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The capacity of the mass media to create awareness on any issue in modern society has come to be recognized. Society, therefore, depends mostly on the mass media for its information and communication needs. The functions of the media in the society have been identified as surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of society in responding to the environment, transmission of social heritage from one generation to the next and providing entertainment (Wright 1959:9).

According to Wright, “surveillance refers to the collection and distribution of information concerning events in the environment both outside and within any particular society”. This  is the news function of the mass media. Correlation includes “interpretation of information about the environment and prescription for conduct in reaction to these events. This is the editorial or opinion function of the media. Transmission of social heritage according to Wright “focuses on the communicating of knowledge, values, and social norms from one generation to another or from members of a group to newcomers”. This is the education function. Entertainment includes “communicative acts primarily intended for amusement, irrespective of any instrumental effect they might have” (Wright 1959:9).

An understanding of these functions and their discrete nature is needed by advocacy practitioners and academics to understand how the media functions. Thus, a newspaper, for example, might report a conflict news story (surveillance) and follow it with an editorial or opinion on how to stem the conflict (correlation) and feature stories on educating the public on the ultimate futility of conflicts (education) and a cartoon or illustration on the need for peace (entertainment).

McQuail quoted by Watson (2003:104-105) further explains these functions under five headings- information, correlation, continuity, entertainment and mobilisation.

Information: Providing information about events and conditions in society and the world; indicating relations of power; facilitating innovation, adaptation and progress;

Correlation: Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and information; providing support for established authority and norms; socialising; co- ordinating separate activities; consensus building; setting orders of priority and signalling relative status;

Continuity: Expressing the dominant culture and recognising sub-cultures and new cultural developments; forging and maintaining commonality of values;

Entertainment: Providing amusement, diversion, and the means of relaxation; reducing social tension;

Mobilisation: Campaigning for social objectives in the sphere of politics, war, economic development, work, and sometimes religion.

However, the activities of the media are carried out within certain constraints which may be socio-economic, psychological or political which affect how these activities are viewed by the society. Factors like ownership, location, orientation and the economics of media production among others may colour the role of the media in society. These conflicts of role perception have been manifested in comments on the role of the media in conflict situations. All stakeholders seem to have divergent views on the role of the media. The position of people at the helm of affairs in government was poignantly brought to the fore in 1985 by then Prime Minister of Britain, Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher told a gathering of attorneys that democracy “must find a way to starve the terrorists and hijackers of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend” (Picard 1990:314). The oxygen of publicity referred to above is a summation of the role of the media in airing the views of “terrorists” and hijackers.

In Nigeria, government officials at the highest levels consistently find the media as the culprit in the many violent conflicts that have bedevilled the nation. About a month into his appointment as National Security Adviser (NSA) to the Nigerian President, Sambo Dasuki

had already accused the Nigerian media of contributing to the security challenges of the country, “My experience with the media has so far not been a good one… In most of the places I visit, the media have been one of the problems and it is all these idea of sensational journalism that everybody wants to publish a story that is not necessarily a story, to make good headlines.” (The Punch, July 6, 2012:1-2)

Background to the study

The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was created in Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017).

It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover  operations  against  armed  robbers.  Within almost  two  decades  of  its  creation,  the  unit  has  spread  across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.

The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality.

The  Nigerian  movie  industry,  Nollywood  has  also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigerian police force in their productions.Nigerians   having   been   subjected   to   wanton   arrests,   extortion  and  extra  judiciary  killings,  lunched  a  social  media  campaign  using  the  hastag  #Endsars  on  Twitter  to put an end to police brutality.

The #Endsars campaign started  with  the  publication  of  a  petition  by  convener  Segun  Awosanya.  It  was  signed  by  10,195  Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the  police  unit.    The  Twitter  campaign  started  on  the  2nd of  December  2017,  when  a  footage  of  police  officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The  campaign  became  a  trending  topic  on  Twitter  with  over  400,000  Tweets8  within  twelve  hours.

In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians  using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences  with  SARS,  the  dreaded  unit  of  the  police  created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However,  it  was  during  the  campaign  that  the  damage  caused  by  such  brutality  was  discovered.

The  campaign  also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to  the  convener  of  the  campaign.  The  campaign  further  revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth.

The sudden rise of protest movements during the recent economic crisis has brought to the fore once more the question of whether grievance theories may play a role in explaining collective action.

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scopeof the Study 9
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Conceptual Review 11

Content Page
2.1.1 Conceptual Model 11
2.1.2 Conflict: A Conceptual Clarification 12
2.1.3 News Media and the Coverage of Conflict 16
2.1.4 Peace Journalism: An Alternative Model to War Journalism 20 Criticisms of Peace Journalism and Counterarguments 24
2.2 Theoretical Framework 33
2.2.1 Agenda-Setting Theory 33 Relevance of the Agenda-Setting Theory to the Study 37
2.2.2 Media Framing Theory 37 Relevance of the Media Framing Theory to the Study 40
2.2.3 Social Responsibility Theory 40 Relevance of the Social Responsibility Theory to the Study 43
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 43
2.4 Summary of Literature 53

The Impact Of Democracy and Development of Rural Areas Evidence From The Nigeria Fourth Republic

The Impact Of Democracy and Development of Rural Areas Evidence From The Nigeria Fourth Republic


