Smart-card students identification system for access entry

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Smart-card students identification system for access entry

CHAPTER ONE/INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Smart Cards are secure portable storage devices used for several applications especially security related ones involving access to system’s database either online or offline (Mohammed et al., 2004). A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. The term ‘smart card’ refers to a plastic card with implanted computer chip (memory or microprocessor) that store and process data. They are secure and portable devices that are used for quite a number of applications. The data is stored and processed in the card’s chip and is usually associated with value, information, or both. Key application areas of smart cards include healthcare, banking, entertainment, and transportation. Muhammad et al. (2004), classified smart cards in two different ways: a. Memory and microprocessor- these store data and can be regarded as a floppy disk with security features. It is possible to add, remove or update data stored in a memory or microprocessor card. b. Contact and contactless – contact smart cards require physical contact with the smart card reader inserted into a smart card reader. On the other hand, contactless smart cards do not require contact and therefore have an antenna embedded in the card that allows communication with the reader without physical contact. There is also the combi card which is able to combine the two characteristics. According to Bodake et al. (2012) A smart card, typically a type of chip card, is a plastic card that contains an embedded computer chip– either a memory or microprocessor type–that stores and transacts data. This data is usually associated with either value, information, or both and is stored and processed within the card’s chip. Systems that are enhanced with smart cards are in use Smart Cards are secure portable storage devices used for several applications especially security related ones involving access to system’s database either online or offline (Mohammed et al., 2004). A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. The term ‘smart card’ refers to a plastic card with implanted computer chip (memory or microprocessor) that store and process data. They are secure and portable devices that are used for quite a number of applications. The data is stored and processed in the card’s chip and is usually associated with value, information, or both. Key application areas of smart cards include healthcare, banking, entertainment, and transportation. Muhammad et al. (2004), classified smart cards in two different ways: a. Memory and microprocessor- these store data and can be regarded as a floppy disk with security features. It is possible to add, remove or update data stored in a memory or microprocessor card. b. Contact and contactless – contact smart cards require physical contact with the smart card reader inserted into a smart card reader. On the other hand, contactless smart cards do not require contact and therefore have an antenna embedded in the card that allows communication with the reader without physical contact. There is also the combi card which is able to combine the two characteristics. According to Bodake et al. (2012) A smart card, typically a type of chip card, is a plastic card that contains an embedded computer chip– either a memory or microprocessor type–that stores and transacts data. This data is usually associated with either value, information, or both and is stored and processed within the card’s chip. Systems that are enhanced with smart cards are in use

In order to access these smart cards, they are either in a special reading device (smart card reader) or near enough for the antenna to communicate (if it is contactless) for the duration of use. The transaction may involve retrieving information from the card, performing computations and also, updating the content of the card after processing. While the card is in the reader, its electrical contacts make contact with the reader’s electric connectors. Data is then read from or written to the card’s chip. It is important to have standards that will ensure the possibility of every retailer with a smart card reader being able to read the smart cards, Shelfer and Procaccino (2002). Specifications for smart card production and regulations guiding their communication are as defined by the International Organization for Standardization. Details can be found in Shelfer and Procaccino (2002). Smart cards have been applied as bank cards, SIMs in mobile phone, public transportation cards, identity documents (for example, modern passports and national ID cards), access cards (to control access to buildings, computer networks, laptops) and pay TV, electricity cards, etc. Smart cards have also been applied in the management of higher institutions. Several implementations are now available with varying level of complexity. These include the research of Praveen et al. (2017).

