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The capacity of the mass media to create awareness on any issue in modern society has come to be recognized. Society, therefore, depends mostly on the mass media for its information and communication needs. The functions of the media in the society have been identified as surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of society in responding to the environment, transmission of social heritage from one generation to the next and providing entertainment (Wright 1959:9).

According to Wright, “surveillance refers to the collection and distribution of information concerning events in the environment both outside and within any particular society”. This  is the news function of the mass media. Correlation includes “interpretation of information about the environment and prescription for conduct in reaction to these events. This is the editorial or opinion function of the media. Transmission of social heritage according to Wright “focuses on the communicating of knowledge, values, and social norms from one generation to another or from members of a group to newcomers”. This is the education function. Entertainment includes “communicative acts primarily intended for amusement, irrespective of any instrumental effect they might have” (Wright 1959:9).

An understanding of these functions and their discrete nature is needed by advocacy practitioners and academics to understand how the media functions. Thus, a newspaper, for example, might report a conflict news story (surveillance) and follow it with an editorial or opinion on how to stem the conflict (correlation) and feature stories on educating the public on the ultimate futility of conflicts (education) and a cartoon or illustration on the need for peace (entertainment).

McQuail quoted by Watson (2003:104-105) further explains these functions under five headings- information, correlation, continuity, entertainment and mobilisation.

Information: Providing information about events and conditions in society and the world; indicating relations of power; facilitating innovation, adaptation and progress;

Correlation: Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and information; providing support for established authority and norms; socialising; co- ordinating separate activities; consensus building; setting orders of priority and signalling relative status;

Continuity: Expressing the dominant culture and recognising sub-cultures and new cultural developments; forging and maintaining commonality of values;

Entertainment: Providing amusement, diversion, and the means of relaxation; reducing social tension;

Mobilisation: Campaigning for social objectives in the sphere of politics, war, economic development, work, and sometimes religion.

However, the activities of the media are carried out within certain constraints which may be socio-economic, psychological or political which affect how these activities are viewed by the society. Factors like ownership, location, orientation and the economics of media production among others may colour the role of the media in society. These conflicts of role perception have been manifested in comments on the role of the media in conflict situations. All stakeholders seem to have divergent views on the role of the media. The position of people at the helm of affairs in government was poignantly brought to the fore in 1985 by then Prime Minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher told a gathering of attorneys that democracy “must find a way to starve the terrorists and hijackers of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend” (Picard 1990:314). The oxygen of publicity referred to above is a summation of the role of the media in airing the views of “terrorists” and hijackers.

In Nigeria, government officials at the highest levels consistently find the media as the culprit in the many violent conflicts that have bedevilled the nation. About a month into his appointment as National Security Adviser (NSA) to the Nigerian President, Sambo Dasuki

had already accused the Nigerian media of contributing to the security challenges of the country, “My experience with the media has so far not been a good one… In most of the places I visit, the media have been one of the problems and it is all these idea of sensational journalism that everybody wants to publish a story that is not necessarily a story, to make good headlines.” (The Punch, July 6, 2012:1-2)

Background to the study

The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was created in Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017).

It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover  operations  against  armed  robbers.  Within almost  two  decades  of  its  creation,  the  unit  has  spread  across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.

The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality.

The  Nigerian  movie  industry,  Nollywood  has  also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigerian police force in their productions.Nigerians   having   been   subjected   to   wanton   arrests,   extortion  and  extra  judiciary  killings,  lunched  a  social  media  campaign  using  the  hastag  #Endsars  on  Twitter  to put an end to police brutality.

The #Endsars campaign started  with  the  publication  of  a  petition  by  convener  Segun  Awosanya.  It  was  signed  by  10,195  Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the  police  unit.    The  Twitter  campaign  started  on  the  2nd of  December  2017,  when  a  footage  of  police  officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The  campaign  became  a  trending  topic  on  Twitter  with  over  400,000  Tweets8  within  twelve  hours.

In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians  using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences  with  SARS,  the  dreaded  unit  of  the  police  created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However,  it  was  during  the  campaign  that  the  damage  caused  by  such  brutality  was  discovered.

The  campaign  also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to  the  convener  of  the  campaign.  The  campaign  further  revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth.

The sudden rise of protest movements during the recent economic crisis has brought to the fore once more the question of whether grievance theories may play a role in explaining collective action.

