Research Project Topics About EndSars Protest



Brief History Of How ENDSARS Campaign Started In Nigeria


The  Special  Anti-Robbery  Squad  (SARS)  was  created  in  Lagos State in 1992, a time when Notorious armed robbers such as Shina Rambo6 were in control of the state (Midenda, 2017). 

It was created as a faceless police unit that performs undercover  operations  against  armed  robbers.  Within almost  two  decades  of  its  creation,  the  unit  has  spread  across the various states of the country. The spread of the unit across the nation without a proper structure, accounts for some of it lawless charcteristics.

The current report of police brutality using the #Endsars on Twitter has brought public attention to it. The online campaign about the police brutality is new, however, Nigerian pop stars has over the years expressed their worries, fears and incidents of police brutality. 

The  Nigerian  movie  industry,  Nollywood  has  also portrayed cases of brutality and corruption within the Nigeran police force in their productions.Nigerians   having   been   subjected   to   wanton   arrests,   extortion  and  extra  judiciary  killings,  lunched  a  social  media  campaign  using  the  hastag  #Endsars  on  Twitter  to put an end to police brutality.

The #Endsars campaign started  with  the  publication  of  a  petition  by  convener  Segun  Awosanya.  It  was  signed  by  10,195  Nigerians and submitted to the Nigerian National Assembly to scrap the  police  unit.    The  Twitter  campaign  started  on  the  2nd of  December  2017,  when  a  footage  of  police  officers attached to the unit shot and killed a man surfaced online. The  campaign  became  a  trending  topic  on  Twitter  with  over  400,000  Tweets8  within  twelve  hours.  

In October 2020, Nigerians turned the online campaign to protest. Nigerians  using 280 characters detailing their horrible and harrowing experiences  with  SARS,  the  dreaded  unit  of  the  police  created to fight banditry. Before the campaign, there have been isolated cases of police brutality all over the country. However,  it  was  during  the  campaign  that  the  damage  caused  by  such  brutality  was  discovered. 

The  campaign  also exposed the level of rot within the police unit according to  the  convener  of  the  campaign. 

The  campaign  further  revealed that the police has no recognizable structure with no organized system of operation, officers of the unit act based on self-will with little or no regards for fundamental human right for citizens especially vulnerable youth GET FULL WORK


SARS is the Special Anti Robbery Squad. A group of special trained and equipped Nigerian police unit to combat violent crimes. However, when reports of their heinous activities seemed to be ignored, Nigerians took to the social media and staged a fierce protest in 2020 to expose the nefarious activities and put a wider call for its disbandment. Chukwu (2020)

After years of horror stories of brazen extortion, illegal detentions and gruesome murders at the hands of local police, young Nigerians are out on the streets to demand the government scrap the police’s notorious Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) unit. Vabguard (2020)

For the past two days, young Nigerians have protested in front of the Lagos state house of assembly—at day and at night. It’s an in-person manifestation of a long-running anti-SARS campaigns on social media platforms. Now the protests are rapidly spreading to several other states, and Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital.Punch(2020)

The ongoing street protests have been triggered by the latest reports of murders of innocent civilians committed by SARS officers, who have long operated with impunity.

While SARS was initially set up in 1992 to combat the rise of armed robbery incidents, it has since garnered a reputation for arbitrary arrests, torture, extortion and extra-judicial killings. Given its designation as a special unit with its officers often working in plain clothes and using unmarked cars, SARS officers have become known for crudely extorting innocent young Nigerians and operating outside the remits of law.

SARS officers typically target and detain young men by accusing them of being online fraudsters, simply on the evidence of owning a laptop or smartphone, and then request arbitrary and exorbitant bail fees before they regain their freedom. In more extreme cases, SARS officers abduct civilian targets and force them to make withdrawals at an ATM in exchange for their freedom, sometimes at gunpoint. The unit is also known to target young women as well with several reports of women being raped while in detention. Sahareporters(2020)

Without obvious avenues to seek redress, most victims are forced to pay these bribes, particularly given SARS’ fearsome reputation of violence and extra-judicial killings. In 2016, an Amnesty International report found “credible allegations” that SARS operatives “perpetrate acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment against detainees in their custody on a regular basis.” In a rare instance in September 2017, five SARS operatives were convicted of the extrajudicial killing two young men.Dailytrust (2019)

But it’s not just the fear of violence and possible death, SARS operatives are also known to threaten victims with illegal detention. It’s a feature of Nigeria’s broken criminal justice system which sees 72.5% of inmates in local prisons serving time without being sentenced.GET FULL WORK

Socio-Economic Status And Its Impact On Protest Participation In Nigeria. A Study of ENDSARS Protest

In  recent  years,  protest  activities  happened  frequently  in  Nigeria.  These  protests  have  had  profound consequences and changed the landscape of  Nigerian politics. Therefore, it is important to know who protests  and  the brain  behind these  protest.  This  paper  aims  to  answer  two  questions.  First,  what  kind  of people (according to their Socio-Economic Status, SES) is more likely to participate in protest? Second, how  does  Socio-Economic Status influence  protest  participation with a special references to #EndSars protest in Nigeria?  The  hypotheses for this study  are  drawn  from  grievance  theories, resources  model  and  cultural  change  theory.  We  hypothesize  that  in  Nigeria EndSars protest,  people  with  higher  Socio-Economic Status tend  to  join  and influences others in the  protest.  The  mechanisms  are  material  condition,  civic  skills,  and  the  value  of  post-materialism. Empirically, taking advantage of the World Values Survey 2010−2012, we use confirmatory factor  analysis  to  construct  an  indicator  of  Socio-Economic Status including  education,  income,  and  class.  Then,  we conduct  structural  equation  modeling  to  test  the  mechanisms  through  which  Socio-Economic Status  exerts  influences. We find that in Nigeria, people with higher Socio-Economic Status are more likely to protest and influences the poor to join in the ENDSARS protest as well. Moreover, civic skills are the most important mechanisms. Material condition also has a positive effect. Although the value of post-materialism can  influence protest participation, whether people hold this value is unrelated to their Socio-Economic Status.GET FULL WORK

The Impact Of Hashtag Activism in Nigeria: A Study of #Endsars Campaign

This study explores the history and relevance of hashtags and timeline of prominent hashtags in Nigeria. In particular, it explores Nigeria’s #Endsars, a hashtag used to create awareness on police brutality such as, extortion, rape, physical and verbal assault, extrajudicial killings, wanton arrests and other forms of intimidation tactics against young innocent Nigerians. It discusses the history of police brutality, the creation of Special Anti-robbery Squad (SARS) and the commencement of #Endsars Campaign. Following agenda-setting theory, the study concludes that hashtag activism is instrumental for social transformation and as such, social media impacts, dictates and influence what the traditional media think and show as important to the public. GET FULL WORK