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DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF DISTRIBUTION STATIC COMPENSATOR (DSTATCOM) FOR REACTIVE POWER COMPENATION AND VOLTAGE CONTROL

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF DISTRIBUTION STATIC COMPENSATOR (DSTATCOM) FOR REACTIVE POWER COMPENATION AND VOLTAGE CONTROL IN OTOVWODO DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB-BASED SYSTEM FOR DISTANCE-LEARNING

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB-BASED SYSTEM FOR DISTANCE-LEARNING (CASE STUDY OF NOUN UNIVERSITY)

Abstract

Advances in computers and communication technology have changed traditional methods for learning and skills training. Today, distance learning is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to traditional programs. Based on the in-depth study and analysis of the network distance education, this paper mainly talk about how to use the theory, methods and techniques of network distance education in enterprise training and how to develop and apply it which is suitable for enterprise. Therefore, the web-based enterprise distance education system is designed and developed. The system creates an integrated and open training platform. The platform can not only offer large numbers of training resources, improve training surroundings and enhance training efficiency, but also make training management more digitized and scientific. It is suitable for all kinds of business training, competitions and related management.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

background to the study

 

Aquaculture is an enterprise that is growing rapidly and improving the economy worldwide. Fish are cultivated for food and source of revenue for the growing human population, restocking of streams, lakes, and rivers to curb the shortage due to the decline in the wild capture and for sport fishing (FAO, 2000). Aquaculture aims at production of fish to provide protein in the diet (Sugunan, 2002). Fish is easily digestible, has ability to prevent and manage heart disorders and neurological diseases (Tan et al., 2007).

 

The global aquaculture fish production rose from 7 percent in 1973 to more than 30 percent in 1997 (Delgado et al., 2003). In 2010, global aquaculture production reached 79 million tons, growing at an annual rate of 9.7 percent since 1998 (FAO, 2012). However, aquaculture global fish production stood at 66.6 million tons in 2012 (FAO, 2014). In 2014, world aquaculture production of fish accounted for 44.1% of total production from capture fisheries and aquaculture up from 42.1% in 2012 (FAO, 2016) and amounted to 73.8 million tons (OECD, 2016). In 2015, global aquaculture production reached 106 million tons, of live weight growing at an average annual rate of 6.6% since 1995 (FAO, 2017a). In sub Saharan Africa, aquaculture growth during 2001-2015 was averaged at 10.4 % (FAO, 2017a).

 

In Nigeria, over 70% of fish and fish products consumed locally are from wild capture fisheries, principally Lake Victoria. “Fish production has increased over the last decade from 1,012 metric tons produced in 2003 to 21,487 metric tons in 2012” (Munguti et al., 2014). By 2013, Nigeria’s total fish production was 152,711, tons of which 23,501 tons came from aquaculture (KNBS, 2014). However, aquaculture production registered a depressed performance with total fish output dropping by 19.8% to 14,952 tons in 2016 from 18,656 tons in 2015 in the country (World Bank, 2017). In Nigeria, increasing fish farming is important since it provides a source of income and revenue to farmers and government, improves food security, creates job opportunities to the growing population, and optimizes use of water resource and conservation of biological diversity (Okechi, 2004).

Fish products play an essential role in food security and meeting the nutritional needs of the human population in developing and developed countries (FAO, 2014; Suvitha et al., 2015).

Fish is also an important source of micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (FAO, 2012). Fish diets with adequate amount of protein are needed for growth, development, survival, reproduction and good health (Suvitha et al., 2015). “Amino acids play an important function as building blocks of proteins and are mainly obtained from proteins in diet and the quality of dietary protein is assessed from essential to nonessential amino acid ratio” (Mohanty et al., 2014; Suvitha et al., 2015). The demand for alternative protein source in fish feed has become more prominent (Sales and Janssens, 2003). “Fish feed is considered good if well accepted by fish, has high digestibility, easily available and is cost effective” (Sogbesan and Ugwumba, 2008). Good quality fish feed should contain all nutritional content supplied in their correct proportions (Wang et al., 2006).