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scopeof the Study 9
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Conceptual Review 11

Content Page
2.1.1 Conceptual Model 11
2.1.2 Conflict: A Conceptual Clarification 12
2.1.3 News Media and the Coverage of Conflict 16
2.1.4 Peace Journalism: An Alternative Model to War Journalism 20 Criticisms of Peace Journalism and Counterarguments 24
2.2 Theoretical Framework 33
2.2.1 Agenda-Setting Theory 33 Relevance of the Agenda-Setting Theory to the Study 37
2.2.2 Media Framing Theory 37 Relevance of the Media Framing Theory to the Study 40
2.2.3 Social Responsibility Theory 40 Relevance of the Social Responsibility Theory to the Study 43
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 43
2.4 Summary of Literature 53

Test Bank—Chapter Three (Operating Systems) Multiple Choice Questions

Test Bank Chapter Three (Operating Systems)

Test Bank—Chapter Three (Operating Systems) Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following components of an operating system maintains the directory system?


  1. Device drivers File manager                    C. Memory manager ANSWER: B
  1. Which of the following components of an operating system handles the details associated with particular peripheral equipment?


  1. Device drivers File manager                    C. Memory manager ANSWER: A
  1. Which of the following components of an operating system is not part of the kernel?


  1. User Interface File manager                    C. Scheduler ANSWER: A
  1. Multitasking in a computer with only one CPU is accomplished by a technique called


  1. Bootstrapping Batch processing            C. Multiprogramming ANSWER: C
  1. Execution of an operating system is initiated by a program called the


  1. Window manager Scheduler                         C. Boot loader ANSWER: C
  1. The end of a time slice is indicted by the occurrence of a signal called


  1. An interrupt A semaphore                    C. A login ANSWER: A
  1. A section of a program that should be executed by at most one process at a time is called a


  1. Utility Critical region                  C. Privileged instruction ANSWER: B
  1. Which of the following is not an attempt to provide security?


  1. Passwords Privilege levels                 C. Multitasking ANSWER: C
  1. Which of the following items of information would not be contained in an operating system’s process table?


  1. The location of the memory area assigned to the process
  2. The priority of each process




  1. Whether the process is ready or waiting
  2. The machine language instructions being executed by the process ANSWER: D
  1. Which of the following events is detrimental to an operating system’s performance?


  1. Deadlock Interrupt                           C. Booting ANSWER: A
  1. Which of the following is a technique for controlling access to a critical region?


  1. Spooling Time sharing                    C. Semaphore                      D. Booting ANSWER: C
  1. Which of the following is not involved in a context switch?


  1. Interrupt Process table                    C. Dispatcher                        D. User Interface ANSWER: D
  1. Which of the following concepts is not associated with critical regions?


  1. Semaphores Mutual exclusion            C. Bootstrap ANSWER: C
  1. Which of the following is not a role of a typical operating system?


  1. Control the allocation of the machine’s resources
  2. Control access to the machine
  3. Maintain records regarding files stored in mass storage
  4. Assist the computer user in the task of processing digital photographs ANSWER: D
  1. Which of the following is a task that is not performed by the kernel of an operating system?


  1. Communicate with the user Schedule processes
  2. Allocate resources D. Avoid deadlock ANSWER: A
  1. Which of the following is not a means of performing multiple activities at the same time?


  1. Pipeling Multiprogramming         C. Virtual memory              D. Multiple processors ANSWER: C (Caution: This problem uses terminology from Chapter 1.)
  1. Which of the following components of an operating system is executed as the result of an interrupt signal?


  1. Dispatcher Memory manager          C. File manager ANSWER: A





  1. Which of the following would be a concern of the file manager in a multi-user computer system that would not be a concern in a single-user system?


  1. Maintain records regarding the location of files
  2. Maintain records regarding the ownership of files
  3. Maintain records regarding the size of files
  4. None of the above ANSWER: B
  1. Which of the following would not require real-time processing?


  1. Typing a document with a word processor
  2. Navigation of an aircraft
  3. Forecasting world-wide trend for the next five year period
  4. Maintaining a airline reservation system ANSWER: C
  1. Which of the following statements is true?


  1. Allowing several processes to share time in a multiprogramming system is less efficient than executing each of them to completion one after the
  2. The use of passwords provides an impenetrable
  3. Both A and B
  4. Neither A not B ANSWER: D


Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions

  1. Suppose an operating system allocates time slices in 10 millisecond units and the time required for a context switch is


  1. How many processes can obtain a time slice in one second?



  1. How many processes can obtain a time slice in one second if half of them use only half of their slice?



ANSWER: A. 100       B. 150


  1. If it takes one microsecond to perform a context switch and processes use only half of their allotted 10 millisecond time slices, what percent of a CPUs time is spent performing context switches rather than executing processes?



