood  has  also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigerian police force in their productions.Nigerians   having   been   subjected   to   wanton   arrests,   extortion  and  extra  judiciary  killings,  lunched  a  social  media  campaign  using  the  hastag  #Endsars  on  Twitter  to put an end to police brutality.

The #Endsars campaign started  with  the  publication  of  a  petition  by  convener  Segun  Awosanya.  It  was  signed  by  10,195  Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the  police  unit.    The  Twitter  campaign  started  on  the  2nd of  December  2017,  when  a  footage  of  police  officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The  campaign  became  a  trending  topic  on  Twitter  with  over  400,000  Tweets8  within  twelve  hours.

In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians  using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences  with  SARS,  the  dreaded  unit  of  the  police  created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However,  it  was  during  the  campaign  that  the  damage  caused  by  such  brutality  was  discovered.

The  campaign  also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to  the  convener  of  the  campaign.  The  campaign  further  revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth.

The sudden rise of protest movements during the recent economic crisis has brought to the fore once more the question of whether grievance theories may play a role in explaining collective action.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scopeof the Study 9
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Conceptual Review 11

Content Page
2.1.1 Conceptual Model 11
2.1.2 Conflict: A Conceptual Clarification 12
2.1.3 News Media and the Coverage of Conflict 16
2.1.4 Peace Journalism: An Alternative Model to War Journalism 20
2.1.4.1 Criticisms of Peace Journalism and Counterarguments 24
2.2 Theoretical Framework 33
2.2.1 Agenda-Setting Theory 33
2.2.1.1 Relevance of the Agenda-Setting Theory to the Study 37
2.2.2 Media Framing Theory 37
2.2.2.1 Relevance of the Media Framing Theory to the Study 40
2.2.3 Social Responsibility Theory 40
2.2.3.1 Relevance of the Social Responsibility Theory to the Study 43
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 43
2.4 Summary of Literature 53

THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOLISM ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE YOUTH IN NIGERIA

THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOLISM ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE YOUTH IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION 

Background to the study

Alcohol consumption dates back to time immemorial in the history of man. In traditional Nigerian societies, alcohol consumption was gender and age based. It was mainly consumed by adult males in social engagements. Customs and traditions regulated production and consumption of locally made alcoholic drinks. Though, young people in a few communities were permitted to drink, this was usually in the presence of adults who monitored the quantity they consumed Emeka, (2013). Alcohol consumption was not a daily affair and it was restricted for use in religious rituals, marriage ceremonies, kingship enthronements, cultural festivals and child naming ceremonies. Even on these occasions, excess consumption among adults was culturally controlled. Elders would drink first, served by the younger members of the tribe and because the wine was not produced  in commercial quantities, this often meant that little would be left for the latter group. This trend was altered in Nigeria following the Group Changing Patterns of Alcohol Consumption in Nigeria with the influx of European slave traders and their ‗trade spirit‘ in the fifteenth century.

The fact that alcohol was not new to the indigenous people, the influence of the Western traders popularized the sale of liquor and facilitated alcohol abuse.

This trend was sustained during the colonial era and beyond, leading to the establishment of the first Brewery (Nigerian Brewery limited presently known as Nigerian Breweries or NB Plc.) in 1946.This signified, a new trend, in alcohol consumption in the country. In more recent years, there have been some striking changes in the patterns of consumption, brought about by the development of the socio-political and economic structures of the country Gotman, (2008). Consumption is no longer solely regulated by custom of the people and it is no longer reserved for social gatherings or entertainments of guests alone. The patterns of use, the users and reason(s) for consumption are changing rapidly, especially among young drinkers.A sharp contrast from what hitherto existed is the alcohol contest among Youths in bars, restaurants, drinking joints, hotels and nightclubs that are strategically located near various places in Nigeria.

This has serious implications because researches have revealed that parents and siblings are terribly affected by the drinking behavior of young people. This perceived as a serious malady and its consequences are diverse and transcend beyond the alcoholic persons/ individuals to affect relatives, friends, neighbours and the society alike.

