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The capacity of the mass media to create awareness on any issue in modern society has come to be recognized. Society, therefore, depends mostly on the mass media for its information and communication needs. The functions of the media in the society have been identified as surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of society in responding to the environment, transmission of social heritage from one generation to the next and providing entertainment (Wright 1959:9).

According to Wright, “surveillance refers to the collection and distribution of information concerning events in the environment both outside and within any particular society”. This  is the news function of the mass media. Correlation includes “interpretation of information about the environment and prescription for conduct in reaction to these events. This is the editorial or opinion function of the media. Transmission of social heritage according to Wright “focuses on the communicating of knowledge, values, and social norms from one generation to another or from members of a group to newcomers”. This is the education function. Entertainment includes “communicative acts primarily intended for amusement, irrespective of any instrumental effect they might have” (Wright 1959:9).

An understanding of these functions and their discrete nature is needed by advocacy practitioners and academics to understand how the media functions. Thus, a newspaper, for example, might report a conflict news story (surveillance) and follow it with an editorial or opinion on how to stem the conflict (correlation) and feature stories on educating the public on the ultimate futility of conflicts (education) and a cartoon or illustration on the need for peace (entertainment).

McQuail quoted by Watson (2003:104-105) further explains these functions under five headings- information, correlation, continuity, entertainment and mobilisation.

Information: Providing information about events and conditions in society and the world; indicating relations of power; facilitating innovation, adaptation and progress;

Correlation: Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and information; providing support for established authority and norms; socialising; co- ordinating separate activities; consensus building; setting orders of priority and signalling relative status;

Continuity: Expressing the dominant culture and recognising sub-cultures and new cultural developments; forging and maintaining commonality of values;

Entertainment: Providing amusement, diversion, and the means of relaxation; reducing social tension;

Mobilisation: Campaigning for social objectives in the sphere of politics, war, economic development, work, and sometimes religion.

However, the activities of the media are carried out within certain constraints which may be socio-economic, psychological or political which affect how these activities are viewed by the society. Factors like ownership, location, orientation and the economics of media production among others may colour the role of the media in society. These conflicts of role perception have been manifested in comments on the role of the media in conflict situations. All stakeholders seem to have divergent views on the role of the media. The position of people at the helm of affairs in government was poignantly brought to the fore in 1985 by then Prime Minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher told a gathering of attorneys that democracy “must find a way to starve the terrorists and hijackers of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend” (Picard 1990:314). The oxygen of publicity referred to above is a summation of the role of the media in airing the views of “terrorists” and hijackers.

In Nigeria, government officials at the highest levels consistently find the media as the culprit in the many violent conflicts that have bedevilled the nation. About a month into his appointment as National Security Adviser (NSA) to the Nigerian President, Sambo Dasuki

had already accused the Nigerian media of contributing to the security challenges of the country, “My experience with the media has so far not been a good one… In most of the places I visit, the media have been one of the problems and it is all these idea of sensational journalism that everybody wants to publish a story that is not necessarily a story, to make good headlines.” (The Punch, July 6, 2012:1-2)

Background to the study

The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was created in Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017).

It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover  operations  against  armed  robbers.  Within almost  two  decades  of  its  creation,  the  unit  has  spread  across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.

The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality.

The  Nigerian  movie  industry,  Nollywood  has  also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigerian police force in their productions.Nigerians   having   been   subjected   to   wanton   arrests,   extortion  and  extra  judiciary  killings,  lunched  a  social  media  campaign  using  the  hastag  #Endsars  on  Twitter  to put an end to police brutality.

The #Endsars campaign started  with  the  publication  of  a  petition  by  convener  Segun  Awosanya.  It  was  signed  by  10,195  Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the  police  unit.    The  Twitter  campaign  started  on  the  2nd of  December  2017,  when  a  footage  of  police  officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The  campaign  became  a  trending  topic  on  Twitter  with  over  400,000  Tweets8  within  twelve  hours.

In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians  using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences  with  SARS,  the  dreaded  unit  of  the  police  created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However,  it  was  during  the  campaign  that  the  damage  caused  by  such  brutality  was  discovered.

The  campaign  also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to  the  convener  of  the  campaign.  The  campaign  further  revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth.

The sudden rise of protest movements during the recent economic crisis has brought to the fore once more the question of whether grievance theories may play a role in explaining collective action.

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scopeof the Study 9
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Conceptual Review 11

Content Page
2.1.1 Conceptual Model 11
2.1.2 Conflict: A Conceptual Clarification 12
2.1.3 News Media and the Coverage of Conflict 16
2.1.4 Peace Journalism: An Alternative Model to War Journalism 20 Criticisms of Peace Journalism and Counterarguments 24
2.2 Theoretical Framework 33
2.2.1 Agenda-Setting Theory 33 Relevance of the Agenda-Setting Theory to the Study 37
2.2.2 Media Framing Theory 37 Relevance of the Media Framing Theory to the Study 40
2.2.3 Social Responsibility Theory 40 Relevance of the Social Responsibility Theory to the Study 43
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 43
2.4 Summary of Literature 53

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1.1 Background to the study

The importance of having access to relevant political information in a democratic system is widely recognized. When correct, easily digestible, and extensive knowledge is readily available, citizens have the ability to devise their own responses to political events and, as a result, participate in the political process.

Social media contribute to the formation of public opinion by providing citizens with a forum in which they can voice their thoughts and by facilitating the growth of a consensus position in an era in which face-to-face interaction with political elites is relatively rare.

Social media has been found useful in Nigeria elections. The rise in social media activist for political mobilizations in 2022 has risen to atleast 45%.compared to other pre-election year with Peter Obi leading in all social media sites. Obi, who is the presidential candidate of Labour Party in 2023 elections, has gained social media popularity in recent times and has succeeded in creating a slogan “Obidient” which rings positive bell in the hears of the electorate who are majorly youths Musliudeen (2022).

Social media not only make information more reachable but are also likely the sole channel through which the general people can acquire information that is not biased or slanted politically.

In order for the information to be successful, the general public needs to have access to political information that is objective and not political propaganda. In addition, if the general population is not sufficiently informed to make decisions, the political establishment might not be held accountable for their actions. Moreover, if the general population is not sufficiently engaged in democratic processes, the viability of democracy itself might be called into question.

Even though there are still traditional media channels that give political news, current technology breakthroughs, notably the internet, have helped to the distribution of news items and the rise of citizen journalism. This is particularly true in the United States. The number of people who currently have access to the internet is increasing as a direct result of the growing number of people who use smartphones.

The recent emergence of social media as a major force that must be reckoned with in all areas of communications has caused a shift in the manner in which communication is managed on all fronts, whether they are social, economic, or political. This shift has had an effect on the way communication is handled on all fronts. As a result of this, political communication is now becoming an increasingly important aspect during election campaigns. This is because politicians and the general public are increasingly using social media into their communication. Therefore, political communication is not exempt from the effects that are caused by social media.

However, in order to cultivate greater political discourse and more political involvement among all people, substantial consideration needs to be given to the assurance of accuracy and in-depth analysis of political topics in the social networking platforms that many young minds subscribe to. In an effort to maintain their relevance in the public eye, politicians are becoming increasingly active on social media.

In this study, the political issues that are being discussed on social media were assessed for their relative significance in terms of how they are affecting policy in Nigeria. The researcher focused primarily on analyzing how social media especially Facebook and Twitter are utilized in Nigeria, as well as how this has impacted political debate in 2023 presidential elections.