ANSWER: .02% (1/5000)


  1. In contrast to early batch processing techniques, allows the user to communicate with the computer while the user’s application is being executed. In turn, this type of





processing requires that the computer’s responses to its environment be performed in a timely manner, a requirement known as                                                                            .


ANSWER: Interactive processing, Real-time processing


  1. Fill in the blanks below with the part on the operating system (file manager, memory manager, device drivers, window manager, scheduler, dispatcher) that performs the activity


  1.                                   Maintains a record of what is displayed on the computer’s screen


  1.                                   Performs the switching from one process to another


  1.                                   Maintains the directory system


  1.                                   Creates virtual memory


ANSWER: A. Window manager       B. Dispatcher      C. File manager       D. Memory manager


  1. Fill in the blanks below with the part on the operating system (file manager, memory manager, device drivers, window manager, scheduler, dispatcher) that performs the activity


  1.                                   Places new entries in the process table


  1.                                   Performs the actual communication with I/O units


  1.                                   Maintains a record of memory allocations


  1.                                   Protects files from unauthorized access


ANSWER: A. Scheduler        B. Device drivers       C. Memory manager     D. File Manager


  1. Fill in the blanks below with the part on the operating system (file manager, memory manager, device drivers, window manager, scheduler, dispatcher) that performs the activity


  1.                                   Executes each time a time slice terminates


  1.                                   Removes entries from the process table


  1.                                   Maintains a record of available mass storage space


  1.                                   Displays icons on the computer screen


ANSWER: A. Dispatcher       B. Scheduler      C. File manager       D. Window manager


  1. In each blank below write a term that might be considered the opposite of the term next to the blank.


  1.                                   Interactive processing


  1.                                   System software


  1.                                   Waiting process


ANSWER: A. Batch processing      B. Application software     C. Ready process


  1. What action is performed as a result of executing each of the following types of instructions?


  1. Test-and-set                                                                                                                        






  1. Interrupt disable                                                                                                                  


  1. Interrupt enable                                                                                                                  


ANSWER: A. Checks to see if the contents of a memory cell is 0 or 1 and sets the value to a 1.

  1. Causes the CPU to not recognize incoming
  2. Causes the CPU to begin recognizing incoming


  1. Which necessary condition for deadlock is removed by each of the


  1. Require processes to request all required resources at



  1. Allow only one process at a time in the process



  1. Take all resources from processes when deadlock occurs and restart the



ANSWER: A. Resources must be requested on a partial basis.

  1. There must be competition for nonshareable
  2. Resources cannot be forcibly


  1. List four resources whose access an operating system should









ANSWER: Possible answers include: Memory space, mass storage space, printers, space in process table, CPU time, and many more


  1. What problem could occur if, to allow more processes to share time in a multiprogramming environment, an operating system is designed to use very short time slices?



ANSWER: The time spent switching between processes could become significant when compared to the time spent actually executing processes.


  1. What is meant by the term load balancing in the context of multiprocessor computers?



ANSWER: Load balancing refers to the task of assigning tasks to the processors in a way that leads to efficient use of all processors.


  1. A is a set of instructions. In contrast, a                                      is the activity of executing those


ANSWER: program, process


  1. List three features provided by modern CPUs that are used by operating systems to implement multitasking











ANSWER: Possible answers include: privilege levels, privileged instructions, test-and-set instructions, memory limit registers, and others.


  1. List three popular operating








ANSWER: Possible answers include: UNIX, Linux, Microsoft’s Windows series and Mac-OS


  1. List three popular smartphone operating








ANSWER: Competitors in the smartphone operating system arena include Apple’s iPhone OS, Research In Motion’s BlackBerry OS, Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Nokia’s Symbian OS, and Google’s Android.


Vocabulary (Matching) Questions

The following is a list of terms from the chapter along with descriptive phrases that can be used to   produce questions (depending on the topics covered in your course) in which the students are ask to match phrases and terms. An example would be a question of the form, “In the blank next to each phrase, write the term from the following list that is best described by the phrase.”


Term                                       Descriptive Phrase

user interface                                        The part of an operating system that communicates with the user multiprogramming                              A technique that allows multiprocessing on a computer with a single


time sharing                                          The act of more than one user using a computer at the same time

process                                                   The activity of executing a program

queue                                                     A storage system in which the first entry in is the first entry out

virtual memory                                    Extended storage space created by the memory manager

ROM                                                      Memory area whose contents cannot be altered

firmware                                                Software associated with booting and fundamental startup tasks that resides in non-volatile memory

multitasking                                          The phenomenon of a user performing more than one activity at the same time

interactive processing                         Allows the user to communicate with the computer system while the

user’s application is being performed

deadlock                                               A situation in which activities find themselves waiting on each other