Despite complaints of fraud by political opposition in each election held since 1999, local and international election observers have regarded each of Nigeria’s general elections as relatively free and fair.
On the economic front, Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa and 26th globally. It now attracts more foreign investments than in the military era.
Taken together, the Nigerian democratic experiment seems to have come a long away.
The study offers interesting detail and finely reasoned conjecture about the paradoxical relationship between democracy and rural development in Nigeria. In this thesis, I organise the main ideas of the paper into five chapters 1-5:

The thesis demonstrates that Nigeria continues to face massive developmental and institutional challenges. This is despite the implementation of western liberal democracy and the good governance reforms driven by donors. The challenges include human capital deficits and extreme poverty. This is due to under-investment in health, education and infrastructure. For example, Nigeria’s human development index value for 2020 was 0.539, placing the country in the low human development category.
Of all African countries, Nigeria faces the most significant challenges for reducing poverty and inequality due to rapid population growth. More than 40% of Nigerians (83 million people) live below the poverty line of $1.90 a day.
Another 25% (53 million) are vulnerable. Yet, the combined wealth of Nigeria’s five richest men is $29.9 billion. According to a recent report by Oxfam International, the combined wealth of the Nigeria’s five richest men could end national poverty. The implication here is that democracy has led to massive increases in poverty and economic inequality in Nigeria.
The thesis flags another major challenge: high unemployment, which has continued to increase since 1999. At 33%, Nigeria’s unemployment rate is among the highest in the world. Youth unemployment is higher than for older workers. This means the risks of violent conflict and civil unrest are especially high.

And despite anti-corruption campaigns, Nigeria is still perceived to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Nigeria ranked 149 out of 180 countries in 2020, the second lowest in West Africa after Guinea-Bissau.
Then there is the security issue. Bandits, separatists and Islamist insurgents increasingly threaten government’s grip on power. Mass kidnappings, killings, maiming and other forms of insecurity are on the rise nationwide. This is true even in more stable parts of the country.
By and large, the book empirically demonstrates that the democratic experiment of the last 20 years has had negative results on Nigerians. Nigeria’s corrupt political elites (with a few exceptions) have largely been the beneficiaries of the democratic experiment. Not the masses.
Overall, the thesis makes a compelling argument for why democracy has failed to produce inclusive rural development in Nigeria. It offers perceptive insights into what the country needs to do to overcome its developmental and institutional deficits. It’s a very illuminating book and enjoyable to read. It is a valuable research for students, scholars, policymakers, politicians and development practitioners who want to comprehend the political dynamics of Nigeria. It is also an important contribution to the literature on the challenges of democracy and rural development.




The victims can file the case through the website under various sections and the user can send photo evidence if any online. There will be an ‘SOS ’capability in which, the user can press a button and his/her location will be sent to the nearest Police station. There will be a separate component for the accident victims so that FIR will be registered fast and treatment will be started as soon as possible. In the current system user’s information will be kept confidential and only users complain will be forwarded to the nearest police station. Users complain number will be forwarded from the server side automatically and for identifying location and authentic person, concept of cookies and IP addressing will be used. To eliminate the location conflicts between the police station server will play a vital role. It will search the address using IP address and then forwards the message to the police location from where the message has been received. We intend to create a project which will help bridge the gap between the police department and the common man. ‘Online crime report’ project will have the website from where the users can file FIR against the offender under the various sections. The main site will be maintained by the admin (from the police) who will then notify the user if the FIR has been registered and the necessary action has been taken

Automated Crime Tracking And Detection Information System For Security Agencies

Automated Crime Tracking And Detection Information System For Security Agencies

Chapter One/Introduction 

 Background of Study

The quest to control crime and breakdown of law and order increases has the society grows and diversity of human intentions and interactions abound. An ideal society is governed by laws and regulations that are collectively agreed upon and measurable consequences that will be meted out for any member of the society that is found culpable to have floated any specific component of the legal infrastructure.

Besides the legal infrastructure in a society are the security apparatuses that enforce the law with the interest to maintain law and order. The legal infrastructures determine the extent to which law enforcement agents can act or protect the common interests of individuals in the society. It also outlines the civic responsibilities and human rights for the members of the society.

Customarily, members of the society are supposed to report any incidence of breakdown of law and order to the appropriate civil and military security apparatuses. Reported cases are also supposed to be intelligently collected, evaluated and investigated to a more conclusive and justifiable end. Evidences are collected, protected and properly examined before accused persons are charged to Law court and fairly prosecuted. Investigations are carried out without fear or favour. In fact, any attempt to prevent due process during crime investigation is in itself a crime and it is also punishable under the law.

Until recently, the process of reporting and investigating crimes in the society has been mainly manual. Individuals who have some complaints will work into any offices of the security agents (e.g. Police, neighborhood corps) to inform and write in statement issues that may need their attention. At these offices, the security agents will raise an incidence form and ask the reporter to fill some appropriate segments. The security agents will also ask some intelligent questions from the reporter and make notes of preliminary investigations. Evidences suggested will be noted and further investigations will be followed up and new evidences will be collected, evaluated and protected.