In Benue state, alcohol consumption is recognized as an important cultural aspect of all ceremonial occasions from the celebration of a child‘s birth, wedding and funerals. Apart from the festive season drinking during events, there is the usual recreational drinking that occurs during leisure time on weekends. This particular activity is however, having disastrous effects on the lives of the young, old, rich and poor, men and women as well as successful business men, skilled mechanics, laborers, home makers and Church members of all denominations. Sad as this may be, majority of the perpetrators are the Youths. The Youths who persistently abuse alcohol seem to be going through an array of problems. This has remained a source of worry to parents, schools, society and even the government because of the attendant behaviour that usually follow it Gotman, (2008).

Governments and non- governmental organizations as well as religious leaders are making concerted efforts to reduce, if not eradicate alcohol misuse and its related consequences by providing useful and intensive information so that they can be aware of the effects in the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.However, despite the warning messages, immoderate consumption of alcoholic beverages still persist. 

Statement of the problem

There are high cases of alcohol consumption among youths in Nigerian society; this behavior as a result of youth unrest has assumed a dangerous dimension that every stake holder of the educational system and the nation at large are at a crux. This attitude is common among the youth considered to be leaders of the future. Alcohol consumption is a major problem that has characterized the enormous crises facing Nigeria. The  critical problem is that in spite of the various measures adapted to prevent Alcohol consumption on Nigerian youths, we continue to have increasing number of Alcohol abusers. This problem has characterized the enormous crises facing Nigeria undergraduate . It has been observed that schools are facing this unrest. The availability of Alcohol in shops, chemists, market stalls and alcohol barons, provides youth’s access to it. The habitual use of alcohol during occasions endangers the live of youths. Even when alcohol are socially accepted for instance, caffeine found in kola nut and coffee or perhaps alcohol and tobacco. It can still be abused when it is used more than the quantity generally accepted within the culture.

It has been also observed that there is a high rate of consumption of alcohol by the youth especially in undergraduate students. It has negative implications on youth education, alcohol consumption lead to Risky sexual behaviour among the youths that resulted to teen age pregnancy, it affects their performance in school due to personality disorder and impaired cognitive functioning that resulted to regular tiredness and sleeping in class. Among other behaviour students who had become involved with alcohol will tend to defy school rules, cheat and act in other negative ways in school, at the end may become dramatic irresponsible and overly defensive. Other problems will emerge to the attention of the teacher and other officials. Such attitude will motivate the abuser to behave in ways that may signal the beginning of mental disorder. If not properly check in time, may be affected like some of these youth who are seen in our societies roaming about naked, parading the streets aimlessly, while others are partially made to sleep in open places, causing social nuisance to the public.

If alcohol consumption continues the abuser may end up not doing well and resulted to drop out of school, all these effect are caused due to the influenced of alcohol abuse. The study  provides information and strategies for preventing such menace because failure can lead to loss of such valuable human resources. Hence, it has become imperative that the effect of these alcohol in our youths is rampant which forms the basis of this study.

 Objectives of the study

The main objectives of this study is on The influence of alcoholism on the behavior of the youth in Nnewi south LGA of Anambra state

The specific objectives of this study are to find out:-

  1. The effects of alcohol  abuse on psychological behavior in the following areas ; Cognitive, Emotion, Perception of alcohol
  2. The effects of alcohol consumption on social behavior in the following areas; Family related problems, Social isolation, Faulty life style of alcohol
  3. To determine the relationship between the gender on alcohol

Research Questions

An attempt will be made in the study to answer the following research questions:

  1. What are the effects of alcohol consumption on psychological behavior in the following areas: Cognitive Emotion, Perception of alcohol abusers?
  2. What are the effects of alcohol consumption on social behavior in the following areas: Family related problems, Social isolation, and Faulty life style of alcohol abusers?
  3. Does gender have any relationship with alcohol abuse?

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC

ABSTRACT

This project, Expert System on Avian and Fever Diagnosis, is a software system tailored for use in the Diagnosis of Avian Fever Diseases. The software is an expert system with a database containing an expert knowledge. The user only uses it to determine whether he or she has any of the diseases within its domain and also Present expert system uses inference rules and plays an important role that will provide certain methods of diagnosis for treatment. The software has been designed to be interactive with audio capability eliciting from the user if they have symptoms of the diseases. The user response helps the expert system to determine the level at which the disease is present. The user is further advised on what next to do. This software is implemented in visual C# programming environment, due to its appropriateness and user-friendliness.