GUI                                                        A means of communicating with a computer user by means of images rather than words

mutual exclusion                                 The requirement that a process complete a block of instructions before

another process is allowed to start the block




boot loader                                           The program first executed when a computer is turned on

directory path                                       A sequence of folders each containing the next

kernel                                                     The heart of an operating system

interrupt                                                 A signal that suspends the CPU’s current activities

auditing software                                 A tool used to monitor a computer system’s activities

privilege levels                                      A means of restricting the capabilities of different processes



General Format Questions

  1. Explain the difference between application software and system


ANSWER: System software provides the infrastructure required by the application software. It includes  the operating system and utilities. Application software provides the unique functionality required to perform the particular tasks for with the computer is used. Examples include word processors, spreadsheet systems, database systems, and image processing systems.


  1. Describe a scenario that leads to deadlock in a computer


ANSWER: There are many possible answers. One would be the case of two processes in a multiprogramming environment, each of which needs to spawns additional processes to complete its task even though the process table is full. In this case, each process would hold a nonshareable resource (space in the process table) that the other needed to progress resulting in deadlock.


  1. What conditions are necessary for deadlock to occur?


ANSWER: There must be competition for nonshareable resources, resources must be requested on a piecemeal basis, and resources, once allocated, cannot be forcibly retrieved.


  1. What are privileged instructions?


ANSWER: Privileged instructions are machine language instructions that request activities that general application programs should not be allowed to perform. These instructions can only be executed when the CPU is operating in “privileged mode.” Examples of privileged instructions include requests to change the CPU’s current privilege level and requests to alter registers that control memory access limits.


  1. What is the difference between a process that is waiting as opposed to a process that is ready?


ANSWER: A process that is waiting would not be able to advance if given a time slice (perhaps because it is waiting for a peripheral device to complete a task) whereas a process that is ready would be able to continue execution if given a time slice.


  1. Describe the bootstrap


ANSWER: When the computer is first turned on, the boot loader program stored in ROM is executed.   This program directs the computer to load the operating system into main memory from mass storage. The boot loader then executes a jump to the operating system, the operating system takes over.


  1. Why is a “test-and-set” instruction included in most machine languages for CPUs designed for multitasking environments?


ANSWER: The “test-and-set” instruction are useful when bits in main memory are used to record whether various nonshareable resources have been allocated because they allow memory cells to be read and altered without fear of interruption.


  1. Explain why the average length of a time slice would be reduced if the processes in an operating system’s process table perform lots of I/O





ANSWER: Once a process requests an I/O operation, its time slice will be terminated, it will be labeled as a waiting process, and another process will be allowed to start another time slice. Thus, the first process’s effective time slice would be reduced.


  1. In the sense of the term virtual memory, give an argument that multiprogramming creates virtual


ANSWER: The term virtual memory refers to the illusion of a memory space that is larger than that actually present. This illusion is created by the operating system. Multiprogramming is a technique used by operating systems to create the illusion of more CPUs than are actually present.


  1. Describe concerns that occur when designing a time-sharing/multitasking operating system that do not occur in the case of a single tasking


ANSWER: Possible answers include: The implementation of multiprogramming, the need to protect each process from malicious behavior of other processes, and the need to deal with the possibility of deadlock.


  1. Describe how the widespread availability of multi-core processors effects operating


ANSWER: Multi-core machines can actually execute multiple processes simultaneously, rather than merely multiprocessing to give the illusion of multiple CPUs. Multi-core operating systems must schedule and dispatch processes on such machines, and coordinating access to shared resources becomes a more challenging problem for these systems.



































Assessment of tax infrastructure and governance in Nigeria


The increasing size of government coupled with the ongoing global financial meltdown has renewed interest in the study of how the public sector can be used to provide a stimulus thereby remedying the situation and supporting the long-run growth of the Nigerian economy. The argument on how the public sector affects growth is polarized along two schools of thought. Those who believe that the public sector promote growth do so because of the provisions of public goods, the corrections of negative externalities and market failure by government etc. While those who think contrary to this, do so because they reason that taxes generate distortions in the economy and as such lead to lower growth, (Widmalm, 2001). The effect of taxation on growth depends on what is taxed, i.e. if the tax system extracts more or less resources from private agents (the tax level), or because they raise a given amount of revenue in more or less distortive ways (the tax structure), (Arnold, 2008). Taxation is thus, one of the most important variables that affect long term economic growth, but this simple truth has been neglected in the Nigerian economy because of the huge revenue generated from oil.

