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Conceptual Analysis of Patient Teaching/Education

Concept of Patient Teaching/Education


Rankin, Stallings and London (2005) defined patient teaching (patient education) as the process by which health professionals and others impart information to the patients that will alter their health behaviours or improve their health status. Martin (2012) opined that patient teaching involves helping patients become better informed about their conditions, medical procedures, and choices they have regarding treatment. Quinn (2010) opined that patient teaching involves information giving asking and answering questions, explaining and demonstrating.

Faulkner (1996) cited in Quinn (2010) asserted that patient teaching covers the teaching of the patient to understand his disease which may affect his future or have contributed to his present state.

Walsh (2005) viewed patient teaching as an interactive process whereby learning which may be used to influence behaviour, takes place. Freire (1985) in Walsh (2005) pointed out that real patient education entails emancipation that is librating people to make their own decisions on their own terms. He however, noted that nurses and other professionals have

hesitated to allow patients the control that they need to make their own choices and decisions. At times this reluctance has stemmed from our maternalistic/paternalistic view of patients. Hospitals and other health care agencies have also created organizational barriers that prevent the patient from having the freedom to make decisions about health. Every patient has the right to seek information and participate in the educational plan. Simply providing information about health matters is a waste of time. This is because the purpose of education is to encourage patients to use knowledge to modify behaviour and perform activities that will result in improved health.

From the above definitions one can deduce that patient teaching is an interactive process whereby health professionals impart information on health matters with the aim of changing their health behaviours and thus improve their health status. The above definition implies that the role of the nurse is to plan learning experiences with the patient as a component of total care, so that patients share responsibility for health. When the nurse does this, patients are able to make rational decisions with respect to health, participates in self-care and adjust to the realities of life.

Importance of Patient Teaching


Patient teaching is very important in the health care setting. Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle Cheever, (2010) identified the following importance of patient teaching:

  • Patient teaching provides adequate knowledge and training in self-care skills and thus helps clients to make informed decisions about
  • It helps clients with chronic illness to participate actively in and assume responsibility for much of their own
  • It helps those patients with chronic illness to adapt to their illness, prevent complications, carry out prescribed therapy and solve problems when confronted with new
  • It can also help in preventing crisis situations and reduce the potential for re- hospitalization resulting from inadequate information about self-care.
  • Patient teaching helps clients to achieve their maximum health
  • It helps in reducing health care costs by preventing illness, avoiding expensive medical treatments, decreasing lengths of hospital stays and facilitating earlier
  • Patient teaching is a tool for increasing patient satisfaction and for developing a positive image of the
  • Patient teaching is also a cost-avoidance strategy for those who believe that positive staff patient relationships avert malpractice
  • Patient teaching improves nurses’ job satisfaction because you know you impacted someone’s life

Efficiency of the Nigeria capital market by using dividend announcement as the relevant information set

The Nigerian Capital Market Update Report is a yearly study report that offers insightful information on the performance of the domestic equities market, the capital market, as well as certain significant domestic and international operations.




2023 Application for Ebonyi State Scholarship Board

The publication of the Ebonyi State Scholarship Form 2023 has been announced by the Ebonyi State Scholarship Board. Students can now apply for scholarships through the Ebonyi State Scholarship Portal. However, as you will read on this page, the applicants must be Ebonyi state natives and satisfy further standards.

Board for Ebonyi State Scholarships

The Ebonyi State Scholarship Board (ESSB) was established to aid in laying a strong educational foundation for the state’s residents. Since its foundation, ESSB has actively helped brilliant and underprivileged students receive a high-quality education.

Mission Ebonyi State Scholarship Board

The mission of Ebonyi state scholarship board is to ensure that…

  1. indigent but brilliant students are selected for awards of State Scholarships annually.
  2. our students/awardees do not suffer deprivation of academic activities as a result of non-prompt payment of tuition fees and living expenses.
  3. the Board operates within the frame work of the rule of laws in its relationships with both local and international academic institutions.
  4. To collaborate with the institutions where the State Scholarship Students are studying in order to ensure that our students follow the academic programmes as expected.