The advent of technology has opened new fronts of opportunities of leveraging on the diverse benefits of information technology to crime reporting. There are various technology platforms that have been developed to assist how crime incidences are reported, responded to and investigated. The technological applications have gone from telegraph, special radio communication, and dedicated phone lines to a more responsive and more pervasive technological application platforms (web and mobile software applications). Majority of the members of the society nowadays have mobile devices that can easily access the internet. This makes the web approach the most economical and open approach for reporting crime with a far reaching benefits and coverage. Although there are several efforts that have been made in this area around the world, there is still no popular and responsive platform for reporting crime in Nigeria. The few available platforms in Nigeria (e.g. Amebo, Linda Ikeji) are blogs and are not ultimately serving the goal of properly reporting, evaluating and investigating various crimes in Nigeria. A close thing to it is the respective platforms sponsored by Economic Financial Crime Commission (EFFC) and Investigation of Crime and Corrupt practices (ICPC); they provide avenues to report crime incidences but investigation and response are towards financial crimes. This platform does not include murder, battery or harassment incidences which are commonly reported at the local Police station than financial crimes reported at EFFC and ICPC combined. These institutions and their respective platforms are specialized in the area of financial crime and their activities are so secretive that processes and progress of investigations are not shared with other security agencies and the members of the public.

The available platforms are far below how technology could be harnessed to report crimes. The platforms are not popular and not very intuitive to use by common citizens. The platforms are unidirectional in the sense they do not have feedback for the members of the society. All these gaps have necessitated our interests for an ideal application that will address the limitations.

We are looking forward to developing an all-encompassing web platform that reports all manners of crimes, open to all members of the public, suggestive (search for entities), interpretative and enlightening. The platform will provide a platform for various security agencies to share and gather evidences and mobilize members of the public for certain interests that will drive better policing, crime prevention and investigation.

We hope this project will address the gaps identified in the information space of crime reporting and investigation in Nigeria.

Statement of Problem

The notable crime reporting platforms are lopsided and not intuitive. The process of reporting crimes to security agencies still remain very difficult. The platforms are also unidirectional in the sense that they do not have feedbacks for the members of the society. The existing platforms do not support sharing of relevant information with other security agencies, thereby because owners of these platforms wants to take all the praise; while in actual fact security is being reinforced when meaningful and relevant information is shared among security stakeholders towards offering an excellent service. All these make our justice system questionable and irresponsible.

We propose an all-encompassing platform that will practically address ego issues among security agencies, give feedbacks and strengthen the overall security service and existing security apparatuses.

Design and implementation of crime rate prediction and detection system


The main thrust of this thesis is on Crime rate prediction and detection system. The crime data has been stored and processed using Common Integrated Police Application [CIPA] and it becomes useful for getting the criminal information but it does not help for the purpose of designing an action to prevent the crime. It has become a major challenge for police system to detect and predict crimes. There is no any kind of information is available before happening of such criminal acts which results into increasing crime rate. The presented thesis highlights the use of Forecasting technique to predict the crime in a specific area which can be useful for crime prevention. Therefore we are using ‘Short Term Forecasting’ algorithm to predict the future crime rate and analyzing its efficiency by parameters like Mean Absolute Percent Error [MAPE] and Mean Absolute Deviation [MAD].


Chapter Contents Page No.
  1.1 Description 1
  1.2 Problem Formulation 1
  1.3 Motivation 2
  1.3 Proposed Solution 3
  1.4 Scope of the project 5
  3.1Functional Requirements 8
  3.2 Non Functional Requirements 8
  3.3 Specific Requirements 9
  3.4 Use-Case Diagrams and description 10
  4.1 Data Modeling 12
  4.2Activity Diagrams 14
  4.3 Functional Modeling 16
  4.4 TimeLine Chart 17
  5.1 Architectural Design 19
  5.2 User Interface Design 21
  6.1 Algorithms / Methods Used 26
  6.2 Working of the project 28
  7.1 Type of Testing used 63
  7.2 Test cases 64


Design and implementation of e-registration system


1.0                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The field of information technology has improved tremendously in the past decade with the invention of all kinds of new technologies for example e-commerce, e-learning, e-business, and e- registration to mention a few.

In this technological era of education and doing business, information is considered to be an important asset for any academic institution. The availability of student’s data and feedback can help an educational institution to align its business processes according to the needs of its students and stakeholders. The effective management of these data can help institutions reach out directly to their students and stakeholders and also streamline its activities.

Commitments towards the success of tertiary education can be achieved through innovations such as updating of information, continuous enrolment, e-payment, and online student registration as well. This innovation approach helps pioneer many of the conveniences of students.

Many events have demonstrated that successful e-business is those that recognize the needs of their target users and match them with relevant contents. We are now in the age of knowledge is power and content is king. This phrase is often used in reference to any business conducted on the internet. People want to access product and services of an individual or corporation on a 24/7 basis. They also expect reliable, functional fast and user friendly services and any corporation that provides such services have higher success rates.

These benefits of e-business are also felt in the academic institutions. It can be applied in the areas of student’s online registration and payment of school fees. This system will offer among other things effective customer service and stream line supply chain management (the strategic management of distribution channels and the processes that support them). This system will have a site and will be accessed using any browser such as Internet explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Chrome etc.

This project work on the design and implementation of e-registration system on tertiary institution is aimed at the modern way of addressing the concerns raised by students, in order to maintain an efficient service delivery system. Such concerns raised are the manual handling of registration and student records, with also the overall view of improving efficiency in the registration process.