Growth and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) are excellent means to figure the suitability of feed in fish feeding experiments (Sahu et al., 2007). “The food conversion ratio (FCR) in fish is 1.5 times better than chicken, lamb or beef” (Menon, 1991). The proceeds from aquaculture are 2 to

5 fold higher than conventional agriculture. However, “Aquaculture in many developing countries has been faced by many challenges” (Osure, 2011). “These include, lack of certified seeds, poor commercially produced feeds, inadequate training programs for farmers and extension workers, inefficiency in dissemination of technology among others” (Mwangi, 2008; Osure, 2011).

The main cost-effective source of protein for fish is plants and animals. Animal proteins are advanced compared to proteins from plants since they have all essential amino acids and are readily digestible but costly. Traditional farmed ingredients have increased the processing of the feeds, hence has influencing success of aquaculture (Kumar, 2000). The aim of formulating good fish feeds is to attain utmost protein deposition and growth within least inputs of feed at a lowest cost. Experimental fish feeds can either be whole or supplemental. Whole diets provide all the nutrients essential for optimum growth and health of fish when reared in bulk in tanks and ponds. Supplemental diets are intended to sustain the ordinary food usually accessible to fish in ponds  or outdoor cages. “In fish farming nutrition is critical because feeds represent 50-60% of production cost” (Steven and Helfrich, 2002).

The development of natural and traditional aqua feeds like, termites, black soldier fly larvae, desert locusts, cockroaches and polychaetes have been used either as fish bait, wild fish food or supplementary diets in animal feeds (Karuri, 2010) but without much research on their nutritional content. Fish farming management is aims at attaining utmost fish biomass within a specific time frame (Schuchardt et al., 2008).

Objectives and research questions 1.3.1General objective

To compare the growth performance of catfish fingerlings fed on termites, cockroaches, black soldier fly larvae, desert locusts, polychaetes and silver cyprinid (Control diet) as source of protein in their diets.

     Specific Objectives

  1. To analyze nutritive composition of target four commercial feeds of Clarias gariepinus
  2. To determine growth rate of catfish fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) fed on target experimental diets as source of amino acids.
  3. To assess the content of the amino acids in the catfish fingerlings tissue fed on the target experimental

     Research questions

 

  1. What is the nutritive value of the target of Clarias gariepinus?
  2. What is the growth rate of catfish fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) fed on target experimental diets as source of amino acids?
  3. What types of amino acids are present in catfish fingerlings tissue fed on target experimental diets?

THE EFFECT OF PIDGIN ENGLISH ON UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS COMPETENCE

THE EFFECT  OF PIDGIN ENGLISH ON UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS COMPETENCE

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

During the European quest for new markets and raw materials in the 17th Century, many Portuguese missionaries and traders arrived on the shores of Jamaica and West and Central African  countries like: Sierra Leone, Cameroon and Nigeria were largely visited by the missionaries. Akinmade and Oladipo (2010). For trade and religious purposes with no language in common they created a form of communication with bases from the European language, giving birth to most African languages: such as Creole, Pidgin, and Patois. These languages came to serve the linguistic need there, by giving birth to the Cameroon Camfranglais (mixture of French and English) spoken by the youth today.

 

Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), originated as a lingua franca for trade purposes amongst the Nigerians and the Portuguese merchants during the 17th century. Onguene (2012).  It is broken English like Patois and Creole, spoken along the coast of West Africa and it has extended to the diaspora, due to Nigerian migrants.  After the departure of the missionaries, this lingua franca did not go with them but remained and is the most widely spoken language in Nigeria today compared to English.  There are still Portuguese words present in the NPE such as : “ Sabi (to know)  and Pikin  (child)”

NPE is regarded as a bastardization of the English language used by the non-literates, though it is highly spoken in Nigeria by every individual starting from an early age. In the country, both the literates, such as the president, campaigning politicians, lawyers, doctors, and non-literates speak and understand pidgin, though it is mostly used in informal situations and English is used for official purposes and the medium of education. NPE is the most widely spoken language as it is not a native language of any tribe in Nigeria but the only language everyone understands and regards as the easiest form of interaction amongst the population.The Federal Republic of Nigeria has three major languages namely: Igbo in the (East), Yoruba in the (South) and Hausa in the (North )  having English as the official language alongside other 500 different spoken dialects Sumaila (2008). Indeed, NPE is considered as a bastardized language as it is yet to have a standard written form. University in Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria both undergraduate and postgraduate levels , department of English and Drama are now offering it as a course  and many struggles are being put up for NPE to be considered Nigeria’s official language as it is highly used by the masses, high school students, postgraduates and undergraduates, politicians and business people.