In Nigeria, social media platforms have evolved into highly effective political tools in recent years. According to the statistics available in January 2021, there were 33 million people using social media in Nigeria. Because more than 48 percent of Nigerians have access to cell phones and only 36 percent have internet access, approximately 40 percent of the country’s population, or nearly 90 million people, are active on social media. As of the year 2021, the total number of citizens who were registered to vote in the country was 89 million. Because of this, it is reasonable to assume that the majority of voters have access to social media. This indicates that social and online media have almost completely replaced the combined mix of other media as crucial avenues of communication in matters pertaining to society and politics.
The use of social media platforms has become an increasingly important arena for the shaping of public opinion and the establishment of priorities. The extent to which social media can affect and determine voting behavior may be limited but still significant, but the jury is still out on whether or not it plays a role in determining the outcomes of political contests. During the presidential election in 2015, the opposition party known as the All Progressives Congress (APC) made extensive use of social media in order to de-market the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP).

As we get closer to the year 2023, political actors and political parties are jumping on the social media bandwagon. As a result, the landscape of political communication in Nigeria has never been so heterogeneous, fragmented, energizing, chaotic, creative, and equally polarizing at the same time. Political actors are (re)branding themselves as serious political contenders at both the state and national levels by engaging audiences on social media in a regular, humorous, and strategic manner. This is happening at both the state and the national levels. Some of their audience members have a high level of intelligence and are able to differentiate between political razmataz and genuine political engagement and enlightenment.

The use of social media platforms has become an increasingly important arena for the shaping of public opinion and the establishment of priorities. The extent to which social media can affect and determine voting behavior may be limited but still significant, but the jury is still out on whether or not it plays a role in determining the outcomes of political contests. During the presidential election in 2015, the opposition party known as the All Progressives Congress (APC) made extensive use of social media in order to de-market the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP).

According to preliminary research carried out in Nigeria during the elections in 2015, social media played a significant role in shifting popular support among young voters away from the then-current Federal Government. By the time of the 2019 presidential election, social media had reached maturity, and instead of young millennials and young adults dominating that space, we noticed that even older people were relying on them for political information and debates. This shift in demographics was a significant departure from previous trends.

ENDSARS Protest and Political Mobilisation in Nigeria ( A case study of 2023 Presidential Election)

The END SARS protest that took place in Nigeria in 2020 was a significant turning point in the country’s political landscape. The protest, which initially began as a demand to end police brutality, evolved into a powerful movement that highlighted the deep-rooted socio-economic and political challenges faced by Nigerian citizens. This case study explores the impact of the END SARS protest on political mobilization leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election in Nigeria.


The END SARS movement emerged in response to years of unchecked police brutality and misconduct in Nigeria. The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), a unit of the Nigerian Police Force, had been accused of extortion, extrajudicial killings, and other human rights abuses. The public outcry against SARS gained momentum in October 2020 when a video of police officers shooting a young man in Lagos went viral, sparking nationwide protests.

Protest and Political Awakening:

The END SARS protest captured the attention and participation of millions of Nigerians, primarily youth, who were frustrated with the state of affairs in the country. The mobilization power of social media platforms, particularly Twitter, played a crucial role in amplifying the voices of protesters and disseminating information. The movement’s decentralized structure allowed it to spread rapidly across cities, inspiring a sense of unity and purpose among participants.

The protest was not limited to demanding an end to police brutality but also evolved into a broader call for good governance, accountability, and an end to corruption. It became a platform for young Nigerians to voice their dissatisfaction with the political establishment and demand meaningful change. The protest served as a wake-up call to both politicians and citizens, shaking the status quo and paving the way for political mobilization.

Impact on Political Landscape:

The END SARS protest had a profound impact on Nigeria’s political landscape, particularly in the lead-up to the 2023 Presidential Election. It highlighted the power of youth activism and their potential to shape political discourse and outcomes. Politicians recognized the need to engage with the demands of the protesters to secure their support.

As a response to the protest, the Nigerian government disbanded the SARS unit and made promises to implement police reform. However, the protesters were not satisfied with mere promises and called for concrete actions. This led to increased political engagement as young Nigerians sought to translate their demands into tangible political change.

The protest served as a catalyst for political awakening and increased voter registration among Nigerian youth. Many organizations and individuals mobilized to educate and register young voters, recognizing their potential to influence the outcome of the 2023 Presidential Election. Political parties also took note of the changing political landscape and began to address the concerns of the protesters in their manifestos and campaign promises.

Role of Social Media:

Social media platforms played a pivotal role in the mobilization and organization of the END SARS protest. Hashtags such as #EndSARS and #EndPoliceBrutality trended globally, drawing international attention to the cause. Activists effectively used social media platforms to share information, coordinate protest activities, and document human rights abuses.

The influence of social media continued to shape the political mobilization leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election. Politicians recognized the power of these platforms to reach and engage with the youth demographic, and many utilized social media as a key tool in their campaigns. Online discussions, debates, and discourse on various issues allowed citizens to hold politicians accountable and demand transparency and responsiveness.

The 2023 Presidential Election:

The END SARS protest had a lasting impact on the 2023 Presidential Election. Political parties and candidates recognized the need to address the demands and concerns of the protesting youth. The election campaigns focused on issues such as police reform, good governance, youth empowerment, and job creation, which were key priorities for the protesting youth.

The movement also led to the emergence of new political actors and parties that sought to represent the aspirations of the protesters. Young activists and organizers who played pivotal roles during the protest stepped forward to contest for political office or support candidates who aligned with their values. This infusion of new blood into the political arena promised a shift towards a more inclusive and responsive government.


The END SARS protest of 2020 sparked a powerful political mobilization in Nigeria, leading up to the 2023 Presidential Election. The protest served as a wake-up call for politicians, demanding an end to police brutality and systemic corruption. It empowered Nigerian youth to demand good governance, accountability, and political change. Social media platforms played a crucial role in amplifying the voices of the protesters and organizing mass demonstrations.

The impact of the END SARS protest on Nigeria’s political landscape was evident in the increased political engagement of young Nigerians and their influence on campaign agendas. Political parties and candidates recognized the power of the protesting youth and made efforts to address their concerns. The 2023 Presidential Election witnessed a shift towards more inclusive politics, with new actors emerging to challenge the status quo.

While the true extent of the protest’s impact on the election outcomes will be determined in time, it is clear that the END SARS protest fundamentally transformed the political mobilization landscape in Nigeria. It provided a platform for Nigerian citizens, particularly the youth, to demand change and actively participate in shaping the country’s future. The challenge now lies in sustaining this momentum and holding elected officials accountable for their promises.


ROLE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN UNEMPLOYMENT REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: In Nigeria, a considerable portion of the population is unable to find formal employment opportunities, which contributes to the country’s ongoing problem with high unemployment rates. In recent years, there has been a rising acknowledgment of the critical role that small and medium scale organisations (SMEs) may play in resolving this issue. This recognition comes as a result of the fact that SMEs make up 99.7% of all businesses in the United States. It is possible for small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) to boost economic growth, generate new jobs, and bring down the unemployment rate in the country. In this essay, we will investigate the many different ways that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute to the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria.

To begin, small and medium-sized enterprises are notoriously labor-intensive. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) are primarily dependent on human resources, in contrast to huge enterprises, which frequently rely on automation and modern technology. As a consequence of this, they are in a position to take on a sizeable number of folks who are currently jobless. These types of organisations typically have lower barriers to entry, making it simpler for individuals who have fewer resources or expertise to launch their own companies. Because of this, unemployed people have the opportunity to start their own businesses or participate in activities that generate cash, which helps bring the general unemployment rate down.

Moreover, small and medium-sized businesses encourage entrepreneurialism and innovation, both of which are essential engines of economic growth and employment creation. The culture of entrepreneurship is cultivated through small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which encourage individuals to start their own firms. This, in turn, leads to the creation of new ideas, products, and services. This entrepreneurial ecosystem not only creates job prospects for the entrepreneurs who participate in it, but also for the workforce that the entrepreneurs hire. The growth of these companies results in the creation of extra employment opportunities and a general decrease in the rate of unemployment.

