Quantity Evaluation Of Rice Masa Fortified With Animal Protein
Masa is a cereal based snack made from rice, maize or millet. It is popularly consumed in the northern regions of Nigeria. The objective of this work was to assess the quantity evaluation of the rice-masa, enriched with animal protein (Goat, cattle and sheep meat) . The enriched rice-masa produced were labelled sample A (100% rice), sample B (rice: goat meat blend (80:20), sample C (rice: cattle blend (80:20) and sample D (rice Goat, cattle and sheep meat (80:10:10). The proximate and mineral composition was evaluated according to standard methods. Anti-nutrient content was also determined. Sensory evaluation was carried out to assess the acceptability of the enriched rice- masa. The chemical analysis showed that protein, fibre, iron, zinc and vitamin A and beta carotene contents were highest in sample D with values 8.35 (±0.08) g/100g, 1.08 (±0.02) g/100g, 2.82 (±0.03) mg/100g, 4.20 (±0.03) mg/100g, 602.3 (±1.28) μg/100g and 420.2 (±0.98) μg/100g re-spectively, while calcium was highest in sample C with a value of 27.34 (±0.06) mg/100g. Moisture and ash contents increased from 47.4 (±0.50) g/100g to 50.9 (±0.80) g/100g and 0.40 (±0.01) g/100g to 1.15 (±0.01) g/100g respectively, while carbohydrate and energy contents decreased from 28.1 (±0.03) g/100g to 21.9 (±0.04) g/100g and 308.42 kcal/100g to 285.64 kcal/100g respec- tively. The sensory evaluation showed that with regards to taste, aroma, texture and overall ac- ceptability, the sample enriched with soybean was more preferred to that enriched with Goat, cattle and sheep meat, or a combination of both. Enrichment of masa could contribute to improvement of nutritional status if promoted as a nutritious, healthy indigenous snack not only where masa is already widely consumed, but also in other parts of Nigeria where it has not found wide acceptance.
Background to the Study
Globally a nutrition transition is occurring, as shown by swift and widespread shifts in food consumption pat- terns towards the western diet and lifestyle. Accompanying this is an increased prevalence of diet-related dis- eases. Developing countries are gradually experiencing a shift from the utilization of indigenous snacks in favour of pastries and western type of snacks especially amongst urban and peri-urban dwellers. In Nigeria, there exist a variety of indigenous snacks such as “Aadun”, a maize-based snack, “Ojojo” made from water yam, “Kulikuli” from groundnuts, and “Masa”, a muffin-like snack made from cereals, among several others. The consumption of these and other snacks dates back several decades in the country’s history, especially among the low income populace, thus contributing to the overall dietary nutrient intake Aletor (2007) . However, some indigenous snacks are defi- cient in one or more essential nutrient. There is therefore a need to improve their nutritional quality thus provid- ing a nutritious and healthier alternative to western snacks which can be acceptable by the consumers.
Masa is a yeast-fermented product which is round in shape, and is prepared in Nigeria and some other West African countries from the flour from millet, maize or rice flour Ayo, J.A.et al (2008) . The product is cooked in a pan with individual cuplike depressions, and is consumed in various forms by all age groups in the Northern states of Nigeria Nkama (1998) , but less so in the Southern and eastern states, except for few rural communities in south western Nigeria where northern immigrants are found. Masa is served either as breakfast, a snack item or sometimes with local soup as a muffin Ayo, J.A.et al (2008) . Like most single cereal based products which are generally low in protein and micronutrients Garba, S.A. (2010), rice-masa is no exception as it is deficient in amino acid lysine Nkama, I. (1993) . Studies have been done on the enrichment of masa using cereal legume combinations Ayo, J.A.et al (2008) Nkama (1998) Nkama, I. (1993) with the results indicating a significant improvement in nutritional quality.
Nigerian cereal products have been successfully enriched using legumes, in particular, soybean. Soy-enriched maize pap (“soy-ogi”) was developed by the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi Nigeria (FIIRO), and has established processed technologies for soy-ogi production for both infants and adults FIIRO (2014) . Samuel and Otegbayo also evaluated the chemical and sensory properties of “ogi” enriched with soybean and Goat, cattle and sheep meat, showing that supplementation with legume and animal-based protein-rich foods increased the nutritive value of ogi Otegbayo, B.O. (2006) . Nkama and Malleshi had earlier pointed out that though masa is as popular as ogi (fermented cereal gruel), it receives very little attention Nkama (1998) . The work of Ayo et al. Ayo, J.A.et al (2008) Ayo, J.A., Agu. H. (2008) extended the knowledge frontier on masa, however, review of recent literature showed that there is room for more research on enrichment of masa.
Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study was on Quantity Evaluation Of ‘Masa’ Fortified With Animal Protein, The researcher The used 3 animal protein from meat gotten from Goat, cattle and sheep