 

NPE is not only spoken in Nigeria, it is widely used by the diasporic communities in America, England, and Canada. In addition, a large group of the Nigerian community in Luxembourg use Pidgin as a means of communication, these diasporic communities use pidgin among themselves as a means to feel at home Brubaker (2005).

 

NPE varies in written and spoken form depending on which part of the country the speaker is from, as the language is spoken differently in each state of the country. Each State tends to add words from their dialect into Pidgin making it more interesting for the ears and understood by everyone. Nigerian Pidgin English remains the only language that unifies the 186 million population.

Microbial (fungi) analysis of waste fish pond water

Microbial (fungi) analysis of waste fish pond water THESIS

CHAPTER ONE

Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture which involves raising fish commercially in ponds or tanks or enclosures, usually for food. There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries hence fish farming has offered fish marketers another source (Hastein et al., 2006). Over the past three decades, aquaculture has developed to become the fastest growing food-producing sector in the world (Hastein et al.,  2006). A large proportion  of fish products come from small-scale producers in developing countries or low  income countries. More than 80 % of  global aquaculture  products are produced in  fresh water (Hastein et al., 2006). From its early development in Asia, aquaculture has undergone huge development and is today highly diversified (Hastein et al., 2006).

Aquaculture consists of a broad spectrum of systems, from small ponds to large-scale, highly intensified commercial systems. The target of every farmer is to produce a wholesome fish of high quality and aesthetically pleasing to the eyes with high  yield and economic value towards profit maximization. This  therefore  involves  every  means to increase yield by fertilizing the ponds that have  low  natural  food productivity with organic manure to stimulate and improve the primary and natural  food production (Ampofo and Clerk, 2010). Although organic  manure  play greater  role in fish pond production, the potential health hazard associated with it should not   be under estimated. Since fish are cold-blooded, every aspect of their physiology is controlled by temperature, which constitute to the infection of fish.

An assessment of the level of awareness of sexual reproductive health education among young adults

An assessment of the level of awareness of sexual reproductive health education among young adults