Tax structure refers to the mix of taxes on physical and human capital which satisfy a given government budget constraint, (Widmalm, 2001). Studies on tax structure have argued that the type of tax system adopted in every economy has implications on the economy through its effect on the supply of labour, investment in both physical and human capital and even savings, and since growth simply depends on the accumulation of capital and labour, so that any work studying tax effects on investment and labor supply do capture the relevant effects on growth. That is why the study of tax structure and economic growth is important in every economy especially an open economy like Nigeria that has to compete with other economies for investment.

According to Musgrave (1969), in the theory of tax structure, economic factors bear on the tax structure development in two ways. As the structure of the economy changes, the nature of the tax base changes as well, and with it the handles to which the revenue system may be attached. This change in either the tax base or tax handles subsequently leads to a change in the productivity of tax systems and economic growth. Some of the works done in this area include Ndekwu, 1988; Katz, 1983; Helms, 1985; Koester and Kormendi, 1989; Wang and Yip, 1992; Easterly and Rebelo, 1993; Devereux and Love, 1994; Milesi-Ferretti and Roubini, 1998; Widmalm, 2001; Bleaney et. al, 2001; Arnold, 2008; Cardia, 2003; Lee and Gordon, 2004; Anastassiou and Dritsaki, 2005; Loan, 2007; Arnold 2008; among others.

The Nigerian tax structure was initially defined to include only the direct and indirect taxes. The direct tax is made up of personal, corporate income and petroleum profit taxes. Indirect tax which was formerly made up of import, export and excise duties have undergone various reforms with the taxes under it joined together and called customs and excise duties. The tax handles under indirect taxes have increased, with the inclusion of withholding tax regime in 1978; value added tax (VAT) in 1993 and other tax systems. A study group and a working group were also inaugurated in 2002 and 2004 respectively to fashion out ways to entrench a better tax policy and improve tax administration in the country.

Available statistics shows that the link between taxation and economic growth in Nigeria since 1970 has been unstable. Between 1970 and 1990, the contribution of tax revenue to GDP was below 30 per cent, with the lowest being 9.7 per cent in 1970 and the highest of 24 per cent in 1982. While this is so, direct taxation has remained the highest contributor to this basket hovering around 28.1 per cent and 85.9 per cent within the period. Petroleum profit tax formed the bulk of this revenue from direct taxation with the highest contribution of 94.7 per cent in 1974. Udoh & Ebong (2009) highlighted the increasing importance of revenue from direct taxes relative to indirect taxes. This they adduced to the dominance of the oil sector in the economy. This sector showed a decreasing return between 1995 and 1999, thus affecting the shares of petroleum profit tax in direct tax revenue and also the total tax revenue. Beginning from 2003, the shares of direct tax revenue have been within the range of 72.0 percent and 84.7 percent. This is largely due to the high price of oil recorded in most part of the period 2003-2008. All these show that the tax system in Nigeria is still in a state of motion and will continue to be until a system that will generate the highest revenue to government without causing a distortion or deadweight loss to the economy is produced



It is true that problem of tax collection and administration is universal but the third world countries of which Nigeria is one, seem to be more plagued and inflicted both in weight and magnitude than the developed nations of the world.

The research work primarily involves identifying the problems of the personal income tax generation and administration in Nigeria taking a case study of Board of Internal Revenue, Enugu state. The specific problems of this research are as follows:

  1. Improper system of keeping accounts and records in the internal Revenue office, which was seen to be quite mechanical and out
  2. Lack of staff and inadequate training of the available tax


  1. No enlightenment on the part of tax payers as regards the importance of taxation is another problem of tax generation and administration .
  2. Tax collection and administration in Enugu state is not efficient and efficiently
  3. Also corrupt alliance of tax collectors with tax payers to avoid tax for them (tax collectors) to make fast

Thus lack of enforcement power on the board makes tax laws useless and not serious to tax offenders /defaulters.





“the Project topic:  The effect on two teaching method on academic achievement of Junior secondary School in agricultural in kabba bunnu local government area of kogi state is a very vital factor in school decision since it influences their returns, affect their values in educational sector. The research was carried out to ascertain and test the application and relevance of two teaching method, of some School in, to investigate whether there is significance difference in students’ performance using two teaching methods (practical and lecture) in Agriculture, to find out whether there is adequate instructional materials to teach using two teaching methods (practical and lecture) in Agriculture, to determine whether there is adequate and competent teachers to teach using two teaching methods (practical and lecture) in Agriculture. The researchers conclude that: Government should provide adequate instructional materials for secondary school students in Agriculture, Government and school administrators should ensure adequate supply of facilities in schools to ensure good teaching, The Agriculture teacher should employ appropriate methods and skills in relation to the topic they wish to deliver in Agriculture lessons and teachers should use different methods to teach students in Agriculture.



