Socio-Economic Status And Its Impact On #EndSars Protest Participation In Nigeria
In recent years, protest activities happened frequently in Nigeria. These protests have had profound consequences and changed the landscape of Nigerian politics. Therefore, it is important to know who protests and the brain behind these protest. This paper aims to answer two questions. First, what kind of people (according to their Socio-Economic Status, SES) is more likely to participate in protest? Second, how does Socio-Economic Status influence protest participation with a special references to #EndSars protest in Nigeria? The hypotheses for this study are drawn from grievance theories, resources model and cultural change theory. We hypothesize that in Nigeria EndSars protest, people with higher Socio-Economic Status tend to join and influences others in the protest. The mechanisms are material condition, civic skills, and the value of post-materialism. Empirically, taking advantage of the World Values Survey 2010−2012, we use confirmatory factor analysis to construct an indicator of Socio-Economic Status including education, income, and class. Then, we conduct structural equation modeling to test the mechanisms through which Socio-Economic Status exerts influences. We find that in Nigeria, people with higher Socio-Economic Status are more likely to protest and influences the poor to join in the ENDSARS protest as well. Moreover, civic skills are the most important mechanisms. Material condition also has a positive effect. Although the value of post-materialism can influence protest participation, whether people hold this value is unrelated to their Socio-Economic Status.