There is a problem in Nigeria with underemployment, and small and medium-sized businesses have the ability to help solve this problem. A large number of people in this country are deemed to be underemployed, which indicates that they are either working part-time or are employed in positions that do not make full use of their talents and credentials. These persons who are now underemployed have the opportunity to find work that is more suited to their skills and interests through the employment opportunities presented by small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). SMEs contribute to the reduction of underemployment and the enhancement of overall job satisfaction by creating possibilities for individuals that are in line with their strengths and aspirations.

In addition to the direct employment contributions they make, small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) also have a considerable impact on the economy as a result of the linkages they have established with other industries. These companies frequently rely on regional suppliers and services, which in turn generates demand for the products and services offered by other companies in the area. Along the entire supply chain, this reliance between smaller businesses and larger enterprises helps to stimulate economic growth and the creation of new jobs. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria contribute to the growth of a vibrant and diversified economy by expanding their linkages and strengthening their existing ones. This, in turn, creates more employment possibilities for the Nigerian labour force.

Nevertheless, it is essential to keep in mind that small and medium-sized businesses (or SMEs) confront a variety of obstacles, which may impede their capacity to efficiently cut unemployment. In Nigeria, the most significant challenges that small and medium-sized businesses face are limited access to funding, inadequate infrastructure, and an inadequate supply of business support services. To effectively address these difficulties, the government, financial institutions, and any other relevant players will need to collaborate their efforts. Policymakers have the ability to foster the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and increase the job opportunities available to the greatest extent possible by giving targeted financial support, improving infrastructure, and providing programmes to enhance capacity.

In conclusion, it can be said that small and medium-sized businesses have an important part to play in the fight against unemployment in Nigeria. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) present workable alternatives to the nation’s high unemployment rates because of the labor-intensive nature of their operations, the entrepreneurial spirit they foster, and the economic growth they foster. In addition, by combating the issue of underemployment and developing linkages with other industries, the businesses in question contribute to the general improvement of the economy as well as the creation of new jobs. In order for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to realise their full potential, it is crucial for the government and other stakeholders to address the issues that SMEs encounter and provide the necessary assistance and infrastructure. Small and medium-sized businesses have the potential to become a potent engine for the creation of new jobs and the expansion of the economy in Nigeria if the appropriate policies and conditions are in place.







The rapid expansion of cassava-based agroindustries in Nigeria has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of garbage consisting of cassava peels, as of 13 July 2019. An investigation was conducted to determine whether or not it would be possible to produce biogas and biofertilizer from discarded cassava peels and pig manure for use in both agricultural and home settings. Cassava peels, both fresh and stale, were utilised in the research. Cassava peels and pig waste slurry were both pretreated with three different pretreatment chemicals, including sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) buffer solutions. For the purpose of this investigation, six batch anaerobic biodigesters, each with a capacity of 10 litres, were utilised for a retention duration of 40 days. The pH, temperature, and quantities of biogas and methane produced by the cassava peels were recorded and monitored daily, as was the production of methane. The official methods of analysis developed by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were utilised in order to ascertain the fertiliser characteristics (total solids, volatile solids, percentage of phosphorus, percentage of biogas biofertilizer nitrogen, etc.) of the digester slurry and the digester sludge following 40 days of anaerobic digestion. The findings indicated that the amount of biogas produced each day is 2540 cm3 of volume. The use of stale cassava peels and pig waste slurry in conjunction with the application of the NH4Cl pretreatment chemical resulted in the highest levels of biogas generation and methane output, which were respectively 104,961 cm3 and 62.3%. The sludge that was produced in the digester as a result of the anaerobic digestion of cassava peels and pig dung was shown to have beneficial properties as a biofertilizer.

Because of rising population levels, more urbanisation, and expanded industrialization across the globe, there has been a significant and concerning rise in the amount of energy that is required. This issue is particularly pronounced in nations that are still considered to be developing or undeveloped since the social and economic situations there are relatively poor. Lack of infrastructures for energy generation, transmission, and distribution, unavailability of nonrenewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, low technology for energy conversion from renewable energy sources such as biogas, and lack of funds for purchase of fossil fuels, infrastructural and technology developments in energy sectors have all been implicated in the near energy crisis in most underdeveloped and developing countries (Aisien, et. al., 2010; Kwasi – Effah et al). However, because energy can be obtained from renewable energy sources such as waste materials, the issue of poverty in underdeveloped and emerging nations can be significantly decreased. This is because the energy crisis is caused by a lack of renewable energy sources. The renewable energy source, such as biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials, which may be generated from municipal solid waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and home waste, can offer large amounts of energy all over the world (Aisien et. al., 2007b; Igbum, et. al., 2019). [Citation needed] (Aisien et. al., 2007b; Igbum, et. al. In addition to that, biogas can be manufactured from discarded food (Huiru et al., 2019). Biogas is an affordable kind of renewable energy that has the potential to fulfil the energy requirements of the world’s rural population to a significant extent. It is a combustible gas that is odourless and created by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste products. According to Buren (1979), this fuel does not produce smoke, it is hygienic, and it is more convenient to use than other solid fuels. Not only will an increased emphasis on the use of renewable energy from biogas rather than the nonrenewable energy source of fossil fuels reduce energy demands from fossil fuels, which are becoming very expensive and can lead to an energy crisis, but it will also address the problems of greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, environmental pollution/degradation, and health hazard (COP 21, 2015; Igbum, et al., 2019). This is important because fossil fuels are becoming increasingly expensive and The anaerobic biological decomposition of organic materials in the absence of oxygen results in the production of the renewable energy source known as biogas. According to Mel et al. (2015), the biogas that results from the anaerobic digestion of organic waste is a gas that contains methane (50-72 volume percent), carbon (IV) oxide (25-45 volume percent), nitrogen (>2 volume percent), hydrogen sulphide (>1 volume percent), water (2-7 volume percent) and oxygen (>2 volume percent). The generation of biogas is accomplished primarily through three distinct biochemical processes. As can be seen in the following table, these processes are known as hydrolysis, acidogenesis/acetogenesis, and methanogenesis (Igwe, 2014).
(C6H10O5)n + nH2O → n(C6H12O6) – Hydrolysis (1) n(C6H12O6) → nCH3COOH – Acetogenesis/Acidogenesis (2) 3nCH3COOH → nCH4 + CO2 – Methanogenesis (3)
The lighting, heating, and cooking, as well as the creation of power and fuel for vehicles, are all examples of successful use of biogas energy. According to Aisien et al. (2007), the sludge that is produced during the anaerobic digestion of waste materials has the potential to be utilised as a biofertilizer in order to increase the fertility of the soil.