  • Background of the Study

The field of education has undergone a significant shift in thinking about the nature of human learning and the conditions that best promote the varied dimension of human learning (Applefield, Huber & Moallem, 2001 as cited in Gan, 2008). Several researchers had suggested that human learn best if they repeat same behaviour several times, and the theory behind this type of learning in most western schools is viewed through the viewpoints constructivist. (Gan, 2008).

According to Facey-Shaw & Golding (2005) cognitive theories of learning attempt to explain how instructors can use information to improve students’ learning. However, constructivist theory suggests that human learn better if there is an interaction between previous knowledge and new knowledge. Thus, there has been a paradigm shift in the designing of instruction from behaviourists to cognitivists and now to constructivists (Cooper, 2008).

According to Gan, (2008) the conventional teaching approach usually involve teacher starting the lesson by introducing the topic or concept, explaining it and then give some works examples. Lastly, the teacher gives home work to the students. In this kind of learning situation, students are not able to construct their own understanding since they are not actively participating in the teaching and learning process. Students are not able to think creatively, innovatively and critically since they perceivably received what have been taught to them.

In addition some students are not able to keep with the teaching pace. Hence, in order to promote active participation of student’s teachers should adjust their teaching style to a more learner-centred once. One possible teaching approach is the peer-tutoring teaching approach. On the other hand, peer-tutoring are systematic, peer/mediated teaching strategies (Rohrbeck, Ginsburg-Block, Fantuzzo & Miller, 2003).

To further buttress on the above statement, Ezengwu (2007) stated that majority of teachers in the field still employ conventional methods in the classroom teaching, these methods though not without some advantages are found to be didactic, stereotype, ineffective and non-result oriented. The National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) as cited in Anselm (2010) argued that to continue to progress in mathematics achievement, we must improve the quality of mathematics instruction received by all secondary students. Although many factors affect a student’s mathematics learning, one factor over which schools have the most immediate control is the choice of mathematics program to be implemented by teachers, administrators and curriculum developers.

Peer tutoring is not a new idea, it is possibly as old as any form of collaborative or community action and has probably always taken place implicitly or vicariously (Topping 2005). But in a changing Higher Education landscape, more formalised and even assessed forms of peer teaching are becoming ever more popular. Indeed Peer tutoring schemes appear to becoming strategized; developing to meet calls for accountability, better assessment, and improved outcomes for students. (Anselm, 2010).

Peer tutoring is a very old practice traceable back at least as far as the ancient Greeks.  Archaic Definitions of peer tutoring perceived the peer tutor as a surrogate teacher in a linear model of the transmission of knowledge from teacher to tutor to tutee. Later it was realised that the peer tutoring interaction was qualitatively different from that between a teacher and a student, and involved different advantage and disadvantages (Razia, 2012).

Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that consists of pairing students together to learn or practice an academic task. The pairs of students can be of the same or differing ability and/or age range. Peer tutoring encompasses a variety of instructional approaches including Cross-Age Tutoring, Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), and Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT). Variations exist among instructional approaches. However, the underlying theory is consistent: peer interaction can have a powerful influence on academic motivation and achievement (Light & Littleton, 2000; Steinburg, Dornbusch, & Brown, 2004; Wentzel, 2006). The research base also suggests that socialization experiences that occur during peer tutoring can benefit both the tutor and tutee by motivating students to learn and increasing their social standing among peers (Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes & Martiniez, 2002; Rohrbeck et. al, 2003; Miller & Miller, 2008). When students understand the benefits of peer tutoring and have the tools to become effective tutors and tutees, they make greater progress than those who are not given any instruction on how to work together (Fuchs, Fuchs,  Hamlett,  Phillips,  Karns, & Dutka, 2007).

Peer-tutoring consists of students partnership, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement for structure reading and mathematics study seasons. Peer-tutoring refer to situation where one child provides instructional assistance and guidance to another child (Tan, Cheah & Choug, 2005).

Furthermore, Nathern and Liz (2007) as cited in Ezenwosu, and Loretta (2013) noted that peer tutoring gives teachers the capability to accommodate a classroom with diverse learners to improve academic achievement across ability levels and content areas. According to Vygotsky (1987) as cited in Razia (2012) peers play a special role in children’s development. Although children’s relationship with their parents is more intense and enduring than relations with peers, interactions among age-mates are more free and egalitarian. The greater fluidity of peer relationships offers children the opportunity for a new kind of interpersonal experimentation and exploration.