E-registration site can be accessed from anywhere with an internet connection, mostly these sites are portals. Pena-Lopez, (2009) describes a web portal as a site that functions as a point of access to information on the World Wide Web and portals present information from diverse sources. E-registration is a system that could easily manage its student body while also providing added bonuses, with its main goal being to ease the transfer of information. It simplifies the registration process through a web-enabled, user-friendly wizard and digitizes all supporting documents using intuitive process and tools. The education system requires a tremendous amount of data and documentation, and this e-registration solution allows institutions to focus less on processing paperwork and more on what matters most such as meeting the educational needs of their students by having a cost-efficient, secure registration process that allows for easy access to students files. Intranets and portals are supposed to provide an infrastructure through which end-users can gain effective access to information sources needed to assist in daily tasks such as effective decision making, planning and research (Brakel, 2003).

Many institutions in Nigeria have been somewhat quick to recognize the powerful transformational potential of portals and have developed and implemented their own. One of such is the portal of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Broadly one could argue that an institution with increasing student numbers, operating in a society with an increasing desire for instant access to information, needs to carefully consider new ways in which it can interact more efficiently with its students (Brown 2000; Twigg and Obinge 1997).

At Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, just like the other polytechnics, students are enrolled to pursue a 2-year National Diploma academic program (ND), and a 2-year Higher National Diploma program (HND). Students must pass and obtain the minimum polytechnic admission requirements of the SSSCE/WASSCE examination in order to qualify for admission.

An enrolled student is expected to register and pay their school fees. In most cases, enrolling and having to register a new student involves some manual processes which delay processes for both the polytechnic and more especially the students.

Student’s registration is done by students mostly at a registration center. Students have to move physically to campus to complete the registration process. The following are the problems inherent with the current system.

  1. Insufficient utilities in handling student’s registration.
  2. Inability of students to remotely register and access their registration number immediately.
  3. Students spend too much time in processing their registration and worse, this can only be done with their physical presence on campus.

The current system is outdated and can only be accessed through a clerk in the registration office/center. The new system will enable all students to access the system through a PC connected through the internet. Essentially, the idea of e-registration is to lead students to a convenient way of registering online. Students will be able to save their time, money, plus submit their information with just in few minutes. In additional, it can be done anytime, anywhere according to their preference, provided it is within the stipulated time period.

It is in this regard that this project looks at the student’s registration system at Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo in order to design and develop an e-registration system for the school.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

From the background of the study, one can observe the following problems which prompted this project;

  1. Difficulty faced by students in retrieving their lost receipt from bursary.
  2. Inconveniences faced by students queuing to pay school fees and collect registration form.
  3. Wear and tear that occurs during retrieval and manual handling of files, sometimes data get lost as a result.
  4. Increase of paper work in the bursary department and course form registration center.
  5. Difficulty experienced in updating of record in a file.
  6. Misplacement, loss or damage of student’s record.
  7. Inability of students to remotely register and access documents like school fees receipt.
  8. Difficulty in locating registration at crucial times.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this project will be concentrated towards the development of software that will help in removing the problems encountered with student’s manual method of registration. That is to say, the general objective of the study is to develop e-registration software.

The specific objectives include;

  1. To collect the detail record of students.
  2. To create a database for the students.
  3. To create an online transaction processing system for the payment of fees by students and generation of receipts.
  4. To create an easy to use friendly user interface.

1.4 Scope of Study

This study focuses on the development of e-registration system for Imo state polytechnic Umuagwo. It shall include programs which will contain detailed information of the students since first date of enrollment and up to the graduating day including all students’ information and procedures required by the students during registration.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This project work “the design and implementation of an e-registration system will be of great significance to tertiary institutions in the sense that it will help in overcoming the problems of manual operations. Such problems includes; difficulty experienced in updating a record in a file, difficulty faced by students in retrieving their lost receipt from bursary, and inability of students to remotely register and access documents like school fees receipt.

This institution will make use of the software to access their student’s record. The institution will through the knowledge gained in this work discover the need to fully adopt this new system. The students also will greatly benefit from this project as it will enable them to have a new experience of registration when the system is finally will also make them to embrace any policy strategy and innovational steps taken by the institution to enhance the quality of education in school.



1.6 Limitations of the Study

The act of carrying out a project work such as this was not an easy task. Several challenges were encountered by the researcher but efforts were made to ensure that they were overcome and that the objectives of the study were realized.

  1. Unavailability of data and inadequate resource materials for researcher in this part of the country.
  2. Time constraint was another issue the researcher has to battle with as a stipulated time was given for the accomplishment of this task.
  3. The problem of financial constraint was also an issue of great concern. The meager income available to me had to be managed to realize this work.
  4. The problem of interrupted power supply also affected my fastness in the design of my work.

In spite of these challenges the objectives of this study was realized as the researcher made judicious use of what was available.


CHAPTER TWO/Literature Review

2.1 Meaning of Registration

The relationship between poverty and economic growth in Nigeria



Background of the study

Poverty is a global threat, plaguing both developed and developing nations. It has a devastating effect on developing nations generally but sub-Saharan Africa in particular (Addae-Korankye 2014). Poverty has become pervasive in Nigeria in the last four decades despite the economic boom of the 1970s (Anyanwu 1997; Mohammed-Hashim 2008; Obi 2007). Similarly, it was discovered that about 60% of Nigerians live in poverty despite the country’s enormous oil wealth (Sadiq 2007). It can be argued that poverty varies from one subgroup to another such that poverty is seen in all its manifestations and its magnifications as antithetic to economic growth (Rodrigues 2009).