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Adolescence is the period in life of an individual between childhood and adulthood. The word adolescence is derived from a Latin word “adolescere” meaning “to grow” Adolescents are neither a child nor an adult between the age range of 10 – 19 years (WHO, 2009).  Such a person normally experiences various physical and psychological changes and challenges including those relating to sexuality.  The adolescent, therefore needs to be appropriately informed on issues relating to sex through relevant educational opportunities.  Such sex educational competencies can be provided through Home Economics education that should be able to equip adolescents with competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) in sex education to handle challenges relating to sexuality and be able to develop their potentials to the fullest. Adolescence encompasses different stages of physical, sex and mental development of an individual and is bewildered with varied stresses which result from distinct developmental changes in life (Burt, 2010).Adolescents is a male or female that go through developmental transition from childhood to adulthood and it involves a number of biological, cognitive and socio emotional changes. Biological changes involve physical changes in the body, growth spurt, hormonal changes and sexual maturation that come with puberty. Cognitive changes involve individual thinking and intelligence that increases in abstract, idealistic and logical thinking. Socio emotional changes involve individual emotions, personality and relationship with others (Santrock, 2004). Adolescents equally have intellectual, social, physical, emotion, and moral characteristics. Briefly, these characteristics range from modeling behaviour, restlessness, mood swing to storm and stress. They are often characterized by their youthful exuberance and penchant for experimentation especially with sex (Moore, 1993).Sex is an important terminology in biology and psychology and it is referred to as identity and activity. By identity, it is the anatomical structure of sexual organs associated with certain physiological operations that makes an individual to be identified as male or female. By activity, it involves caressing and sexual intercourse (Sandler, 1980).This is body chemistry and it is what they (adolescents) take as love. It is also involved the location of the adolescent where he/she is residing urban or rural area and those they interact with especially with sex.Sex education is the education that is filled with worthwhile knowledge concerning sexual behaviours and values that enables adolescents to control their sexual need. It can also be defined as all forms of instructions that deals effectively with adolescent challenges and social relationships directly or indirectly associated with sex (Anyaegbunam, 2003). The author agreed with the report of United Nation (UN) General Assembly (2001) which stated that sex education is the education that develops the skill of young people in making informed choices about their behaviour and feels competent on acting on those choices. Sex education therefore is the knowledge, skill and attitude relating to sex and sexuality that enables adolescents deal with their sex challenges. It is also the educational measures that centers on sex which stand for protection, presentation, improvement and development of an individual (Burt, 2012).Sex education for adolescents is the process of inculcating knowledge, attitude and skills required to cope with adolescent sex challenges. It involves knowledge, attitude and skill that help to promote and affect positive behaviour change in adolescent. The major aim of sex education is to promote proper development of personality and sexual well being. It also develops in adolescents the desired skill necessary to enhance interactive learning task so that communication, negotiation and listening skills can be developed and practiced (Mario, 2011). It is widely accepted that adolescents have a right to sex education because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against exploitation, unintended pregnancy, STDs, HIV & AIDS. Adolescents faces challenges posed by body and emotional changes, relationships with the opposite sex and ignorance of the dangers inherent in their sexual act such as teenage pregnancy, abortion, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).Challenges are difficult task that test someone ability and skill and many adolescent sees challenges as a problem, some of the challenges includes adjusting to the altered appearances, functioning of the maturing body, learning to deal with sexual desires, confronting sexual attitudes and values, experimenting with sexual behaviours and integrating these feelings, attitudes and experiences into a developing sense of adulthood (Moore, 1993).Skill is the ability coming from ones knowledge, practice, and aptitude to do something well. It is a potential acquired by individual through training which is meant to ensure proficiency and competency in the performance (Nnachi, 2008). Skill develops in an individual a positive social behaviour such as self discipline, good judgment and ability to get along with others and this skill can be gotten in large extent through sex education needs.Need is a process for determining and addressing gaps between current conditions and desired condition or wants of an individual (Shafloot, 2011). It is also the discrepancy between the current conditions and wanted condition which must be measured to appropriately identify the problems of adolescents which could be a desire to improve current performance to correct a deficiency (Burke, 2005). Need is what one requires in order to meet a target standard                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chutta (1992). Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyemauche and Ekong (1999) explained that need is a requirement deemed necessary for effectiveness. In the context of this study, Need is the sex education knowledge, attitudes and skills adolescent required for social and moral living. It is also necessary to include sex education to upper basic curriculum particularly to catch them young and also to appropriately guide them on their needs through teaching and learning (Nnachi, 2008).It is therefore important to organize a formal instruction on sex to adolescents in junior secondary school that will guide and mentally prepare them for adulthood roles and equally prevent them from dangers of negative sexual behaviours (Barbara Hasting 2013). Organizing formal instruction involves identifying different areas of need while teaching the components of sex education as thus – sex roles, pre-marital sex and teenage pregnancy, social relationship, personal identity, emotional development, sex drive or sexual feelings in childhood adolescence sense, social aspects, conception, pregnancy and births, physical, emotional and psychological changes during puberty, gender roles, STD (Jateline, 2011) and proper ways of teaching sex education to adolescents which are discussion, lecture, role-play, counseling methods and other methods (MacAuthor, 2003)  in order to get them properly informed and it is necessary and beneficial for society as a whole to have an informed population about sex and sexuality, ignoring STIs, STDS, HIV/AIDS and teen pregnancy won’t make sex related challenges to go away, even if it’s taught from a biology perspective and not a morality perspective, it will still be beneficial. Adolescent are tricked into making bad decisions simply because of ignorance.This work identified the sex related  challenges of adolescents as it relates to their; body changes, emotional challenges, challenges from their relationship with the opposite sex,  knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to cope with the  above named challenges and areas of sex education needs of adolescents in the junior secondary school of Anambra state. In schools of Anambra state, there are six educational zones which include Aguata, Awka, Nnewi, Ogidi, Onitsha, and Otuocha zones. But Onitsha harbours the highest market in West Africa called the Main Market, Awka is the state capital and Nnewi is also a big city which causes migrants from other zones, people from different part of the country and characters to fill the state. There are cases of sexual harassment, teenage pregnancy, domestic violence, sexual immorality like rape, homosexuals, hence the sex education needs of adolescents that aimed at reducing the risk of potential negative outcomes of adolescence sex practices

The Effects of inflation on household consumption in Nigeria

 