According to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria is the country that produces the most cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), with an annual output of over 46 million tonnes. According to FAO (2001), the processing of one tonne of fresh cassava root results in the production of around 250 to 300 kilogrammes of cassava peels. The peel of the cassava root makes up between 8 and 15 weight percent of the root’s total dry matter. The composition of cassava peels includes 20–31 weight percent of hemicelluloses, 16–42 weight percent of cellulose, and 6–8 weight percent of lignin. According to Kongkiattikajorn and Sornvorawea (2011), in addition to fibre, peels contain between 81.9 and 93.9 weight percent of organic matter and between 4.1 and 6.5 weight percent of crude protein. The analysis of the mineral composition of cassava peel revealed the following mineral content: 48.7 wt.% carbon, 1 wt.% nitrogen, 1.1 wt.% potassium, 1.6 wt.% phosphorus, 0.16 wt.% nitrogen dioxide, 0.15 wt.% sodium, 0.9 wt.% calcium, 125 mg/kg zinc, 15 mg/kg copper, 180 mg/kg manganese, 16.7 mg/kg lead, 48.
Garri, starch, fufu, lafu, and flour made from cassava have all seen significant increases in output as a direct result of the country of Nigeria’s rapidly growing population as well as its relatively inexpensive standard of living. Because of this, there has been a significant rise in the amount of waste consisting of cassava peels. Other waste products that result from the processing of cassava in Nigeria include cassava wastewater, sievates, and offal (waste products from the manufacturing of “foo-foo”). According to a report from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in 2015, roughly 98% of Nigeria’s cassava peels are wasted annually owing to the limits connected with drying. ILRI was concerned about the safe usage of cassava peels due to the presence of hydrocyanide and mycotoxins related to food poisoning. The careless disposal of cassava peels in landfills and other garbage dump sites has resulted in significant contamination of the surrounding environment. The breakdown of this waste results in the production of poisonous leachate, which pollutes both surface and subsurface water sources, as well as other products that contribute to air pollution. When people or animals breathe in contaminated air, it can lead to infections and diseases that take a long time to show symptoms. These pollution problems are related with the degradation of cassava peels in dumpsites, and the impacts of these pollution problems include a foul odour and, at times, poisonous and polluted air. In a similar vein, the plants and soil in the area surrounding the dumpsites for cassava peels are rendered unproductive and devasted as a result of the biological and chemical reactions that take place during the breakdown of cassava peels. Peels from cassava roots have been utilised as a source of nutrition for a variety of animals. In addition, cassava peels have been put to use in the manufacturing of reducing sugar, bioethanol, biogas, and biofertilizer (Aisien et al., 2010; Anaeto, et al., 2013; Kongkiattikajorn and Sornvorawea, 2011; and Olanbiwoninu and Odunfa, 2012).

For the purpose of producing biogas, numerous types of research have been conducted, both with cassava peel waste on its own and with cassava peel waste combined with other waste materials, particularly animal waste.
Researchers Adelekan and Bamgboye (2009) and Ofoefule and Uzodimma (2009) found that combining cassava peels with a variety of animal wastes resulted in a considerable increase in the amount of biogas produced as well as the amount of methane yield. They also noted that the ratio of cassava peels to animal waste, also known as the carbon to nitrogen ratio, was highly critical to assure improved generation of biogas and methane yield. Specifically, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen. In addition to this, Ezekoye and Ezekoye (2009), Ilaboya et al. (2010), Ilori, et al., (2007), and Adeyanju, (2008) all reported that the mixing of cassava peels with the waste from other plants was effective. They discovered that there is a requirement to apply some tiny quantity of animal wastes as inoculum in order to achieve an appreciable rise in biogas production and methane yield. This is necessary in order to produce an increase in biogas production and methane yield. Bayitse et. According to the findings of al., 2014, co-digesting cassava peels with manure results in the production of biogas and biofertilizer by optimising the ratio of carbon to nitrogen. Nkodi et. al., 2018 and Olaniyan, et. According to the findings of al., 2017, the volume of biogas produced from the combination of cassava peels and animal waste is more than that produced from cassava peels alone. Besides, Sawyeer et. al., 2017; Onuorah, et. et al., 2016 and Ben and Michael, 2018 reported that the optimal carbon to nitrogen ratio should be maintained at all times. According to what they said, the ratio of cassava peel to animal waste must be 30 to 20 for the maximum amount of biogas to be produced. Olawale et. et al. showed that the addition of pig waste (animal manure) decreased the C: N ratio of the cassava peels to a value between 20: 1 and 30: 1, which is optimal for the anaerobic digestion of co–substrate. Numerous other researchers have recognised the exceptional quality of cassava peels as a substrate due to the high quantity of cyanide they contain. According to their findings, an appropriate pretreatment method must be utilised for there to be sufficient biogas production from cassava peels (Deepanraj et al., 2014; Nkodi et al., 2016; Mel et al., 2015; Ben and Michael, 2018; Igbum et al., 2019; Onuorah et al., 2016, Shah et al., 2015; Gopinattan et al., 2015). They used a variety of chemical pretreatment procedures, such as the use of alkalis (NaOH, KOH, NaHCO3, Ca(OH)2) of varying concentrations in the maintenance of the slurry or substrate pH in order to achieve optimal biogas generation. On the other hand, the use of a buffer solution was not taken into consideration, despite the fact that we assumed it would be more resistant to change in slurry pH compared to alkalis solutions. In the prior research that was done on the conversion of cassava peels to biogas, one of the flaws that was discovered was that the investigation on the bio-digestion of stale cassava peels was disregarded. The environmental pollution and health hazard that are typically linked with cassava peel dumpsites are typically caused by the stale cassava peels that are abundant in most of the cassava peel dumpsites. As a result, the purpose of this study is to fill in some of these gaps. In addition to the alkaline solution, the utilisation of an acid buffer solution as a pretreatment chemical will be examined. In addition, both fresh and stale cassava peels will be investigated in this project. The conclusion will be reached after a comparison has been made.
In light of this, the primary objective of this research is to investigate the production of biogas from cassava peels utilising pig faeces as an inoculum. This could be a viable alternative source of energy in the future. In addition, the purpose of this research is to establish whether or not the digested sludge produced by anaerobic digestion can be a source of biofertilizer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the nature of cassava peels, (fresh and stale) and the applications of different pretreatment chemicals, (alkaline and acid buffer solutions), on biogas production and methane yield. This was done as a result of the identified gaps in the previous research works on cassava peels for the production of biogas.