Globally, poverty has been recognised as a major blemish in developing economies ever since economists began to take interest in the third world (Killick 1981). On the whole, the Nigerian economy depends so much on the exportation of oil that nearly all its budgetary revenues come from oil earnings sold in the international market. In 1973, most economic indicators such as real per capita income, real wages and private consumption were positively impacted by the first oil shock, which caused a dramatic increase and sharp rise in them. Similarly, income inequalities between urban and rural areas increased sharply, primarily because of the oil boom and its spin-offs (Anusionwu & Diejomoah 1981). However, the international price of oil decreased or fell constantly between 1980 and 1985 and brought about worsening economic conditions; there was a sharp fall in the standard of living and the biting hand of poverty was ushered in as a leading problem in Nigeria (Okunmadewa 1996). To this end, the oil boom was recognised to have contributed immensely to the large appreciation of the Nigerian naira, which subsequently caused adverse effects to agriculture as a non-oil tradable that had been the mainstay of the Nigerian economy.

In Nigeria, the nature of the determinants of poverty can be traced to low or declining level of economic growth, income inequalities, unemployment, corruption, bad governance, diversion of funds into non-developmental projects, fund embezzlement, inappropriate macroeconomic policies, inadequate endowment of human capital, debt or borrowing, labour market deficiencies that were caused by limited growth in job creation, low productivity, low wages in the informal sector and poor development of human resources. Poverty can also arise through structural deficiencies such as environmental degradation, worker retrenchment, frequent and increasing crime rates and violence, decrease in the real value of safety nets, structural changes in the family as well as the neglect of the agricultural sector, non-development of infrastructural facilities, lack of enabling environment for infant industries, epileptic power supply, depreciation of the Nigerian currency (naira) and the military government’s inability to properly manage the Nigerian economy (Ajakaiye & Adeyeye 2001; NPC 2004; Ogwumike 2001).

Poverty became prevalent in Nigeria beginning in 1985 and was seen as an obstacle or limitation to economic growth because poverty was measured based on the world standard of $1 per day and $2 per day. International prices were adjusted for local currency such that purchasing power parity conversion factors were employed to compute the depth of poverty as well as its prevalence in Nigeria (Obadan & Odusola 2001). The poverty gap calculated on the basis of $1 and $2 per day as the mean shortfall below the poverty line indicated that 70.2% and 90.8% of Nigerians, respectively, earned income that put them below the poverty line in a survey conducted in 1992–1993. During the same period, the poverty gap computed at $1 and $2 per day was 34.9% and 59.0%, respectively (Mohammed-Hashim 2008; World Bank 2001). In 2010, the World Bank defined or readjusted the international poverty line of $1 equivalent in 2001 to a new international poverty line of $1.25 per day in US prices (World Bank 2011). Generally, poverty brings about impaired access to resources, reducing the capability of individuals to enjoy an improved quality of life, which might have been converted from available productive resources (Adeyeye 1999; Ogwumike 2001; Sen 1997). On the other hand, poverty persists as a result of inefficient employment of common resources, occurring because of a weak policy environment and inadequate infrastructure, as well as a lack of access to improved technology. Other causes include the non-availability of credit instruments and exclusion of ‘problem groups’ from participating in the democratic process. Thus, widespread poverty and an over-reliance on earnings from oil might have hindered economic growth in Nigeria.

In spite of the strong growth rate in Africa’s second largest economy, poverty has kept rising in Nigeria to the extent that about 100 million of her citizens live below the poverty line of $1 per day (Daniel 2011). The proportion of Nigerians who were absolutely poor rose from 54.7% in 2004 to 69.9% in 2010 (National Bureau of Statistics [NBS] 2011; Omoniyi 2016). Nigeria’s economy is projected to continue to grow, but poverty is likely to get worse as the gap between the rich and poor continues to widen on a daily basis. This is why Kale (2012) considers poverty to be a paradox in which a higher proportion of Nigerians continue to live in poverty in spite of the continued enormous growth in the Nigerian economy year by year. To this end, the NBS (2010) reported that 112 518 507 million lived in relative poverty while it put Nigeria’s population at 163 million. It went further to compare this figure with Uganda, where only 28 million were poor; this is an indication that there are about four times as many people living in poverty in Nigeria as in Uganda. This shows that Nigeria has failed using all standards of poverty measurement including the relative poverty index. The various poverty measures in Nigeria pose different profiles; for instance absolute poverty puts it at 60.9%, 61.2% for $1 per day, 93.9% for the subjective measure while a recent survey conducted by Harmonized National Living Standard put the poverty profile at 69.0%. The much-celebrated gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate that averaged 7.4% in the last 10 years becomes questionable. Additionally, Nigeria’s Gini coefficient was 0.268 in 1980, 0.295 in 1990, 0.430 in 2004, 0.490 in 2009 and 0.834 in 2012 (Nwagwu 2014; UNDP 2009; World Bank 2014a). Similarly, the Human Development Index for Nigeria during the same period was 0.46 in 2004; it increased to 0.49 in 2009 and further increased to 0.51 in 2012 (UNDP 2011; 2013; World Bank 2014b; World Data Atlas 2015). These figures show that income inequality and human capital development increased in Nigeria during the period covered by this article.