Attendance management of students in institution can be rigorous using the conventional method of paper sheets and old file system method. Every academic institution poses some standards concerning how attendance is to be confirmed for student in classes, laboratory sessions and examination halls. That is why keeping the accurate record of attendance is very important.  The approach of using paper sheets and the old file system to confirmed students has been in use for years. There are so many bottlenecks with the conventional method, one of such problem is the difficulty for the management to compute the percentage of student attendance in classes and frequently modify their information. Also in institution, tracking and monitoring student time of attendance could be tedious task, time consuming and as well prone to errors. As an alternative to traditional manual clocking process by students in classes or during examination, biometrics characteristics can be used for authenticating students. This research will focus on design of automated Smart-card students identification system for access entry

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Traditional access control approaches have failed so far to consider continuity in access decision enforcement and to provide the necessary access control infrastructure that facilitates continuity in access policy enforcement and adaptability to unexpected access contexts. Although many basic principles of standard access control models continue to apply in IoT contexts, still it is not clear how to assign the appropriate level of access permissions to resource requestors while there is a degree of uncertainty surrounding the access contexts under which the protected IoT resource can be accessed. This research provides a dynamic access control framework for IoT environments. The framework provides an adaptive permission assignment technique that adjusts the access control policies based on both proactive and reactive con- textual measures. In addition, the framework provides a responsive access control infrastructure that accommodates potential policy adjustments at run time. The infrastructure integrates an automatic policy specification  that  generates,  on  the fly, context-aware and conflict free access rules, and a continuous policy enforcement component that keeps pace with changes in access policies as well as access context to maintain authorized access while the resource is in use.

 1.3 Aims and Objectives 

This study will base on Smart-card students identification system for access entry

The study have the following specific objectives;

  1. To examine the attributes of an effective access control approach for expressing, applying, and continuously enforcing student and lecturer’s security and privacy preferences in highly dynamic IoT scenarios
  2. To automate a system that will eliminate the administrative efforts associated with manual management of students access control
  3. To examine user’s access patterns and adapt access control policies to unexpected access behaviors

1.4 Significance of the Study

Obviously the design of this Smart-card student’s identification system for access entry is expected to be a guard to students unauthorized access to classroom without adequate permission from the lecturer. It help will the institutions to be able to secure their privacy from been access by unknown users. The research will go a long way to alleviate the problem of insecurity in classroom and school environment in general.

 

Also, As Smart Card technology is still a relatively new and untested technology within the tertiary sector, any institution considering adopting Smart Card technology over their existing card based technologies should investigate this course of action carefully

In particular, close attention to the possible advantages to Smart Card technologies will determine if the institution will require them in the first place, or whether it is still sufficient to rely on existing card technologies.

If the institution can see itself beginning to utilise Smart Cards, it should closely analyse other institutions that have successfully adopted these new card technologies. The institution should also closely analyse those that did use Smart Cards, but failed to deploy them successfully.

Finally, the introduction of Smart Cards should be handled as a slow migration process across the institution. To this end, possible strategies for handling this migration should be looked into in order to maximise the efficiency of adoption of the new cards

1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work will concentrate on Smart-card students identification system for access entry. This study are to provide tertiary educational institutions that are considering moving to Smart Cards suitable advantages as to why they should use Smart Cards; details of other institutions that are using Smart Cards; and details of a proposed system that can help facilitate the adoption of Smart Cards within the institution.

1.6 Limitations of the Study      

Some of the constraints, which made me not to cover this work wide are;

  1. Financial help which I needed most to carry out this project work
  2. Economic uncertainty in the country
  3. No access to materials related to the topic.

1.7 Definition of Terms

  • Access: – This way or an opportunity for someone to use something either in a negative or positive way.
  • Principal: – several measurement techniques used in the life science to gather data for many more variables per sample that the typical number of sample assayed.
  • Policy: – This is a principal or protocol to guide decision making to achieve rational outcome. A policy is a statement  of intend and implemented as a procedure or protocol.
  • Security: – This is the protection of information asset through the use of technology, process and training. Is equally the degree of resistance to or protection from harm. It implies to any vulnerable and valuable asset such as person, dwelling, community, nation or organization.
  • Window: – this is an operating system which is an interface or bridge between computer hardware and software. The hardware is really hard to understand by using the software we made soften the things and forgot about the hardness of the hardware so window is and user friendly interface between computer and
  • Software: A computer program or set of instructions that direct a computer to perform processing functions.
  • System: A set of computer components functioning together.
  • Technology: The study of techniques of mobilizing resources such as information for accomplishing objectives that benefit man and his environment
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