According to Aderemi et al. (2009), energy is an essential element in the process of any socioeconomic development and a primary aspect in the process of eradicating poverty in any community. According to Onafeso (2006), the lack of access to a wide range of modern energy services has remained a major impediment to the improvement of important indicators of human development in Nigeria, which is located on the west coast of Africa. At the moment, more than sixty percent of the country’s population relies nearly totally on fire wood for the activities of cooking, heating, and agricultural processing. Products derived from petroleum, such as petrol and kerosene, are characterised by severe shortages and rising prices; the product is currently being sold at a price that is more than 300 percent more than the price displayed at the pump (Anonymous, 2008). In addition, energy, which is necessary for contemporary economies, is either not available or, if it is, it is of low quality or, even worse, it is unreliable, since less than 4,000 MW of the 7,876 MW of installed electrical capacity is being generated (Sambo et al., 2010). This is a problem because electricity is the cornerstone of modern economies.
The advent of mechanisation and automation of food processing activities to operate conveyors, pumps, compressors, and other equipment such as steam boilers, dryers, refrigeration devices, ventilation, and ovens has made the usage of electricity an essential component in the food industry. The non-availability of electricity supply or the poor quality and unreliable nature of electricity supply provided by the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) has resulted in an increase in the use of stand-by generators of various shapes and sizes (Adegoke and Akintude, 2000). These generators rely entirely on petroleum products as fuel. In spite of the obvious benefit that these standby generators offer as a reliable solution to erratic power supply, the recurrent perennial scarcity of petroleum products and its rising cost contribute to high costs of production and a loss of competitive advantage of processed foods when placed side-by-side with imported ones (Aderemi et al., 2009). This is despite the fact that standby generators offer a reliable solution to erratic power supply. In addition, the nature of petroleum products is such that they have a finite amount, and the byproducts of their burning are substantial contributors to environmental degradation, climate change, and global warming (Das et al., 2000). According to Goodger (1980), the growing awareness of the limitations of the convectional fuel has increased the growing interest in the search for alternative sources of energy that are cleaner and more sustainable. The wastes are typically disposed of without discrimination in landfills and unauthorised areas, which contributes further to environmental degradation and global warming (Adeola, 1996; Igbinomwanhia and Olanikpekun, 2009). However, biogas, which has a relatively significant comparative advantage due to the country’s huge biomass potential estimated to be about 8 x 102 MJ, offers a promising sustainable solution (Nwoke and Okonkwo, 2006). In order to lessen the current overdependence on fossil fuel, increase the amount of energy that is readily available, and protect the natural eco-system in the face of Nigeria’s enormous potential for biomass production (Garba and Sambo, 1992), biogas technology represents a viable alternative due to the ease with which it can be adapted to rural settings and its relatively straightforward technology. (Diaho et al., 2005). According to Dennis and Burke (2001), biogas is a type of fuel gas that is made up of a mixture of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and traces of other gases. It is produced through microbial activities in anaerobic settings from materials that are capable of biodegradation. According to Merchaim (1992), it is a fuel that is both renewable and of a high grade, and when it burns, it does not produce any soot or particulate matter. According to Nwoke and Okonkwo (2006), the technology of biogas has not yet been properly used in Nigeria and other countries in Africa; however, the technology is widespread in countries such as India, China, Pakistan, the United States of America, and the majority of European countries. Utilisation of biogas as fuel in internal combustion engines have witnessed a substantial breakthrough and improvement over the years (Mitzlaff and Mkumbwa, 1980; Mitzlaff, 1988; Huang and Crookes, 1998; Midkiff et al. 2001; Eshan and Naznin, 2005). Although biogas engines are not currently available in Nigeria markets, the crippling fuel prices and high cost of food processing coupled with the growing problem of food wastes management has remained an intractable national problem The modification of these current engines using rurally adapted technology in order to use biogas produced from these food wastes is a vital springboard for the transition to technology that is friendly to the eco-system and for sustainable rural development.
Energy is a critical component in achieving the goals of speeding economic growth, reducing levels of poverty, and generating job opportunities. A recurrent problem with the electrical grid has led to an unhealthy reliance on generators that are powered by fossil fuel. In addition to this, fossil fuel is a non-renewable resource that is rapidly running out and is a contributor to the deterioration of the environment. It is highly appropriate to research the use of biogas produced from food and other biodegradable wastes as an alternative fuel source for internal combustion engines in Nigeria because of the chronic power shortage that plagues the country and the currently lax enforcement of laws governing waste management and the use of generators in the country. These laws govern waste management and the use of generators.
Nearly eighty percent of the population relied on petrol generators as their primary source of independent energy supply. Given that more than 70 percent of the population, or an estimated 150 million people, are engaged in agricultural activities and produce a wide variety of plants and animal wastes, the country has a significant agricultural waste problem. An technique that is sustainable over the long term and may be used to achieve energy self-sufficiency as well as economic growth is one that converts these wastes into biogas energy, which can then be used in an existing petrol generator.
The overarching goal of this project was to modify a petrol generator so that it could be used to produce biogas for the production of lower-priced energy alternatives from waste products generated by the food and agricultural industries.




1.0 Introduction

Heavy metal contamination is a significant environmental concern with adverse effects on human health. These toxic substances, including lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, are released into the environment through various industrial and anthropogenic activities. One area where heavy metal contamination can have a profound impact is in kitchen environments, where food preparation and cooking take place. Understanding the extent of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments is crucial, as it directly affects human exposure to these toxic substances.

Nasarawa, a state located in Nigeria, is known for its agricultural activities and diverse food culture. However, rapid industrialization and urbanization in the region may contribute to the release of heavy metals into the environment. These contaminants can find their way into kitchen environments through several pathways, including contaminated water sources, contaminated soil used for farming, and the use of metal-containing cookware and utensils.

The implications of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments for lung and kidney health are particularly concerning. Inhalation of heavy metal particles and consumption of contaminated food and water can lead to the accumulation of these toxic substances in the body, affecting the respiratory and renal systems. Heavy metals have been linked to various health issues, including respiratory problems such as lung inflammation, impaired lung function, and increased risk of lung cancer. Additionally, they can cause kidney damage and dysfunction, leading to chronic kidney disease and other renal complications.

Given the potential risks associated with heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments, it is essential to examine the extent of this issue in Nasarawa. Conducting a comprehensive assessment of heavy metal concentrations in kitchen environments, including water sources, cooking utensils, and food items, can provide valuable insights into the potential health risks faced by the local population. This research will contribute to the development of effective strategies to mitigate heavy metal contamination and protect the lung and kidney health of individuals residing in Nasarawa.



1.1 Background to the Study

The industrial applications of several metals have revolutionized the human environment. However, they have also been proven to be hazardous to health following their ingestion, intentionally or accidentally (Zohar, 1980).


The presence of metals in food can be caused by different sources such as through direct contamination during production, with metal-rich soil, air, or contaminated water as well as from the use of pesticides or fertilizers (Fishbein, 1981; Arora et al., 2008). Food can also be contaminated during processing, transportation and storage (Wang et al., 2006).


According to International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), (1999) there are 35 metals that are concern to humans due to occupational or residential exposure and it has been estimated that around one billion people worldwide suffer from some form of diseases attributed to those metals (WHO, 2011). Regardless of their effect, many of them play a crucial role in all life forms. For example, arsenic (As), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are considered essential at low concentrations but are toxic at high levels (Mertz, 1981). However, elements like aluminium (Al), beryllium (Be) and lead (Pb) have no biological significance (Trichet & Defarge, 1995).


Although metal toxicity depends on the amount ingested, chronic exposure to certain metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), can cause severe toxic effects, even in low amounts. Humans are exposed to metals through different exposure pathways, the most common being inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of products such as water, medicinal herbs, and food (Nowak & Chmielnicka, 2000; Abou-Arab, 2000).

Metals tend to bioaccumlate thus their concentration increases in a biological system over time. This is because they are stored faster than being metabolized or excreted (Hare, 1992). Unlike organic molecules, metals do not require bioactivation or undergoes enzymatic modification that produces a reactive chemical species for detoxification process (Waalkes, 1995). However, metals use other mechanisms, such as long-term storage (e.g., Iron) and biliary and/or urinary excretion (Waalkes, 1995).


Generally, metals disrupt basic metabolic functions in two ways; first, when stored in the soft tissue of the body, they compete with other ions. For instance, heavy metals like Pb, Hg and Cd have affinity to sulphur and attack the thiol groups in the active site of enzymes, thus inactivating and disrupt their function (Ademoroti, 1996; Alka, 2000). Secondly, they antagonistically compete with essential ions and prevent them from fulfilling their biological functions. For instance, Pb replaces Ca in bones (Pounds, 1983).


One of the sources of food contamination by metal includes techniques and materials used in food processing (Dabonne et al., 2010). The domestic preparations of food as a potential source of metal contamination have been overlooked for long time. However, there are reports that indicate that certain kitchen utensils used for food preparation can represent a significant risk because they are manufactured with materials that can be hazardous or contaminated by toxic metals (DM et al., 1985; Hight, 2001).


The problem with the presence of metals in kitchen based equipments lies in the fact that these contaminants can be transferred to food and beverages by a leaching process, which is again influenced by physical and chemical conditions of the food, such as boiling duration and pH (zález et al., 1996; Baba et al., 2004; Dadd, 2009).


Various kinds of utensils are hand crafted and used for the preparation, storage and consumption of foods. These utensils can be source of metal contamination since some of the raw materials used in their manufacturing contain heavy metals, such as clay and enamel (Dabonne et al., 2010). The use of these utensils can release toxic metals into food substances during processing, sometimes in amounts high enough to constitute health hazard (Dadd, 2009). For instance, studies conducted by Dabonne et al., (2010) in Cote d’Ivoire shows that traditional utensils made out of clay and traditional Aluminum pots are the potential sources of metals like aluminium and iron. Another study by Omolaoye et al., (2010) in Nigeria also shows that food items and beverages prepared in ceramic products imported from China are likely to show high levels of lead.


Similarly, cottage industries in our country are producing cooking utensils from metallic Scraps. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the leaching of selected metals from unstandardized cookwares.