This succinctly shows that there is a sharp disconnect between poverty and growth because the majority became poorer through exclusion. It is therefore necessary to mention that what is needed to fight the biting hand of poverty and ensure that poverty is banished, is a holistic attempt. This can only come through the adoption of macroeconomic policies of all-inclusive growth nationwide, to which it seem no adequate attention has been given by previous studies. The objectives of this article are to examine the relationship between poverty and economic growth, to analyse the determinants of economic growth and to establish the causes or determinants of poverty in Nigeria. The rest of this article is divided into four sections: a section dealing with a review of the literature, one to present the methodology of the study, one to discuss the results and finally the conclusion and recommendations.

Statement of the Problem

Many Economists would argue that igniting economic growth and sustaining it is the surest and most sustainable way to fight poverty. Cross-country studies on economic growth and poverty reduction indicate that a 1% increase in growth has been associated on average with a 1.5% reduction in poverty (Hasan, Mitra and Ulubasoglu, 2007). The Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2004) report stated that there is a great deal of variation in how much economic growth has reduced poverty across countries and even within countries over different periods of time. In statistical terms, the report noted that variation in economic growth can explain only around 45% of the variation in poverty reduction. These two  ―stylized facts‖  about growth and poverty linkages  – that poverty reduction is closely associated with economic growth but that this association is by no means perfect suggests two challenges for policymaker (Hasan et. al., 2007). According to author, first what are the policies that can ignite and thereafter sustain growth? Second, how does one ensure that growth generates significant opportunities for the poor?

To date, poverty situation in Nigeria remains a paradox, at least from two perspectives. Firstly, poverty in Nigeria is a paradox because the poverty level appears as a contradiction considering the country‘s immense wealth. Secondly, poverty situation has worsened despite the huge human and material resources that have been devoted to poverty reduction by successive governments in Nigeria with no substantial success achieved from such efforts (Oyeranti and Olayiwola, 2005). According to the authors, since poverty remains a development issue, it has continued to capture the attention of both national governments and international development agencies for several decades. Since the mid 1980s, reducing poverty has become a major policy concern for governments and donor agencies in all poverty stricken countries, Nigeria inclusive. Thus, to attain the objective of reducing poverty in Nigeria, the preoccupation of the government has been the growth of the economy as a pre-requisite for improved welfare. To this effect the government therefore initiated several economic reform measures which include Economic Stabilization measures of 1982, Economic Emergency Measures in 1985 and Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986. Components of SAP include market- determined exchange and interest rates, liberalized financial sector, trade liberalization,                                        commercialization    and privatization of a number of enterprises (Aigbokhan, 2008).Specialized agencies were also established to promote the objective of poverty reduction. These include Agricultural Development Programmes, Nigeria Agricultural, Cooperative and Rural Development Bank, National Agricultural Insurance Scheme, National Directorate of Employment, National Primary Health Care Agency, Peoples Bank, Urban Mass Transit, mass education through Universal Basic, Education (UBE), Rural Electrification Schemes (RES) among others (Adigun, Awoyemi and Omonona, 2011). The recent effort is based on the seven point agenda. Like earlier reform packages, the strategy considers economic growth as crucial to poverty reduction. The major issues of  the seven point agenda include: power and energy, food security, wealth creation and transportation. Others are land reforms, security and mass education.


There may have been increased polarization in income distribution, resulting in a wider gulf between the poor and the rich, manifested in a disappearing middle class in the Nigerian economy. Despite policy interventions in the past to correct this abnormality, income inequality has increased the dimension of poverty (Oyekale, 2007). Additionally, attention to the importance of income distribution in poverty reduction seems to be growing. Whether growth reduces poverty, and whether in particular, growth can be deemed to be ―pro-poor‖, depends, however, on the impact of growth on inequality and on how much this impact on inequality feeds into poverty (Araar and Duclos, 2007).

The rate of rising poverty in Nigeria has led to a number of empirical researches to understand the link between economic growth and poverty reduction. These research works (for example Adigun ,et al.2011, Akanbi and Du Toit, 2009; Orebiyi, 2008 and Osunubi, 2006) however, are one sided in the sense that they particularly focused on how various government policies affect poverty reduction and not if the growth performance are pro-poor. The argument in the theoretical literature on whether a country should focus on achieving growth and thereafter ensure that the pattern of its growth is pro-poor or focus on reducing poverty by ensuring that this will lead to growth is still unclear and therefore requires further empirical works especially for the case of Nigeria. This study is therefore designed to fill these gaps by attempting to address the following research questions: why has the rate of poverty been so high in Nigeria despite record increase in economic growth? What is the nature of relationship between poverty and Economic growth in Nigeria? If recorded economic growth cannot be translated into improved living condition of the poor, what other measures of policy can be explored to reduce poverty and how?

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to explore the linkages between poverty and  economic growth in Nigeria. The specific objectives are:

i To ascertain if recorded economic growth in Nigeria translated into poverty reduction ii To assess if growth is pro-poor in Nigeria.