Introduction

The effect of inflation on the consumption patterns of consumers unlike the effect of income on consumer expenditure has not received the needed attention in the marketing environment literature both theoretically and empirically. The effect of inflation on consumer spending is both direct and indirect (Katona, 1975). Periods of inflation influences consumers to save rather than consume because of pessimism and uncertainty in the economy. Inflation again influence consumer spending behaviour by influencing both liquid and illiquid assets since in period of inflation, there is motivation to hold real assets and not assets fixed to nominal values or not indexed to inflation. Household’s income distribution (employers, employees, debtors and creditors) is changed by inflation (Howard, 1978). Inflation may erode the real value of nominal assets and reduces the real value of wealth held in those assets by the households. Cash-out mechanism (mortgage equity withdrawal) in the presence of a long term interest rate in an economy may results from inflation since inflation determines nominal interest rate and savings. Studies have examined the conditions under which inflation influence consumer spending in an economy using both survey data and time series data. The findings are found in the works of researchers such as Eggertsson and Woodford (2003); Eggertsson (2006); Eggertsson (2008); Malmendier and Nagel (2009); Piazzesi and Schneider (2009); Eggertsson (2011); Christiano, Eichenbaum, and Rebelo (2011); Woodford (2011); Coibion and Gorodnichenko (2012); Werning (2012); Correia, Farhi, Nicolini, and Teles (2013); Dr¨ager and Lamla (2013); Romer and Romer (2013); Carvalho and Nechio (2014); Hausman and Wieland (2014); Cashin and Unayama (2015); Farhi and Werning (2015); Jalil and Rua (2015). According to researchers (Doepke and Schneider, 2006; Mian, Rao, & Sufi, 2013) if consumers expect inflation rates to be higher they increase present consumption as a results of a wealth-redistribution channel, given that they have higher marginal propensities to consume out of their wealth.

Contents

Antimicrobial effects of extracts of orange peels and ginger on local clinical isolates

Antimicrobial effects of extracts of orange peels and ginger on local clinical isolates

Abstract

A noticeable potency of many species of plants present against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Bacterial resistance against antibiotics is consider one of the common problems in the medical world, so one of the most important steps in microbiological researches is to find a new antimicrobial compound with minimal side effects. So the aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Citrus sinensis (orange) peel aqueous and organic solvent extracts on some medically important animal pathogens and to determine some phytochemical compounds to be recycled to added in animals ration. Hot and cold aqueous in addition to ethanol extracts of Citrus sinensis (orange) peel were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against some medically important pathogens isolated from animals and poultry farms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenes, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) by agar well diffusion method. Both hot, cold aqueous and ethanol peel extracts showed high antibacterial and antifungal effect against the all examined pathogenic samples. Also, phytochemical compound of aqueous and ethanol peel extracts were determined, results of the chemical tests explain the extracts of Citrus sinensis (orange) peel contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponin compounds while glycosides not found. So it could be concluded that the Citrus sinensis (orange) peel extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria in addition to its antifungal activity against Candida albicans and to be introduced as an alternative to chemical antimicrobial drugs, is required wider investigation also ecologically as recycling of fruits peel can be used as food additive in animal ration

ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus [THUNB]) WAXED WITH DIFFERENT PLANT OILS

ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus [THUNB]) WAXED WITH DIFFERENT PLANT OILS

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

Background

Watermelon, (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb] Matsum. & Nakai), is a popular fruit crop grown in  Nigeria (Agbetiameh, 2006) and produced widely in many other countries (FAOSTAT, 2011).  Records available suggest that watermelon production accounts for nearly a 6.8% of the world  area reserved for the purposes of growing vegetables (Guner & Wehner, 2004; Goreta et al., 2005). In Ghana, the area under cultivation is typically around the southern belt however, other areas around the Upper Volta basin are also under cultivation (Agbetiameh, 2006; Lamptey,
2010).

Agriculture forms the backbone of most developing countries including Ghana. Until recently, agriculture accounted for 38% of its GDP, trade and industry accounted for 28.6% and services
accounted for 33.6% (ISSER, 2008). Over the years, non-traditional agricultural exports (NTE) have been a major foreign exchange earner with commodities such as orange, banana, papaya,
mango and pineapple topping the list as major NTE earners. Even though there is a potential for the development of watermelon into a major foreign exchange earner, significantly missing
among the list of non-traditional export is watermelon (ISSER, 2011). Watermelon will serve as a better option than most non-traditional export due to its high market value and potential in
ensuring food security; evidently due to its high nutritional content (Kwofie, Pers. Com.)