1.2 Statement of the problem

The contamination of kitchen environments with heavy metals in Nasarawa presents a significant concern for human health, particularly with implications for lung and kidney health. However, the extent of heavy metal contamination in these environments and its specific effects on human health in the region have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, this study aims to address the following problem:

  1. What is the level of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments in Nasarawa?
  2. What are the specific heavy metals present in these environments and what are their concentrations?
  3. How do heavy metals enter kitchen environments, and what are the potential sources of contamination?
  4. What are the implications for lung and kidney health resulting from heavy metal exposure in kitchen environments?
  5. What measures can be taken to mitigate heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments and safeguard the lung and kidney health of individuals in Nasarawa?

By investigating these aspects, this study intends to shed light on the heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments in Nasarawa and its implications for lung and kidney health.

1.3 Objectives of the study


The main objective of the study is to examine the Heavy Metal Contamination in Kitchen Environments In Nasarawa: Implications for Lung and Kidney Health

The following are the specific objectives;

  1. To evaluate the natural metallic content of the various food ingredients
  2. To determine the leaching of some selected metals (Al, Fe, Ni and Pb) from traditional cooking pot
  3. To determine the influence of pH, cooking duration and cooking frequency on metal leaching
  4. To examine the health implications of these heavy metals


1.4 Significance of the study

The significance of the study on heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments in Nasarawa with implications for lung and kidney health is as follows:

  1. Human Health Impact: Understanding the extent of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments is crucial for assessing its potential health effects on individuals residing in Nasarawa. The study will provide valuable insights into the specific heavy metals present, their concentrations, and their potential implications for lung and kidney health. This knowledge will contribute to identifying high-risk areas and populations, enabling the development of targeted interventions to protect public health.
  2. Preventive Measures: The study findings will serve as a foundation for implementing preventive measures to mitigate heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments. This includes identifying potential sources of contamination and recommending appropriate strategies to minimize exposure. By implementing effective preventive measures, such as improving water quality, promoting safe cooking practices, and encouraging the use of non-toxic utensils and cookware, the study can contribute to reducing the risk of heavy metal-related health issues in Nasarawa.
  3. Environmental Management: The study will provide insights into the sources of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments, which can contribute to broader environmental management efforts. By identifying the major sources, such as industrial activities or agricultural practices, policymakers and regulatory bodies can implement measures to control and reduce heavy metal emissions. This can lead to overall improvements in environmental quality and the well-being of the local population.
  4. Public Awareness: Conducting this study will raise awareness among the general public and relevant stakeholders about the potential risks associated with heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments. Disseminating the study findings through public health campaigns, educational programs, and community engagement initiatives can empower individuals to take proactive steps to protect their lung and kidney health. Increased awareness can also drive behavioral changes, such as adopting safer cooking practices and utilizing less toxic utensils, contributing to the overall reduction in heavy metal exposure.
  5. Scientific Knowledge and Future Research: The study will contribute to the existing scientific knowledge on heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments, particularly in the specific context of Nasarawa. The findings can serve as a basis for future research, allowing for more comprehensive investigations into the specific health effects, long-term exposure risks, and potential interventions. This can lead to a deeper understanding of heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments globally and the development of evidence-based strategies to address this issue effectively.


1.5 Scope of the study


In this study, we aim to investigate the heavy metal contamination in kitchen environments in Nasarawa and evaluate its implications for lung and kidney health. By analyzing the concentration of heavy metals in various kitchen-related matrices, such as drinking water, cooking utensils, and commonly consumed food items, we can assess the extent of contamination and its potential impact on human health. The findings of this research will serve as a foundation for implementing appropriate preventive measures and promoting awareness about the risks associated with heavy metal exposure in kitchen environments.

A critical analysis of John Rawls theory of law

CHAPTER ONE/Introduction

John Rawls, one of the most influential political philosophers of the 20th century, developed a comprehensive theory of justice that has had a significant impact on legal and political thinking. Rawls’ theory of justice aims to establish principles that can guide the formation and evaluation of laws in a just society..

Rawls’ Theory of Justice: Rawls’ theory of justice is centered on the idea of fairness and the protection of individual rights. He proposes two central principles: the principle of equal basic liberties and the difference principle. The principle of equal basic liberties asserts that all individuals should have the same fundamental rights and liberties. The difference principle, on the other hand, suggests that inequalities in wealth and social goods are permissible only if they benefit the least advantaged members of society.

One of the strengths of Rawls’ theory is its emphasis on the protection of individual rights and liberties. By prioritizing equal basic liberties, Rawls recognizes the inherent dignity and worth of every individual, promoting a society that respects and values all its members. Additionally, the difference principle addresses the issue of economic inequalities by ensuring that any disparities benefit those in the most disadvantaged positions. This principle aims to reduce social injustices and create a more egalitarian society.

Moreover, Rawls’ theory provides a framework for decision-making that is impartial and fair. He introduces the concept of the “original position” and the “veil of ignorance,” suggesting that laws and policies should be formulated without knowledge of one’s own position in society. This approach fosters fairness and impartiality, as decision-makers are compelled to consider the interests and needs of all individuals, regardless of their social status or advantages.

Despite its strengths, Rawls’ theory of law is not without its criticisms. One key critique revolves around the feasibility and practicality of implementing his principles. Critics argue that the difference principle, while admirable in theory, may be difficult to implement in practice. Determining what constitutes a fair distribution of wealth and social goods can be subjective and contentious, leading to ongoing disputes and potentially hindering the stability of a just society.

Some critics contend that Rawls’ theory does not adequately address the complexities of a diverse and pluralistic society. By focusing primarily on distributive justice and economic inequalities, Rawls’ theory neglects other important dimensions of justice, such as cultural, social, and political considerations. Critics argue that a comprehensive theory of law should encompass a broader range of justice concerns to ensure the fair treatment of all individuals and groups.

Furthermore, Rawls’ theory has been criticized for its limited scope in addressing global justice issues. While his theory provides guidance for the formation of just laws within a nation-state, it does not fully address the challenges of global inequality and injustice. In an increasingly interconnected world, some argue that a theory of law should extend beyond national borders and consider the ethical obligations and responsibilities of affluent nations toward the less fortunate.

Objective of the Study

  1. To examine and understand the key principles and concepts of John Rawls’ theory of law, including the principle of equal basic liberties and the difference principle.
  2. To critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Rawls’ theory of law in terms of its ability to promote justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights.
  3. To assess the practicality and feasibility of implementing Rawls’ principles in the formulation and evaluation of laws in a real-world context.
  4. To analyze the implications of Rawls’ theory of law for diverse and pluralistic societies, considering its potential limitations in addressing cultural, social, and political dimensions of justice.
  5. To explore the potential implications and challenges of applying Rawls’ theory of law to global justice issues, particularly in relation to global inequality and the ethical responsibilities of affluent nations.
  6. To provide a comprehensive and balanced analysis of Rawls’ theory of law, considering alternative perspectives and criticisms to develop a nuanced understanding of its contributions and limitations.
  7. To generate insights and recommendations for policymakers, legal scholars, and practitioners regarding the application of Rawls’ theory of law in promoting justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights within legal systems.
  8. To contribute to the ongoing scholarly discourse on legal theory and the foundations of justice by critically engaging with Rawls’ theory and identifying areas for further research and refinement.