Design and implementation of Chest Disease Diagnostic and Monitoring system

Design and implementation of Chest Disease Diagnostic and Monitoring system

Background to the Study

Telemedicine is the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve patient’s health status. Telemedicine is a newest technology which combining telecommunication and information technology for medical purposes Joyce (2011). It gives a new way to deliver health care services when the distance between the doctor and patient is significantly away. Rural area will get the benefit from this application. Patient monitoring is one of the telemedicine, which always needs improvement to make it better. It is vital to care in operating and emergency rooms, intensive care and critical care units. It is also important for respiratory therapy, recovery rooms, out-patient care, radiology, ambulatory, home and sleep screening applications

The advantages of a patient monitoring system are it can reduce the risk of infection and other complication in order to make the patients comfortable. Furthermore, implement of patient monitoring in hospitals might reduce the costs in terms of installation and also maintenance of wiring

INCIDENCE OF ECTOPARASITES OF DOGS

INCIDENCE OF ECTOPARASITES OF DOGS

ABSTRACT

Dogs are the earliest animals to be domesticated by humans. In many areas of Nigeria, dogs are poorly managed and rarely protected from diseases which turn them to be reservoirs of diseases that can be shared to human and livestock. A cross sectional study was conducted between October 2017 and January 2018 to assess the community knowledge, attitudes, practices and to study the epidemiology of parasitic infestations in dogs of Rural district and Urban Municipality. The structured questionnaire was administered to 200 dog keepers, 100 in each study district. A total of 400 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations and sampled for laboratory identification using standard identification keys. Faecal samples were also collected from all  the study dogs for coprological analysis of gastrointestinal parasites. It was established that 59% of dog keepers had fair to good knowledge on management of dogs, 50.5% showed positive attitude towards dogs. Dogs of Rural district were managed under poor conditions compared to those of Urban Municipality and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Majority (83.8%) of the dogs were infested with ectoparasites  namely ticks, fleas, mites and lice. It was further found that 76.8% of dogs were infested with intestinal parasites and some of them were zoonotic parasites namely Ancylostoma (60.5%), Uncinaria (22%), Toxocara (11.5%), Toxascaris (6.3%), Ascaris (3.8%),  Taenid (6%), Dipylidium (1.8%), Cryptosporidium (15.5%), Isospora (8%), Cyclospora (4.3%) and Entamoeba (3%). Dogs of Rural distict were more (P<0.05) infested with parasites than those of Urban Municipality. Risk factors for parasitic infestations which were found to be statically significant (P < 0.05) included age, location of origin, management and housing system, lack of routine deworming and feeding system. It was concluded that dogs in Urban are poorly managed and had high infestation of parasites that  reflect  the  status  of  parasitic  infestations  to  other animals  in  the  area. Therefore, integrative approaches on creating public awareness on dog management practices in the study areas and other areas in Nigeria in order to safeguard the health of dogs and humans is recommended.

OIL SPILLAGE: CONTAINMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN NIGERIA

OIL SPILLAGE: CONTAINMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

 

The physical presence of the oil industry in Nigeria is so large and has resulted in a lot of  activities in the upstream sector which has deleterious effects on ecosystem stability and local biodiversity – which the peoples‘ livelihoods depend upon. This research provides an overview of environmental issues in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria with specific focus on oil spillage and also highlights the best approaches to achieving high environmental performance in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. The materials for this research include the use of existing reports on the oil and gas industry in Nigeria to acquire the required information. Comparative study method was used in which the data obtained Nigerian National Petroleum Company Annual Statistical report for 2013 and Shell Nigeria Monthly/ Annual statistical Reports for 2013 was analysed and logical deductions and sequential presentation of facts were thus made. It was observed in this study that oil spills occur more as a result of vandalisation than rupture during operations. Shell Nigeria has a record of oil spill amounting to about 3.038 billion barrels over a period of ten years (2003 to 2012) from their pipelines alone. The number of incidences of oil spill recorded by Shell Nigeria reduced within the period of 2007 to 2013 from 320 to 200 respectively. Also, it was observed that since 2010 the volume of oil spill has dropped significantly from 102, 000 barrels of 2009 to 20,000 barrels in 2013. Furthermore, the regulatory bodies are not working effectively and some of the country‘s regulations are out of date. Hence, a need for the government to review the regulatory laws and device an efficient means of enforcing them whenever necessary.