According to Gichimu et al., (2008), watermelon is one of the widely produced vegetable fruit crop and the global consumption of watermelon is speculated to be greater than any other crop of
the cucurbitacea family. In the meantime, the over 6 billion people in the world may have to depend on certain countries for their watermelon needs. In confronting this challenge, countries
within the tropics such as Ghana are at a comparatively advantageous position because both climatic and soil condition favour year round production. nigeria can therefore place itself
strategically for a take-off as one of the leading producers of watermelon in the world. However, this can only be achieved if an effective production and postharvest system is put in place.
Additionally, the whole pre and postharvest value chain must be assessed in order to enhance the knowledge base.

Assessing the Effects of Cognitive Restructuring and Solution Focused Therapy on Self-Concept Among Students

Assessing the Effects of Cognitive Restructuring and Solution Focused Therapy on Self-Concept Among Students

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background to the Study

 

Solution-focused therapy, also called solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT), is a type of therapy that places far more importance on discussing solutions than problems  Of course, you must discuss the problem to find a solution, but beyond understanding what the problem is and deciding how to address it, solution-focused therapy will not dwell on every detail of the problem you are experiencing.

Solution-focused brief therapy doesn’t require a deep dive into your childhood and the ways in which your past has influenced your present. Instead, it will root your sessions firmly in the present while working toward a future in which your current problems have less of an impact on your life

Self-concept is the image that people have of themselves. This image is formed in a number of ways, but is particularly influenced by interactions with important people and events in their life. Many scholars described self-concept in different ways such as the perception or image of one‘s abilities and uniqueness. At first, one’s self-concept is very general and changeable… as one grows older, these self-perceptions become much more organized, detailed, and specific (Pastorino& Doyle-Portillo, 2013). According to Abdulkadir (2011), self-concept may be high or low. It refers to a man‘s nature or personality, image or the qualities that makes up the individual.Ajoku (1998) pointed out different terminologies used to represent self-concept such as self-esteem, self-image, self-identity, self-perception, self-acceptance and self-worth. In this study, self-concept comprises among others the above terminologies.

 

Research conducted by Marsh, (2004) has established that there is close relationship between self-concept and academic achievements of students. Students with high self-concept participate enthusiastically in the learning process. Such students are more confident, active and motivated towards learning and perform better in examination as compared to those students with low self-concept because self-concept is the significant tool that differentiates between academic achiever and underachiever students.The lower the self-concept, the lower the aspiration for academic success; because the lower the aspiration, the lower the achievement and vice versa. This situation occurs because the students‘ actions are influenced by their self-concept as it is the basis for all motivated behaviour(Ahmad, Zeb, Ullah, & Ali, 2013). Gender has also beenhighlighted to influence academic self-concept and academic achievement in various studies done on gender, self-worth, and academic achievement among students.A significant difference in self-concept was noted between males and females and in their

 

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academic achievements (Lanza, Osgood, Eccles, & Wigfield, 2002; Sar-Abadani-Tafreshi, 2006).

 

Achievement can be described as something which someone has succeeded in doing. In education, the term academic achievement refers to the performance or accomplishment of students in academic or learning task (Ngwoke, Numonde, & Ngwoke, 2013). It is used to indicate the degree of success attained in some general or specific area of academic task (Enyi, 2009). Academic underachievementcan be defined as a discrepancy between the child‘s school performance and some index of his/her actual ability. That is, one whose achievement score is lower than his/her ability score. Ability may be measured by test scores or even by observing the child at home or at school. Underachievement is most commonly defined as a discrepancy between potential (or ability) and performance (or achievement). A student who appears capable of succeeding in school but is nonetheless struggling is referred to as an underachiever (Coil, 2010; McCoach&Siegle, 2001).Based on the definitions, underachievers can be described as students who, in a significant way, are not working up to their potential. These students often see ‗YOU CAN DO BETTER‘ written boldly in red on their homework, test papers, and report cards and receive this message in many other ways, both verbally and nonverbally.For a variety of reasons they continue to do much less than they are capable of doing.