Requirements / Eligibility Criteria for Ebonyi State Scholarship

  • Applicant must be an indigene of Ebonyi state.
  • Certificate of origin.
  • First school leaving certificate.
  • All applicants must have a minimum of 5 credits in their O’level result.
  • A copy of the admission letter into the institution.
    • Candidates must be full-time students of an approved institution.
    • All applicants must have a minimum of 3.0 CGPA to apply.
    • Statement of result from your present institution showing your CGPA. First School Living Certificate (FSLC).

    How to Apply for Ebonyi State Scholarship

    If you meet the eligibility criteria, then you can follow these steps to apply for Ebonyi state scholarship.

    • Go to https://ebonyischolarshipboard-gov-ng.webnode.com/ and click.
    • Register with your full name and set a password.
    • After registration is complete, Log in to finish up the application process.
    • Enter a valid email and a correct phone number.
    • Upload copies of the following required documents:
    • Certificate of origin
    • First school leaving certificate
    • O’Level result
    • Admission letter
    • Statement of result
    • Any identification card should be scanned and uploaded.
    • A passport photograph should also be uploaded.




E-learning describes using information and communication technology (ICT) towards improving learning within educational training. Nevertheless, e-learning involves use and application of a variety of tools and techniques, for instance e-mails, websites, blogs, social and business media, and being able to access program supplies on the internet whilst carrying out programs delivered entirely on the internet (Heeger, 2010). Although e-learning platforms can be of different kinds, some advanced private secondary schools in shomolu provide educational programs that involve use of web or the internet systems to improve students’ academic achievements.

According to Olaniyi (2006), e-learning is all about learning that occurs at the computer. In our contemporary world, the learning through the aid of a computer simply means online knowledge acquisition through the internet or offline through CD-ROM etc. In other words, it is the use of network technologies to create, foster, deliver, and facilitate learning, anytime and anywhere. Horton (2005) defined e-learning as the use of internet and digital technologies to create experiences that educate our fellow human beings. E-learning has the potential to revolutionise the way we teach and how we learn (DfES, 2003).

According to Abimbade (2002) educational technology vis-à-vis instructional technology whether as a field of education or new terminology to what has been there before like teaching aids or apparatus, as it was earlier called but recent achievements in the field of computer and communication technologies have offered tremendous opportunities for learning by electronic means (Rozina, 2002). Therefore, the world of technology continued to grow and today the whole world has become a global village. By the beginning of the 21st millennium educational technology has stretched educational boundaries and created new ones on a daily basis. One of these new and rapidly expanding boundaries is e-learning which is offering tremendous advantage to education sector (Abimbade, 2002).

Following Oye, Salleh and Iahad (2011), e-learning is basically a teaching and learning method via the web, system or a standalone personal computer (PC). From another dimension, Cooke (2014) defines e-learning as a network-enabled expression associated with functions that facilitate teaching and learning in an efficient manner.

E-learning programs and procedures consist of web-based learning, computer-based learning, digital classes and electronic activity (Heeger, 2010). The programs provide platforms with content materials which are transferred by the web intranet or extranet, sound or even movie MP3s, satellite televisions and CD-ROMs. It is against this background that e-learning was initially known as “internet-based learning”, while nowadays, e-learning is called “web-based learning”. Technically, e-learning does not only regard instructions and coaching by the instructor, but also involves learning that is tailored made to specific learner needs in the private secondary school. According to Oye, Salleh and Iahad (2011), numerous terminologies occur to be accustomed to determine learning which are on the internet. For that reason, e-learning and learning online are regarded to have different meanings (Cooke, 2014).

Given that the success of e-learning in enhancing students’ academic achievement depends on the quality of information and communication technology (ICT), the impact of e-learning on student academic achievement cannot be isolated from the nature ICT infrastructure (Niyazazari & Hosseini, 2012). In today’s highly globalised world, the use and application of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching for learning has brought about remarkable achievement in improving students’ academic performance in many academic disciplines.

According to Mahdinejad & Amoii (2011), application of ICT-based teaching and learning in an interactive manner stimulates students’ interests to acquire knowledge and apply the acquired knowledge in solving practical life social and economic problems.