Schools across the country are adopting and using student centered instruction rather than the conventional teaching method of instruction. This method of teaching has increased student achievement in all subjects of the elementary classroom, as well as the use of mathematics in everyday life (Topping, Campbell, Douglas & Smith, 2003).

Motivation was an additional benefit of using peer assisted learning to promote student learning in the mathematics classroom. Results have also indicated that learners were motivated in achieving their own success in mathematics (McMaster, Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006). Research on peer-assisted learning and its effects on students in mathematics, has proven to be a beneficial way in achieving success (McMaster et al., (2006); Nesselrodt & Alger, (2005); Robinson, (2005); Spencer, (2006).

According to research on same-age and cross-age peer tutoring, significant gains were made in learners of all backgrounds (Cairo & Craig, 2005). Nebo (2012) stated that this conventional method of teaching has failed to recognize the uniqueness of the inquiry base nature of Mathematics and the learner’s individuality thus failed to encourage creative thinking in the learner leading to poor achievement of students. Based on this  educators and scholars are challenged to seek for an intervention or innovative methods that would enhance academic achievement of students in Mathematics some of these methods includes concept mapping, discovering method, co-operative learning, target task approach, peer tutoring e.t.c. (Okoye, 2013).

According to Benjamin 2010 the benefits of peer-tutoring is that a struggling student can benefit greatly from having to prepare and teach the topic that they are studying to a tutor from the same age group as them. The formal lines that exist between a teacher and a student aren’t as defined with someone who is the same age as the person learning, and are therefore easier to cross and find common ground with that said student.

Therefore, students need to be able to master problem-solving skills. One way to achieve this goal is through peer-assisted learning (also known as peer tutoring), which, according to Calhoon (2003), is defined as students working together to teach one another. According to Summers (2006), this style of learning is correlated to social constructivism because students use their own knowledge to assist each other with assignments and class assessments





Electronic Marketing is the use of information and applications that are used for planning and implementing the concepts, distribution, promotion and pricing of goods and services, and can lead to transactions that will fund, individual and organizational goals. In another perspective, electronic marketing, which is formed when, technical infrastructure (data bases, proper terminals, servers, software) must be provided, and customer relationship using these technologies. E-marketing uses technology as a logical addition to the traditional marketing techniques (Henry, Gilmore, and Gallagher 2007).

Most firms have in progress developing e-marketing strategies for the web (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). The scope that customers adapt to the e-marketing services is directly associated to the website design and on the fact that how comprehensiveness of the website (Doherty and Chadwick, 2009). Culture is playing a role in global e-marketing as people adapt to new environment things (Krishnamurthy and Singh, 2005).

Electronic Marketing is viewed as a new business practice that is apprehensive with the promotion of goods, services, information and ideas through the Internet and other electronic medium (El Gohary, 2010). E-marketing is part of e-commerce as it is defined as the buying and selling online, giving virtual place, store fronts, digital value creation and various distribution channels intermediaries (Strauss and Frost, 2001).

E-marketing is becoming the need of this advanced society so companies are keenly looking towards it and they are anxious to adopt this trending method. It can help those building


strong interaction with their customers thus making them more loyal to brands and maintaining the increased market share (Khan et al, 2012). The customer’s satisfaction is continuously changing in the e-retailing industry i.e. firstly, they are concerned with the convenience shopping and then price perception that leads to after sales services (Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2005). Van den Poel and Leunis (1999) studied the capabilities of the World Wide Web as a new type of non-store vending in which the Internet is a direct link between the consumer and the retailer or producer, by passing the traditional store. Retail channel functions performed by the www were categorized as follows:

  1. Non-store information channel;


  1. Non-store reservation channel with a traditional mail or courier service delivery and


  1. Non-store purchasing and physical delivery


National (Key) account relationship management is typically used in large organizations to keep a close tie with large volume and/or important customers.

Oliver (1997) points out that everybody is not technology thrilled. Some customers do not mind paying a premium to keep the person-to-person contact when shopping (sales people, clerks, and cashiers). Oliver (1997) also suggests that electronic shopping might be context- dependent. The electronic experience is favored at diverse times for different products.

His context-dependent model for purchasing goods and services conceptualizes three levels of commerce. The first level is known as the “Market place,” where personal interaction, ritual and sense of community predominate. Theater, exercise, street markets, special clothes and dining out are in this category.