Research hypotheses

Based on the objectives outlined above, the following hypotheses therefore were formulated for this study:

Ho1 Recorded economic growth does not translate into poverty reduction in Nigeria Ho2 Growth in Nigeria is not pro-poor

Scope of the study

This study is limited to the Nigeria economy for the period 2004-2008, it uses Nigerian households‘ survey for two periods 2003/2004 and 2008 to make an ex-post analysis of changes in poverty.

Significance of the study

This research would contribute to the ongoing policy debate by identifying growth patterns of the Nigerian economy and to what extent the poor benefit from economic growth. In order to achieve this, it uses Nigerian households‘ survey for two periods 2003/2004 and 2008 to make an ex-post analysis of changes in poverty. It therefore employs Kakwani, Khandker and Son (2004) framework called Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR) measure which utilizes unit record data available for two periods. This measure of pro-poor growth according to the authors, captures a direct linkage (or monotonic relation) with poverty reduction, indicating that poverty reduction takes into accounts not only growth but also how benefits of growth are shared by individuals in society. Therefore, a pro-poor growth measure that satisfies the monotonicity axiom implies that the magnitude of poverty reduction should be a monotonically increasing function of the pro-poor growth rate.

 Limitations of the Study

Although the research has reached its aim, there were some unavoidable limitations. First because of time limit, this research was conducted using 1996-2004 Nigerian Living Standard Household Survey (NLSS) data. The study should have included 2008 NLSS but the data released then by the Federal Bureau of Statistics required some statistical amendments to be used for empirical study. The use of Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR), instead of the usually Additively Decomposable Growth Rate measures resulted in the delay of the project completion in order to get acquainted with the software application.

Organizations of the Study

The paper is organized as follows: Following the introduction in chapter one is the literature reviews in chapter two, which include theoretical and empirical literatures. Chapter three is for methodology, the model of Pro-Poor growth, applying of additively decomposable poverty measures and Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR) measures, calculating of PEGR and data sources, while chapter four consists of data analysis and presentations of the results. Chapter five contains summary, conclusion and recommendations


In the world of student academic research trending topics defines the best researches. Below are compiled list of 2022 accounting topics that will stand out among other topics






Background of the Study

Presently, there has been a paradigm shift in the concept of library and Information centers. Earlier in the traditional form of library and information services, we were concerned with documents in print format and their organization, retrieval and preservation. With the paradigm shift, now we are more or less concerned with hybrid libraries, digital libraries and virtual libraries. This is due to introduction of ICT which has brought about changes in the process of collection development, their organization and accessibility as viewed by Kibirige HM, (2009). Formerly, there were no competitors for libraries. At present with the emergence of web and internet, users can access their required information globally at any point of time and space in their work place. Therefore, the very existence of libraries is in question. In order to establish the importance of libraries, we have to change our traditional methods of services to modern service methods. D. Lankes, (2000), pointed out that in this changing environment, to compete with the advanced needs of users, establishment of digital library is an essential component. Today’s world is digital world, which is concerned with creation, sharing and using information in digital form. Information is floating in all directions and moving all around us. We have to catch right information and make it available to right person at the right time, which is the aim of any modern library.

Chowdhury, G.G. (2002), defined a digital library as a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely. The first published use of the term has been traced to a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. The term was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. Bush (1945) created a vision based on experience (“Digital library.”) The Digital Library Federation defines digital libraries as: Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily available for use by a defined community or set of communities. Lynch (1994) states that, “digital libraries provide users with coherent success to a very large, organized repository of information and knowledge.” According to Berkeley Digital Library Project, University of California, the digital library will be a collection of distributed information sources



Statement of the Problem

The collection of the traditional libraries is mostly print media, manuscripts, etc. and are not well organized. The documents are deteriorating at a rapid pace, the collection information is not easy to locate and so does not easily reach users, and again the traditional libraries are confined within a physical boundary. Therefore this work intends to give efficient access to information directly to the department and researchers.

Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research work is to Design and implement a web-based e-catalog library system to enable users easily access digital collections of e-books, e-journals e.t.c.

The research work will give access to digital library resources in support of student’s research works and lectures in the department.

The objectives of the study are to:

  1. Develop a Digital Library Management system to gain access to the holdings of library through automated catalogs.
  2. To optimize searches in a library collections.
  3. Implement the system designed in (i) above using Hypertext Pre-processor (PHP).
  4. To advance digital library technology.
  5. Test the system implemented in (iii) above for performance.


The significance of this study is to introduce a digital library system that employs the technology for quick access to library materials, journals, documents audios in digital format remotely using a computer system to solve problems that the traditional library cannot solve in order to improve the height of education in the department of mathematics/statistics/computer science, university of agriculture, Makurdi.

The product of the research will assist the department to manage the resources available for use efficiently keeping a good record of the daily activity and also allowing remote access to the resources of the library. Thus promoting efficient delivery of information economically to all users.


Scope of the Study

This work is focuses on developing a “Design and implementation of a web-based e-catalog library system; this research is bounded to digital E-library system.

 Definition of Terms

  1. Digital Library: A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats.
  2. Resources: Materials required as a source of information in digitalized library.
  • ICT: Information communication technology.
  1. Traditional Library: A library system that still implements the file base system.
  2. LAN: local area network.
  3. Network: Collection of computers and hardware components interconnected by a communication channel that allows remote sharing of resources between the computers.





Bush, V. (1945). As we may think, atlantic monthly. History of Personal Workstations, New York, Addison-Wesley, 641-649.