To compare different methods of breaking of Apple seeds dormancy

To compare different methods of breaking of Apple seeds dormancy

Continuous professional development and job satisfaction of health care personnel in OAUTHC

Continuous professional development and job satisfaction of health care personnel in OAUTHC

THE EFFECT OF STONE QUARRYING ON HOUSING IN OKIGWE LGA

THE EFFECT OF STONE QUARRYING ON HOUSING IN OKIGWE LGA

Background of the study

Within the last decade, environmental concerns have gained  prominence  throughout the world. Several international protocols have been established by the global community to deal with the emerging environmental issues. In Kenya, these global changes coincided with the enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999) the law that governs environmental  issues in  the  country.  The Act established the National Environment Management  Authority  (NEMA)  which, among other functions, monitors and evaluates development  activities  to  ensure there is no threat to environmental stability. Activities, such as quarrying in urban areas become significant in this respect.

 

Quarrying is a huge supporter of local economic development; it enhances trade, creating jobs for people annually, creating new habitats sometimes  new  roads  are built, first to transport the machines and then extracted materials which are then left to be used by residents. Most people in quarrying regions wholly depend on these quarrying for their livelihoods aside from other economic activities.

Environmental hazards resulting from quarrying activities dates back to 1890’s (BGS, 2010). The main issues of concern include visual impairment, damage to landscapes, traffic, smoke, noise, dust, damage to  caves,  loss  of  land,  and  deterioration  in  water  quality  (Iqbal  and  Shafig,  2001;  Mate,  1992; Montgomery, 1992). Of major concern is blasting, which is  required to break down the rocks into aggregates. Environmental safety laws and edicts have been adopted by governments of several nations to protect the environment from hazards related to quarrying activities. However, operators of quarries, most especially in developing nations have abused these laws either to maximize profit or simply due to blithe attitude. Such abuse is permeating in Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

 

Quarrying is a very important activity in human life as it helps in the development of infrastructure such as roads in a given area. The quarrying activities that are carried    out by man affect our environment in one way or the other. Both physical and the biological environment are affected by these activities. The effect to  the environment  in most cases is usually negative that is: it cause harm to the environment. The study tried to identify how quarrying activities in Nairobi affects the environment and the people working in or living near the quarries.

 

A UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION SYSTEM USING BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

A UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION SYSTEM USING BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

Abstract

Academic certificate verification is routine process for the employer for offering employment. Employer takes much time for giving offer letter after the interview process gets over. To verify the originality of the certificate the employer need to authenticate the certificate from the certificate issuing authority. The employer takes much time for certificate verification to check the originality of the certificate. The overall certificate verification process takes longer time to complete the selection process. In order to solve this problem, Blockchain provides verifiable distributed ledger with cryptography mechanism to counterfeit academic certificate. The Blockchain also provide a common sharing platform for storing, accessing document and minimize the overall time for verification

Sensory evaluation of Akara ball made from mung beans flour

Sensory evaluation of Akara ball made from mung beans flour

Introduction

Akara is a deep-fat fried ball prepared from whipped cowpea paste, flavoured with pepper, onion and salt (McWatters, 1983; Olapade et al., 2004). Whipping of the paste is usually done prior to the addition of other ingredients to incorporate air and enhance the formation of stable foam (Ngoddy, et al., 1986; Hung and McWatters 1990). The paste obtained through milling dehulled and cleaned cowpea seeds can be processed into moin moin and akara by steaming or deep-fat frying of the paste respectively (McWatters, 1983). Akara is the most common cowpea-based product in West Africa (Reber, 1983), which makes it contribution to diet particularly significant. Blending and whipping are important steps in processing of cowpea into akara. Blending clearly aids in reducing the particle size of paste to a more acceptable level and thus aiding in better distribution of moisture. Whipping incorporates air into paste, thus making it foam and giving it good dispensing properties and frying qualities (Mbofung et al., 2002).

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