The use of information and communication technology (ICT); which comprises of desktop and personal computers (PCs), laptops, the internet, and multimedia, enhances capacity to accomplish tasks faster with speed and accuracy in teaching and learning. These features change the role of the teacher and the learner, facilitate learning, and lead to interactive learning, learner autonomy, self-sufficiency, and self-confidence (Zameni & Kardan, 2012). By integrating content and information literacy, often in textual and visual forms, ICT produces significant learning and academic achievement. In other words, incorporation of ICT into the area of education has changed the role of teachers from a mere source of educational material to supervision of learning process. This increases self-sufficiency and self-confidence in students’ learning processes (Zameni & Kardan, 2012).

The knowledge of ICT today is being emphasized as the effective vehicle for teaching and learning (Zameni and Karan, 2011). With the widespread use of the internet, knowledge has become more effectively reachable by the mass population of students. The use of ICT promotes effective engagement of the learners, enhancement of learning, ease the use of teaching methods and materials to respond to students’ interests and needs; empowerment of the learners to control the learning schedule, and the pace of execution of the learning program; enables interactions between learners and materials, and learners and teachers by the usage of animation, image and sound together in the learning process; abstract concepts that are difficult to understand can be solid and easy to learn by eliminating the limitations of conventional method of teaching and the constraints of time and space (Qaznavi, 2010).

Consequently, many junior secondary schools in educational district IV might not meet the ICT facilities required for effective curriculum delivery. This implied that only few of these schools could achieve quality assurance in teaching and learning processes. This situation would no doubt cause students’ low academic achievements. Hence, the needs to further analyze the adequacy, utilization and maintenance of ICT facilities with a view to advising stakeholders in secondary schools to improve on provision, capacity utilization and sustenance of ICT facilities in schools and higher education colleges (Mahdinejad and Amoii (2011).

Shekari (2010) further finds relatively low usage of ICT facilities (46%) in teaching and learning processes in private secondary schools as both teachers and students are constrained by inadequate ICT facilities to advance teaching and learning. This implies that teachers and students would have limited opportunities and capability in using ICT facilities to expand their knowledge and skills in curriculum instruction. Consequently the quality of education being given to learners would be inadequate and reflect in low outcome. The major constraints perceived by teachers against effective utilization of ICT facilities for teaching-learning process in secondary schools include inadequate supply of computer hardware and software; irregular power supply; limited training opportunities for teachers; low level of institutional partnership with professional and corporate bodies for technical support; poor funding and maintenance (Shekari, 2010). The challenges identified are inimical to effective teaching and learning processes; consequently, majority of the learners lack the knowledge of ICT in colleges. Adequate provision of ICT facilities and better management of available ICT facilities were identified as means to improve ICT facilities utilization in tertiary colleges in order to


Methods of Teaching and Learning molecular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry in Colleges In United Kingdom

Methods of Teaching and Learning molecular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry in Colleges In United Kingdom



Teaching methods, or the ways in which a teacher tries to impart the necessary knowledge or experience, are used to instruct students (Ndirangu, 2007). The subject matter to be taught, the objectives the instructor hopes to achieve, the accessibility of teaching and learning resources, the instructor’s capacity and willingness to improvise in the absence of traditional teaching aids, evaluation and follow-up activities, and the unique learning styles of each student are just a few of the variables that affect the instructor’s selection of a particular method of instruction (Ndirangu, 2007).


The teaching strategies employed differ from nation to nation depending on the knowledge or skills being imparted, as well as the ability and motivation of the students. Numerous studies on teaching strategies have been undertaken. For instance, Asikhia (2010) discovered that while teacher qualifications and the learning environment of students do not affect students’ bad performance, teachers’ teaching strategies do.

Additionally, the medium of education influences the teaching strategies. For instance, where English is the medium of instruction, the strategies must be more interactive than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005). Additionally, it made the case that school teachers urgently need to learn more about productive methods for instructing English language learners (Thompson, 2004). According to Guloba, Wokodola, and Bategeka (2010), teacher-centered methods are frequently utilized in classrooms, particularly in developing nations. These methods are thought to be fairly poor at transmitting knowledge.