Background to the Study

Personality can be defined as consistent; unique and organized set of characteristics of a person; determined by environmental (e.g., culture, social class, family) and genetic factor that influences his or her cognition, motivation and behaviors in various situations .
Where personality is said sum total of our behavior, there are some personal factor that leads parental expectation toward children. Parents’ belief, knowledge, cognition, schema, judgment, child rearing belief, parent child interaction , dimensions of home environment and other parenting behavior and pattern have impact on parental expectation. Hence, nature and degrees of expectation among parents varies. McArdle and Duda’s (2005) study showed, parental expectation were positively related to parent’s personal standard only and parent’s self-esteem was predicted by high perceived parental expectation. Conversely, maternal depressed mood is associated with both low maternal expectations and low maternal expectations for children’s coping are related to overprotective parenting .
Parents’ personality play a key role towards the children development in all perspectives, such as social, emotional and educational. According to Kordi & Baharudin(2018) and Akbar, Asrar, Younes, Chisthi (2015) parenting style is a psychological arrangement that characterizes the strategies which are commonly practiced by parents to raise their children that includes the attitudes and behaviors of parents. Parents’ personality affect child’s self-development, self-esteem and academic performance.
A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child. Parenting practices refer to specific things that parents do while raising their children. These can refer to the imposition and use of schedules, rules, expectations, punishments, rewards, etc. Basically, parenting practices can refer to any type of regular interaction that a parent has with their children, Alley, 2014. But Heller, (2014) argued that parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in individualistic countries like Germany spend more time engaged in face-to-face interaction with babies and more time talking to the baby about the baby. Children develop skills at different rates as a result of differences in these culturally driven parenting practices. Children in individualistic cultures learn to act independently and to recognize themselves in a mirror test at a younger age than children whose cultures promote communal values.

The role parental involvement is also significant in children’s academic outcomes and have also been related to the provision of educational toys, answering inquiries, and engaging in dialog with them about their experiences. Furthermore, having access to a computer at home and living in a family with a medium to high level of engagement in out-of-home activities such as visiting libraries were linked to optimal developmental outcomes for children (Le et al., 2021). Given the importance of parental involvement in boosting children’s outcomes, it’s not unexpected that there’s been a lot of curiosity about what factors influence the kind and frequency of parents’ involvement in activities with their children. Reduced cognitive stimulation in the home has also been linked to single parenthood and insecure employment (Martin et al., 2022). Even though these results tell us a lot about how economic disadvantage affects parent involvement. Giallo et al. (2013) study reveal that less attention has been paid to the psychosocial characteristics of the parent, child, and family setting that may affect how much time parents spend with their children at home. Based on the above-mentioned literature and gaps there is a need to further explore the impact of various parenting styles on early childhood learning with parental self-efficacy as a mediator. Additionally existing studies have mostly focused on structural or socioeconomic variables, implying that parents with less education who are from a lower socioeconomic standing and are experiencing financial difficulties, are less responsive to their children and provide less learning stimulation.

Thus, until a few decades ago, parents and even educators thought that the only thing children need from the day they are born through their development processes is to be provided with the proper physical needs i.e. food, shelter, fresh air, clean and hygienic environment. It is thought that if all these are available, then the best have been done for the child to attain normal development. However, we now know through modern psychology that to provide only physical needs is not enough. The emotional attachments of young children to their parents (and other caregivers) remain a cornerstone of psychological well-being in early childhood and in later adulthood.


The central plot tying Americanah together is the romantic relationship between Ifemelu and Obinze. They have a kind of idealized teenage love as they find each other in school and become incredibly close, but they are then separated when Ifemelu goes to America. Ifemelu cuts off contact with Obinze during her period of depression, and this silence goes on for years. During this time each character has their own romantic experiences: Ifemelu dates Curt and Blaine, while Obinze marries Kosi. Even while Obinze and Ifemelu are separated, their romantic lives remain the central plot focus, particularly as Ifemelu deals with racial and cultural issues in her romantic relationships. With this Adichie not only creates tension and an interesting plot, but also delivers social commentary through an individual and emotional lens.

Apart from this central relationship, Adichie examines other kinds of romantic relationships as well, like Kimberly’s idolization of her narcissistic husband Don, Aunty Uju becoming the devoted mistress of The General, and many of the women of Lagos dating and marrying for money alone. Most of the novel’s romantic relationships are portrayed as somehow unhealthy or lacking, and the contrast to this is the kind of pure, romantic love and connection between Ifemelu and Obinze. The novel ends without them reaching any definite conclusion, but it does at least end on a hopeful note, implying that Ifemelu and Obinze’s love might be able to rise above the world of materialistic, one-sided, or unhealthy relationships.

1.2 Statement of the problems

Many who have made Chimamanda’s work the subject of their study dwell on the sociological, historical, political, feminist, political, cultural and even material dimensions, not many, if there is any, have been done on the modernist aspect of these works especially Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah. That is why in this present research, the researcher intends to fill this missing gap

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