 

The low academic achievement of students in external examinations in Nigeria has become a source of great concern to all the stakeholders in the education sector. This calls for concerted efforts for remediation (Ngwoke, Numonde, & Ngwoke, 2013). This problem if not urgently addressed will lead to academic failure in final examinations such as the examinations conducted by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the National Examinations Council (NECO). To buttress this, Ali (2009) claimed thatmost secondary school leavers failed the May-June examinations conducted by WAEC and NECO.Of the candidates who sat for the year 2009 May/June Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations, 84% failed. Also, of the

 

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candidates who registered for 2013 WASSCE (May/June edition), 20.04% obtained credits in English language, Mathematics and at least three other subjects (Ogundare, 2013). Though not all these failures wereunderachievers, majority of them may be described as academic underachievers since their failure may not be attributed to any learning disability or difficulty.

 

For a better clarification of who the underachieversare; here are their major characteristicsas mentioned by Williams (2008) irresponsibility, laziness, poor study skills,lower attainment value on learning, and disinterest in school, as well as lower academic self-concept which is the focus of this work. Based on the findings of some researchers, academic underachievement has no gender barrierbecause it affects both sexes but in different forms and rates. Weiss (cited in Chukwu-etu, 2009) posited that gender differences affect underachievement, with approximately 25% of females who are above-average in academic performance may be considered underachievers as compared to 50% of above-average males.

 

Cognitive restructuring was originally developed by Albert Ellis and Arron Beck. It is a psychotherapeutic process of learning to identify and dispute irrational or maladaptive thoughts. That is, a coping technique; substituting negative, self-defeating thoughts with positive, affirming thoughts that change perceptions of stressors from threatening to nonthreatening(Dombeck, 2014). In this technique, four major steps are to be followed. They are: identification of problematic cognitions known as “automatic thoughts” which are dysfunctional or negative views of the self, world, or future; identification of the cognitive distortions in the automatic thoughts; rational disputation of automatic thoughts with the Socratic dialogue and development of a rational rebuttal to the automatic thoughts (Hope, Burns, Hyes, Herbert &Warner, 2010).

 

The researcher‘s choice of cognitive restructuring is based on its efficacy in managing both cognitive and behaviour problems as noted by Ekennia, Otta, andOgbuokiri (2013).The purpose of cognitive restructuring is to widen students‘ conscious perspective and thus allow

 

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room for a change in low self-concept perception to a positive one because cognitive restructuring has been used to help individuals experiencing a variety of psychological or psychiatric conditions, including low self-concept, depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders, bulimia, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), and gambling, just to name a few (Chronis, Gamble, Roberts, & Pelham, 2006).Cognitive restructuring helps students consider any maladaptive patterns in their thinking-feeling-behaviour cycles.

 

Solution Focused Brief Technique (SFBT), often referred to as simply ‘solution focused therapy’ or ‘brief therapy’, is a type of talking therapy based upon social constructionist philosophy. It focuses on what clients want to achieve through therapy rather than on historical background of problem(s) that made them seek help (Guterman, 2006).Solution Focused Brief Technique(SFBT) is used to treat the entire range of clinical and psychological disorders, and in educational and business settings. Meta-analysis and systematic reviews of experimental and quasi-experimental studies indicate that SFBT is a promising intervention for the youth with externalizing behaviour problems and those with school psychology and academic problems, withsignificant effect measures. The researcher prefers this technique because it has been used by many researchers to find solution to problems like Parent-child conflict, child behaviour problems, diabetes, domestic violence, suicide, self-harm, alcoholism, substance abuse, gambling, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, delinquency, antisocial behaviour, life coaching, poor self-concept, school counselling related issues (Pichot& Dolan, 2003; Stephen, 2014). It is the belief of the researcher that application of SFBT will beuseful in enhancing the self-concept of secondary school underachievers.

 

From theexplanations so far, it is clear that low academic self-concept may be one cogent aspect of affective domain that contributes immensely to the academic failure of secondary school students irrespective of gender, or age (Wilson, 2009). In this regard, cognitive

 

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restructuring and solution focused brief counselling techniques would be applied and tested if they would be of useful measures to strengthen the self-concept and self-confidence of these secondary school academic underachievers due to their records of efficacy in managing same or related psychological and behavioural problems in the past.

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