Other countries no longer employ these techniques. Since traditional teaching methods do not inspire students to participate in the learning process, problem-life learning is becoming more and more popular as a teaching method at educational institutions as a way to solve their shortcomings (Teo and Wong, 2000). However, more recently, there has been a push in the educational sector for a paradigm change that puts the learner first (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought support teaching strategies that involve student participation (Sajjad, 2011).


Despite these arrays of teaching methods being advocated in literature there is no one universally accepted method. The question still remains is which of these teaching methods contribute to failure or success of students’ performance especially in developing countries like Nigeria where the causes of poor performance is not well understood.




How teaching strategies impact student performance is the key area of interest in the education sector. This study looked at the strategies used to teach biology courses to students studying biology education in a particular Nigerian institution. Three distinct goals served as the study’s direction: Determine the degree to which teaching methods and biology education students’ performance in Nigerian institutions are correlated by identifying the teaching methods used in biology instruction, evaluating biology education students’ perceptions of the appropriateness of teaching methods used in teaching in public secondary schools, and more. The research used a descriptive design that included qualitative and quantitative methods. 78 teachers, 129 biology education students, and 9 inspectors were included in the study, which also included in-depth interviews. SPSS was used to examine qualitative data in a descriptive manner.


History,freedom and woman essence in the Woman King

How amazing that Hollywood makes every effort to portray African women warriors in a masterpiece of a film, while the white world mourns a white European queen who oversaw the Mau Mau’s torturing in Kenya. Modupe! I’m grateful. Ah, ah, ah!

I identify with this movie on a positive level: Never before have I witnessed so many stunningly deeply melonated powerful pows.



A Critical Review of the Iphone 13

he iPhone 13 is the one of the latest iterations of the iPhone series, which was released by Apple in September 2021. It features a number of new and improved features, including:

A Critical Review of the Iphone 13

1. Design

The iPhone 13 has a similar design to the previous model, but it is slightly thicker and heavier due to the new Ceramic Shield front cover which offers four times better drop performance. Apple claims that the Ceramic Shield front cover is the toughest glass ever in a smartphone. The Ceramic Shield is a new material that is added to the front cover of the device, which makes it more durable and resistant to drops and scratches. The device also features an aerospace-grade aluminum and stainless steel construction, which gives it a premium look and feel.

2. Display

The iPhone 13 features a 6.1-inch ProMotion display with a resolution of 2532 x 1170. The ProMotion technology increases the refresh rate of the display up to 120Hz, which makes scrolling and animations feel smoother. The ProMotion display also supports HDR and True Tone, which helps to improve the color accuracy and contrast of the display. The display is also protected by Ceramic Shield, which helps to prevent scratches and cracks.

3. Camera

The iPhone 13 has an improved dual-camera system with a 12-megapixel ultra-wide and a 12-megapixel wide lens. The camera system is equipped with Night mode and ProRes video recording. Night mode allows users to take better low-light photos, while ProRes video recording allows users to record high-quality video. The front-facing TrueDepth camera also has a better image quality and improved face recognition. The camera system also supports 4K Dolby Vision HDR recording, which allows users to capture high-quality videos.

4. Performance

The iPhone 13 is powered by the A15 Bionic chip, which offers improved performance and efficiency over its predecessor. The A15 Bionic chip features a six-core CPU and four-core GPU, which allows the device to handle more demanding tasks. The device also features 5G capabilities, which allows for faster internet speeds and improved streaming quality. The device also has improved Face ID, which is faster and more secure than ever.

5. Battery life

The iPhone 13 offers improved battery life, thanks to the new A15 Bionic chip and an optimized power management system. The device also supports fast charging and wireless charging, which allows users to charge the device quickly and easily.

6. Security

The iPhone 13 features Face ID, which is faster and more secure than ever. Face ID uses a combination of advanced technologies to accurately map and match your facial features. It also allows users to unlock the device, access apps and make payments with just a glance. Additionally, the device also has built-in security features such as a Secure Enclave, which protects personal information and prevents unauthorized access to the device.


