LIST OF ENDSARS PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was created in Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo6 were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017).
It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover operations against armed robbers. Within almost two decades of its creation, the unit has spread across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.
The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality.
The Nigerian movie industry, Nollywood has also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigeran police force in their productions.Nigerians having been subjected to wanton arrests, extortion and extra judiciary killings, lunched a social media campaign using the hastag #Endsars on Twitter to put an end to police brutality.
The #Endsars campaign started with the publication of a petition by convener Segun Awosanya. It was signed by 10,195 Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the police unit. The Twitter campaign started on the 2nd of December 2017, when a footage of police officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The campaign became a trending topic on Twitter with over 400,000 Tweets8 within twelve hours.
In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences with SARS, the dreaded unit of the police created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However, it was during the campaign that the damage caused by such brutality was discovered.
The campaign also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to the convener of the campaign.
The campaign further revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth GET FULL WORK
SARS is the Special Anti Robbery Squad. A group of special trained and equipped Nigerian police unit to combat violent crimes. However, when reports of their heinous activities seemed to be ignored, Nigerians took to the social media and staged a fierce protest in 2020 to expose the nefarious activities and put a wider call for its disbandment. Chukwu (2020)
After years of horror stories of brazen extortion, illegal detentions and gruesome murders at the hands of local police, young Nigerians are out on the streets to demand the government scrap the police’s notorious Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) unit. Vabguard (2020)
For the past two days, young Nigerians have protested in front of the Lagos state house of assembly—at day and at night. It’s an in-person manifestation of a long-running anti-SARS campaigns on social media platforms. Now the protests are rapidly spreading to several other states, and Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital.Punch(2020)
The ongoing street protests have been triggered by the latest reports of murders of innocent civilians committed by SARS officers, who have long operated with impunity.
While SARS was initially set up in 1992 to combat the rise of armed robbery incidents, it has since garnered a reputation for arbitrary arrests, torture, extortion and extra-judicial killings. Given its designation as a special unit with its officers often working in plain clothes and using unmarked cars, SARS officers have become known for crudely extorting innocent young Nigerians and operating outside the remits of law.
SARS officers typically target and detain young men by accusing them of being online fraudsters, simply on the evidence of owning a laptop or smartphone, and then request arbitrary and exorbitant bail fees before they regain their freedom. In more extreme cases, SARS officers abduct civilian targets and force them to make withdrawals at an ATM in exchange for their freedom, sometimes at gunpoint. The unit is also known to target young women as well with several reports of women being raped while in detention. Sahareporters(2020)
Without obvious avenues to seek redress, most victims are forced to pay these bribes, particularly given SARS’ fearsome reputation of violence and extra-judicial killings. In 2016, an Amnesty International report found “credible allegations” that SARS operatives “perpetrate acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment against detainees in their custody on a regular basis.” In a rare instance in September 2017, five SARS operatives were convicted of the extrajudicial killing two young men.Dailytrust (2019)
But it’s not just the fear of violence and possible death, SARS operatives are also known to threaten victims with illegal detention. It’s a feature of Nigeria’s broken criminal justice system which sees 72.5% of inmates in local prisons serving time without being sentenced.GET FULL WORK
Socio-Economic Status And Its Impact On Protest Participation In Nigeria. A Study of ENDSARS Protest
In recent years, protest activities happened frequently in Nigeria. These protests have had profound consequences and changed the landscape of Nigerian politics. Therefore, it is important to know who protests and the brain behind these protest. This paper aims to answer two questions. First, what kind of people (according to their Socio-Economic Status, SES) is more likely to participate in protest? Second, how does Socio-Economic Status influence protest participation with a special references to #EndSars protest in Nigeria? The hypotheses for this study are drawn from grievance theories, resources model and cultural change theory. We hypothesize that in Nigeria EndSars protest, people with higher Socio-Economic Status tend to join and influences others in the protest. The mechanisms are material condition, civic skills, and the value of post-materialism. Empirically, taking advantage of the World Values Survey 2010−2012, we use confirmatory factor analysis to construct an indicator of Socio-Economic Status including education, income, and class. Then, we conduct structural equation modeling to test the mechanisms through which Socio-Economic Status exerts influences. We find that in Nigeria, people with higher Socio-Economic Status are more likely to protest and influences the poor to join in the ENDSARS protest as well. Moreover, civic skills are the most important mechanisms. Material condition also has a positive effect. Although the value of post-materialism can influence protest participation, whether people hold this value is unrelated to their Socio-Economic Status.GET FULL WORK
This study explores the history and relevance of hashtags and timeline of prominent hashtags in Nigeria. In particular, it explores Nigeria’s #Endsars, a hashtag used to create awareness on police brutality such as, extortion, rape, physical and verbal assault, extrajudicial killings, wanton arrests and other forms of intimidation tactics against young innocent Nigerians. It discusses the history of police brutality, the creation of Special Anti-robbery Squad (SARS) and the commencement of #Endsars Campaign. Following agenda-setting theory, the study concludes that hashtag activism is instrumental for social transformation and as such, social media impacts, dictates and influence what the traditional media think and show as important to the public. GET FULL WORK