Scope of the study

The scope of the study on John Rawls’ theory of law encompasses several dimensions that contribute to a comprehensive analysis of the theory and its implications. The study primarily focuses on the following aspects:

  1. Theoretical Scope: The study delves into the foundational principles and concepts of Rawls’ theory of law, including the principle of equal basic liberties and the difference principle. It explores the philosophical underpinnings of the theory and its implications for the formation and evaluation of laws within a just society.
  2. Comparative Analysis: The study may involve a comparative analysis of Rawls’ theory with other prominent theories of law and justice. This helps to highlight the distinctive features, strengths, and weaknesses of Rawls’ theory in relation to alternative approaches, contributing to a deeper understanding of its significance.
  3. Practical Application: The study assesses the practicality and feasibility of implementing Rawls’ principles in real-world legal systems. It examines how the theory can be applied in practice and explores potential challenges and implications of adopting Rawls’ principles within diverse legal and political contexts.
  4. Societal and Global Implications: The study considers the implications of Rawls’ theory of law for diverse and pluralistic societies. It examines how the theory addresses issues of cultural, social, and political justice, and evaluates its potential limitations in these areas. Additionally, the study may explore the applicability of Rawls’ theory to global justice concerns, including the responsibilities of affluent nations towards less privileged regions.
  5. Critique and Alternative Perspectives: The study critically evaluates Rawls’ theory, considering alternative perspectives and criticisms. It analyzes potential weaknesses, limitations, and counterarguments to provide a balanced assessment of the theory’s scope and relevance.
  6. Policy and Practical Recommendations: Based on the analysis and findings, the study aims to generate insights and recommendations for policymakers, legal scholars, and practitioners. These recommendations may pertain to the application of Rawls’ theory in policy formulation, legal decision-making, and the pursuit of justice and fairness within legal systems.


This study holds several key significances:

  1. Academic Contribution: The critical analysis of John Rawls’ theory of law contributes to the academic discourse on legal theory and political philosophy. By thoroughly examining and evaluating Rawls’ principles, the study provides insights into the strengths, weaknesses, and potential implications of his theory. It adds to the existing body of knowledge by offering a nuanced understanding of Rawls’ ideas and their relevance in contemporary legal and political contexts.
  2. Policy and Lawmaking Guidance: The study’s evaluation of Rawls’ theory of law offers valuable insights for policymakers, legal scholars, and practitioners. It provides a framework for understanding how principles of justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights can inform the formulation and evaluation of laws. The findings and recommendations can guide decision-makers in promoting more equitable and just legal systems.
  3. Social Justice Advocacy: Rawls’ theory of law places a strong emphasis on justice and fairness, particularly in addressing economic inequalities. By critically analyzing this theory, the study promotes a deeper understanding of social justice issues and the potential role of law in addressing them. It raises awareness about the importance of protecting individual rights and striving for more egalitarian societies.
  4. Practical Implementation Considerations: The study’s assessment of the practicality and feasibility of implementing Rawls’ principles contributes to the practical application of his theory. It highlights potential challenges and provides insights into how these principles can be adapted and incorporated into legal systems. This knowledge is valuable for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote justice and fairness within the constraints of real-world contexts.
  5. Ethical and Global Justice Considerations: By exploring the implications of Rawls’ theory of law in relation to cultural, social, and political dimensions of justice, as well as its potential applicability to global justice issues, the study contributes to the ethical discourse surrounding justice. It raises questions about the responsibilities of affluent nations, challenges global inequality, and promotes the consideration of justice beyond national boundaries.


To achieve the objectives of the study and address the research questions, the following methodology will be adopted:

  1. Literature Review: A comprehensive review of relevant literature will be conducted to gain a deep understanding of John Rawls’ theory of law and its key principles. Academic journals, books, scholarly articles, and other reputable sources will be examined to gather the necessary information.
  2. Conceptual Analysis: A conceptual analysis will be employed to critically analyze the key concepts and principles of Rawls’ theory of law. This will involve deconstructing and examining the underlying assumptions, logical coherence, and internal consistency of his theory.
  3. Comparative Analysis: A comparative analysis will be conducted to explore alternative perspectives and theories that address similar issues of justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights. This will provide a broader context for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Rawls’ theory and identifying potential areas for improvement or refinement.
  4. Case Studies and Examples: Case studies and real-world examples will be used to illustrate the practical implications and challenges of implementing Rawls’ principles in legal systems. These case studies may include specific legal cases, policy decisions, or historical events that highlight the application or limitations of Rawls’ theory.
  5. Critical Evaluation: A critical evaluation of Rawls’ theory of law will be carried out, considering alternative perspectives, criticisms, and counterarguments. This will involve examining the feasibility, practicality, and potential implications of his principles in diverse societal and global contexts.
  6. Recommendations: Based on the analysis and evaluation, recommendations will be provided for policymakers, legal scholars, and practitioners regarding the application of Rawls’ theory in promoting justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights within legal systems. These recommendations will be informed by the study’s findings and aim to address the identified limitations and challenges.

The Benefits of Implementing a Counseling Management System for the Rationalization of Counseling Services



The provision of counseling is an essential component in promoting persons’ mental health and overall well-being. It is possible to considerably improve the delivery of counseling services by putting into action a counseling management system, which is an all-encompassing software solution. This piece on the blog highlights the advantages of such a system, including the fast scheduling of appointments and the secure storage of client data, both of which improve overall counseling procedures and the client experience.

Effective and Efficient Scheduling of Appointments

The ease with which appointments may be scheduled is among the most significant benefits that come from using a counseling management system. This system has an easy-to-navigate and welcoming user interface that allows administrators and counselors to monitor their availability, schedule appointments, and concurrently manage numerous calendars. Clients are able to obtain counseling services in a timely manner and in a manner that is convenient for them as a result of the elimination of scheduling conflicts and the streamlining of the process, which leads to higher client satisfaction and better use of counseling resources.

Streamlined Methods for the Intake and Evaluation of Customers

The process of taking new clients is simplified and expedited by using a counseling management system. This results in increased productivity. Clients are able to electronically fill out intake forms, giving critical information about their personal history, medical history, and particular issues. This digitization gets rid of the need for burdensome paperwork, speeds up the intake process, and allows counselors to concentrate on creating strong therapeutic relationships right from the start. It will be possible for counselors to devote more time to delivering excellent treatment to their clients if the administrative responsibilities they face may be reduced.

Management of All Client Records Centrally Located

It is very necessary for efficient counseling services to have client records that are kept correct and up to date at all times. The ability to safely store and manage client information inside a centralized database is one of the many benefits offered by counseling management systems. This comprises notes from sessions, therapy plans, evaluations, and updates on the patient’s progress. Time is saved, less paperwork is generated, and client confidentiality is maintained when all client data are easily accessible. Counselors are able to offer continuity of care for their clients and make educated judgments on therapeutic interventions when they have access to a thorough overview of all of their clients’ information. This ultimately results in improved outcomes for their clients.

Processing of Billing and Payments Integrated Together

In counseling firms, managing the invoicing and payment procedures may be a difficult and time-consuming endeavor. The integration of billing features into a counseling management system, on the other hand, makes this procedure more simpler. The generation of bills, the monitoring of payments, and the management of insurance claims are all capabilities of counselors. As a result, financial management is streamlined, administrative duties are reduced, and counselors are freed up to concentrate on delivering high-quality service to clients. Clients also benefit from the system’s accessible payment alternatives, while counseling firms gain from greater financial efficiency as a result of more accurate invoicing and better documentation provided by the system.

Safe and Trustworthy Communication and Working Together:

It is essential for the counseling process to have effective communication and cooperation between the counselors, their clients, and any other professionals that are engaged. It is much easier for counselors to connect with clients, exchange resources, and seamlessly coordinate treatment when they have access to a counseling management system that has secure messaging and collaboration options. This improves client involvement, makes timely interventions easier to implement, and fosters collaborative treatment planning. All of the stakeholders will be able to keep informed, resolve their issues in a timely manner, and work together to achieve the client’s therapeutic objectives if the communication channels are enhanced.

Measurement of Results and Reporting of Findings

It is essential to determine whether or not a counseling intervention was successful in order to engage in evidence-based practice and pursue continuous improvement. The ability to monitor and assess client results in a systematic manner is made possible for counselors by a counseling management system. Counselors are able to monitor client development, evaluate the effectiveness of therapy, and make educated judgments on therapeutic treatments when they use standardized assessment instruments and provide progress reports. This strategy, which is driven by data, gives counselors the ability to adjust treatment programs to the unique requirements of each clients, which ultimately results in treatments that are more focused and successful.