In summary, the iPhone 13 is a solid upgrade over the previous models, with improved design, display, camera, performance, battery life and security features. The ProMotion display, A15 Bionic chip, and Ceramic Shield front cover are some of the highlights of the device. However, it is also important to note that the iPhone 13 is not a cheap device and it is targeted to a specific audience who are looking for a premium device with latest features and technologies.


Tecno Spark 7: The Most Budget-Friendly Smartphone with Exceptional Features

Are you in the market for a new smartphone but don’t want to break the bank? Look no further than the Tecno Spark 7. This budget-friendly device offers a great balance of features and performance that will satisfy your needs without emptying your wallet. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the Tecno Spark 7 and what makes it the most budget-friendly smartphone on the market. From its large HD+ display to its dual-camera setup and long-lasting battery, we’ll explore all the reasons why this device is worth considering for your next smartphone purchase.

The Most Budget-Friendly Smartphone with Exceptional Features

 Most Important Features in Tecno Spark 7

  • 6.6-inch HD+ display: This device has a large, bright display that’s perfect for watching videos and browsing the web.
  • MediaTek Helio A25 Processor: Powered by the MediaTek Helio A25 processor, the device offers decent performance for everyday tasks like browsing the web, using social media, and playing light games.
  • 4GB of RAM and 64GB of storage: The device comes with 4 GB of RAM and 64 GB of storage, providing a generous amount of RAM and storage space for your apps, photos, and videos.
  • 5,000mAh Battery: The device is equipped with a large 5,000mAh battery that provides long battery life and supports fast charging. Dual camera setup:The device has a 13-megapixel main camera and a 2-megapixel depth sensor that can capture high-quality photos and videos.
  • Fingerprint sensor: The device has a fingerprint sensor that provides additional security and convenience.
  • Affordable:The Tecno Spark 7 sells for an affordable price, making it a great choice for those looking for a budget-friendly smartphone.


In conclusion, the Tecno Spark 7 is an excellent choice for those looking for a budget-friendly smartphone that doesn’t skimp on features and performance. It offers a large HD+ display, a MediaTek Helio A25 processor, 4GB of RAM and 64GB of storage, a large 5,000mAh battery, a dual-camera setup, and a fingerprint sensor, all at an affordable price point. With its balance of features and performance, the Tecno Spark 7 is a great option for anyone looking for a new smartphone without breaking the bank. It’s a device that will satisfy your needs while not emptying your wallet.



The Potential Impact of 5G Impact on the Internet of Things

The Potential Impact of 5G Impact on the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of connected devices that can collect and exchange data. It has the potential to revolutionize many industries, from healthcare to transportation. However, for IoT to reach its full potential, it needs fast and reliable networks. That’s where 5G comes in.

5G is the fifth generation of cellular networks, offering higher speeds, lower latency and higher capacity than previous generations. This makes it the perfect technology for IoT. 5G will allow more devices to connect to networks and communicate faster and more efficiently. This means IoT will become more powerful and convenient.

One of the main benefits of 5G for IoT is the ability to connect more devices to the network. This is because 5G has much higher capacity than previous generations. This means more devices can be connected to the network without congestion. This is important for IoT as it allows more devices to be easily connected to the network.

The Potential Impact of 5G Impact on the Internet of Things

5G will also offer faster speeds than its predecessor. This allows data to be transferred faster and more efficiently. This is important for IoT as it allows devices to communicate faster and more efficiently. This means IoT will become more powerful and convenient.

Another advantage of 5G for IoT is low latency. Latency is the time it takes for data to be transferred from one device to another. 5G has lower latency than previous generations, allowing data to be transmitted faster and more efficiently. This is important for IoT as it allows devices to communicate faster and more efficiently. 5G also offers higher reliability than previous generations. 5G networks are designed to be more reliable than previous generations. In other words, IoT can become more powerful and convenient.


In summary, 5G has the potential to revolutionize the Internet of Things by providing faster speeds, lower latency, higher capacity and reliability. This allows more devices to connect to the network, allowing them to communicate faster and more efficiently. This makes IoT more powerful and useful, enabling new applications and use cases that were not possible before. As 5G networks roll out, we expect to see a wide range of new IoT-enabled products and services transforming the way we live and work.



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