Proximate analysis of jack fruit seed
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) belongs to Moraceae family. They grow abundantly in India, Bangladesh, in many parts of Southeast Asia and in some parts of Nigeria . Jackfruit is a nonleguminous plant whose seed and pulp are edible .Cotyledons of jackfruit are fairly rich in starch and protein. Jackfruit contains protein, starch, calcium, and thiamine . According to Ojwang et al. jackfruit seeds contain more sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and copper than jackfruit pulp. The seeds may be boiled, or roasted and eaten or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts. Jackfruit seeds can be used in confectionaries . Jackfruit when ripe has a distinct flavor and is consumed as dessert and in other culinary preparations. The sycamore seeds are used in cooked dishes and its flour is used for baking.
Jackfruits can also be cooked as vegetable and used in curries or salads. Jackfruit pulp when pureed can be used in the production of infant formulas, juice, jam, jelly, and base for cordials while various parts of jackfruit tree have been used in ethno-medicine and its wood is useful in timber industries. Phytochemicals are bioactive compounds in foods which help the body to react to free radicals and oxygen species. The protective role of phytochemicals has been associated with their antioxidant activity because of the excess production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (oxidants) in human population which causes an imbalance and oxidative damage to large biomolecules such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. This effect leads to the pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as CVD, some cancers, ageing and diabetes . Phenolic acids and flavonoids are higher in jackfruit seeds than jackfruit pulp . In Nigeria, jackfruit cultivation and consumption has gone into extinction and regarded as food for the poor. There is paucity of studies on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of jackfruit seeds, leaves and pulp in Nigeria. Therefore, the study sought to evaluate the nutritional and phytochemical composition of jackfruit pulp, seed and leaves.
- Preparation of jackfruit leaf
Jackfruit leaves was separated from the plant using sterile knife, sliced, washed with portable water and pounded into mash using mortar and pestle. The grounded mash was packed into a sterilized plastic material for and stored in the refrigerator further laboratory evaluation
- Preparation of jackfruit pulp
The jackfruit pulp was separated from the seed using sterile knife and sliced into pieces. The sliced pulp was pounded into mash using mortar and pestle. The ground mash was packed into a sterilized plastic material and stored in the refrigerator for further laboratory evaluation
- Preparation of jackfruit seeds
Jackfruit seeds was separated from the pulp manually using sterile knife and washed with running water. The seeds were allowed to dry for the removal of the seeds coat. The seeds were pounded into mash using mortar and pestle. The grounded mash was packed into a sterilized plastic material and stored in the refrigerator for further laboratory evaluation.
- Nutrient and phytochemical analysis
The samples were analyzed for proximate composition (%protein, %ash, %fibre, % fat and % carbohydrate) and vitamin C using standard methods by AOAC . Vitamin A was determined using spectrophotometric method described by Pearson. Phytate , tannin and oxalate (while alkaloids and flavonoid were determined as specified. All analysis was done in triplicates.
- Minerals and vitamin content of jackfruit seeds pulp and leaves
The mineral and vitamin composition of jackfruit seed, pulp and leaves were presented in Table 2. Calcium content ranged from 0.03 g/100g (pulp) to 0.52 g/100g (leaves). Potassium content ranged from 0.21 g/100g (leaves) to 0.33 g/100g (pulp). Manganese content ranged from 9.50 mg/100g (seed) to 12.75 mg/100g (pulp). Iron content ranged from 18.25 mg/100g (seed) to 59.50 mg/100g (leaves). Zinc content ranged from 5.20 mg/100g (pulp) to 9.28mg/100g (seed). Vitamin C content ranged from 0.11 mg/100g (seed) to 2.11mg/100g (pulp).