Analytics of Data and Reporting on It

The data analytics and reporting capabilities of a counseling management system are extensive. It offers administrators and counselors the ability to develop informative reports and conduct an analysis of key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the efficacy of counseling services. Counseling practices are able to identify areas for improvement, efficiently manage resources, and make choices based on evidence when they do an analysis of the trends and patterns in the data they collect. This strategy, which is driven by facts rather than intuition, encourages quality improvement activities and improves the overall delivery of counseling services.

Improved Protection of Personal Information and Data Security

When working in counseling settings, maintaining client confidentiality and data security is of the utmost importance. Protecting sensitive client information is one of the primary responsibilities of a counseling management system. This may be accomplished via the use of safe access restrictions, data encryption, and regular data backups. Built-in security measures make it simpler to comply with applicable data protection rules like HIPAA, GDPR, or FERPA. This makes compliance with these regulations more important than ever. This helps to build confidence between counselors and clients by ensuring the clients that their personal information will be treated with the greatest care and confidentiality at all times.


The delivery of counseling services as well as the administration of these services may be completely transformed via the implementation of a counseling management system. The benefits of using such a system are many, ranging from the simplification of appointment scheduling to the administration of client data in a safe environment. These benefits contribute to an increase in overall productivity, as well as an improvement in the quality of counseling services provided. The use of technology into the counseling process gives practitioners the ability to better serve the ever-evolving requirements of clients in the modern digital era.




English Linguicism and Language Loss: A Case Study of Yoruba Language Use Among Students of Obafemi Awolowo University and Adeyemi College of Education


Language plays a crucial role in preserving cultural identity and fostering effective communication within a community. However, the dominance of English as a global language has led to the erosion of indigenous languages in many parts of the world. This essay explores the phenomenon of English linguicism and its impact on the use of the Yoruba language among students of Obafemi Awolowo University and Adeyemi College of Education, two prominent institutions in Nigeria. By examining the causes and consequences of language loss, this case study sheds light on the challenges faced by indigenous languages in an increasingly interconnected world.


Language is an essential aspect of cultural identity, serving as a medium through which traditions, values, and knowledge are transmitted from one generation to another. However, the pervasive influence of English, as a result of globalization and colonial history, has led to the decline and loss of many indigenous languages worldwide. This essay focuses on Yoruba, a widely spoken language in Nigeria, and investigates how English linguicism contributes to the erosion of Yoruba language use among students of Obafemi Awolowo University and Adeyemi College of Education.

Historical Context: The imposition of English as the language of education and administration during the colonial era profoundly affected indigenous languages in Nigeria. This legacy has persisted even after independence, as English remains the dominant language in education, media, and governance. The Yoruba language, spoken by millions of people in southwestern Nigeria, faces challenges in maintaining its vitality and relevance in contemporary society.

Causes of Language Loss:

  1. Education System: The education system in Nigeria heavily emphasizes English as the medium of instruction. Indigenous languages, including Yoruba, are marginalized and often excluded from the curriculum. This creates a mindset among students that proficiency in English is essential for academic success and social mobility, while proficiency in Yoruba is undervalued.
  2. Socioeconomic Factors: In a society where English is associated with social prestige and economic opportunities, parents often prioritize English language skills over indigenous languages for their children. This belief stems from the perception that proficiency in English enhances future job prospects, while indigenous languages may limit career options.
  3. Globalization and Media Influence: The widespread availability of English-language media, including movies, music, and the internet, contributes to the prevalence of English and its influence on popular culture. Young people, in particular, are exposed to Western media that often glorifies the English language, leading to a subconscious devaluation of indigenous languages like Yoruba.

Consequences of Language Loss

  1. Cultural Erosion: Language loss results in the erosion of cultural practices, values, and traditions that are intricately woven into the fabric of a community. Indigenous languages are repositories of historical knowledge, folklore, and oral traditions, which, when lost, deprive future generations of their cultural heritage.
  2. Communication Gap: When individuals no longer speak their native language fluently, a communication gap emerges between generations. This hinders effective intergenerational communication, impeding the transmission of cultural knowledge and diminishing the sense of belonging within the community.
  3. Psychological Impact: The loss of one’s native language can have psychological repercussions, leading to a sense of alienation, identity crisis, and reduced self-esteem. Students who are unable to communicate effectively in their native language may feel disconnected from their cultural roots and face challenges in forming a strong sense of identity.

Addressing the Challenge

  1. Educational Reforms: Integrating indigenous languages, such as Yoruba, into the formal education system is vital for promoting language revitalization. Bilingual education programs, teacher training initiatives, and the development of culturally relevant educational resources can help restore the prominence of indigenous languages.
  2. Community Engagement: Encouraging community members, including parents, elders, and cultural organizations, to actively promote and use Yoruba language is crucial. Community-led language preservation initiatives, such as language clubs, cultural events, and storytelling sessions, can foster pride and appreciation for indigenous languages among the younger generation.
  3. Government Support: Government policies and funding are necessary to support language revitalization efforts. Implementing language preservation strategies, promoting indigenous language use in the media, and recognizing the importance of linguistic diversity in national development plans are key steps towards reversing language loss.


The case study of Yoruba language use among students of Obafemi Awolowo University and Adeyemi College of Education highlights the challenges posed by English linguicism and language loss. By recognizing the causes and consequences of language erosion, we can work towards implementing effective strategies to revitalize and preserve indigenous languages. It is crucial to foster a multilingual society that values linguistic diversity and recognizes the significant role of indigenous languages in maintaining cultural heritage, promoting inclusive education, and strengthening national identity.

The socio-economic impact of student loan act in Nigeria


Student loan programs have been implemented in various countries around the world to address the issue of limited access to higher education due to financial constraints. These programs aim to increase enrollment rates and promote human capital development. By providing financial support for education, student loans can enhance access to higher education and contribute to socio-economic growth.

One of the significant advantages of student loan programs is the increased access to higher education. Students from lower-income backgrounds often face significant barriers when it comes to affording the costs associated with pursuing a college or university degree. Student loans can bridge this financial gap, enabling individuals to pursue higher education that would otherwise be out of reach. This increased access leads to a more educated workforce, which is essential for the socio-economic development of a country.

By investing in education through student loans, countries can stimulate economic activity. Increased demand for educational services leads to the growth of related industries such as education, textbooks, accommodation, and transportation. This, in turn, creates job opportunities and boosts economic growth. Additionally, the development of human capital through higher education enables individuals to acquire knowledge and skills that can contribute to innovation, productivity, and competitiveness in various sectors of the economy.

Student loan programs also play a crucial role in promoting social mobility. Access to higher education can break the cycle of poverty by offering opportunities for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds to improve their socio-economic status. By providing financial support, student loans enable students to pursue education based on their abilities and aspirations rather than their financial circumstances. This, in turn, reduces inequality and fosters a more equitable society.

However, it is important to consider the potential downsides of student loan programs. One significant concern is the debt burden faced by graduates. If the loan repayment terms are not favorable or if graduates struggle to find employment, the burden of student loan debt can hinder their financial well-being. Graduates may delay important life decisions such as buying a home, starting a family, or pursuing further education due to the financial obligations associated with student loans.

Student loan programs have both positive and negative socio-economic impacts. They increase access to higher education, promote human capital development, stimulate economic activity, and foster social mobility. However, they can also burden graduates with significant debt and contribute to brain drain. The design and implementation of student loan programs must carefully consider these factors to maximize their positive impact while minimizing the potential drawbacks. By striking a balance, countries can leverage student loans as a tool for socio-economic development and inclusive growth.

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