Shiri, A. (2003). Digital library research: current developments and trends. Library Review, 52(5), 198-202.

Lynch, C. A. (1994). The integrity of digital information: Mechanics and definitional issues. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45(10), 737-744.



  • Background to the Study


The childhood years have been identified as the most vulnerable years of one’s life, as the child1to a very large extent depends on its parents or guardians for survival. Any omission or commission on the part of the parents or guardian can make or mar the child for life. Under Public International law, the child is recognized as among the vulnerable persons whose rights must be protected and one of such rights that must be promoted and protected is the right to education2.

It has been said that education and enlightenment are two nuclei to a proper understanding of what human rights are and the modus operandi in their enjoyment. So for a person to understand and appreciate the entirety of his rights as a human he must be educated first. To deny a person education especially in his early years is akin to denial of life.





  1. A child has been defined by the Article 1 of the Convention on the Right of the Child 1989 as well as Child Right Act as a person under 18 years. So teenagers are
  2. Article 1 of the World Declaration on the Right of the Child to Education 1990
  3. Arinze – Umobi, D. C., The Nigeria Girl – Child, Right to Education and the Nexus with National Development. http//www.right-to- education in accessed 21/11/12


It is also said that education is the greatest force that can be used to bring about change and also the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources4. A nation whose citizenry are


majorly uneducated is sure to be under developed and stagnated. Illiteracy has been traced as the major root cause of poverty and education is identified as the surest route out of poverty especially for most children in the developing countries.



Public international law recognizes children’s right to education as a fundamental human right which guarantees the full enjoyment of all other rights as contained in international legal instruments5.

In fact under international law every individual, irrespective of race, gender, nationality, ethnic or social origin, religious or political preference, age or disability is entitled to a free elementary education6. This right was explicitly enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which stated thus, “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free at least in the elementary and fundamental stages, Elementary education shall be compulsory…7



  1. International law and the Right to Education/Report to education accessed 13/2/13
  2. International legal investment for example:Universal Declaration on Human Right 1948 (UDHR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Right ( ICESCR) 1966, International Covenant on Cultural and political Right ( ICCPR) 1966
  3. Article 1 UDHR 1948
  4. Ibid,







This instrument recognized the critical importance of education especially at the rudimentary and foundational stages of human life. It is believed that the UNDR actually set the pace for the development and the recognition of the right to education under International law.


Also the landmark Convention on the Rights of the Child among other things enjoins state parties to recognize the right of the Child to Education with a view to achieving the Right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity by making primary education compulsory ,available and free for all8.


The various Legal Instruments that contain this right have gained universal acceptance at both regional and domestic levels and It is expected that Countries which have ratified and domesticated these Conventions, Treaties, Covenants etc should incorporate them into their local Laws and ensure adequate implementation. However, in reality these Laws have become mere paper tigers with little or no practical relevance. For instance, Nigeria as a Nation has at both the Federal and State level domesticated, incorporated and enacted into laws the Convention on the Right of the Child which embodies the children right to education. There is the Child Right’s Act of 2003 and the various State Edicts on the Child’s Right.





  1. Article I of the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) 1989. Note that the Declaration on the Right of the Child 1924 and 1959 were precursor to the Convention on the Right of the Child.





Yet, there are no visible effects of implementation in the society. In fact there are no clear cut legal mechanisms set up to ensure implementation of these laws nor is there any such provision in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.


It is a truism that the Constitution of every state is thefundamental law of the country, reflecting the underlying and unifying values of thesociety, spelling out the basic rights of each person; it also serves as a frameworkfor all other laws and policies in any given state9. In order words the constitution of any country places the limit to which values and rights can be respected, promoted and protected in any given society thus where a lacuna is created by the constitution itself no other law can effectively fill that gap10.


The state on the other hand is thecentral actor to any claim that borders on the rights of its citizens; it is the primeduty-bearer and the prime implementer of the Constitution. It is the guarantor of the rights provided in the Constitution and it is thestate’s signature vis-à-vis the international norms and standards which binds itto respect, protect and fulfill these rights, particularly the right to education11. So where the state lacks the political will to implement and enforce its own laws, the society is helpless.





  1. United Nation on right to education leading – the intl accessed 13/2/13
  2. Section 1 (1 & 3) of the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Cap C 23 Law of the Federation of Nigeria 2004
  3. International law and the Right to Education/Right-to-education. Project 13/2/13






The drafters of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in order not to over burden the Government ,cleverly exonerated the State from enforcing certain rights which are recognized in international Law ( right to education inclusive) by


including it in Chapter II on Fundamental Objectives and directive Principles of State Policy which are essentially not justiciable12.


Paradoxically, section 6 (6) (c) of the same Constitution ousted the powers of the Court to question Government on any act or omissions relating to Chapter 11. Consequently, chapter 11 are clearly non-justiciable and thus the practicality of the provision that ‘Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy ‘as provided in section 18 has been termed as mere rhetoric with no legal relevance13.


Herein lays the bone of contention which this research work is set to find a solution. Indeed there are plethoras of international documents guaranteeing and protecting children and their rights especially to education which the Nigeria Government is signatory to that are just dormant and in operative in the face of glaring abuses14. Governments have come and gone yet none has mustered enough political will to implement these laws, thus it is the objective of this research work to unravel the


seeming challenges and proffer achievable solutions as to the way forward.


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