Teachers classroom management techniques and primary schools pupils goal attainment
Background to the Study
Classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual likeness, shared goals and connectedness. Management on the other hand, can be seen as the process of designing and maintaining any setting in which people work in groups for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. The idea of any setting equally indicates that management is applicable to all establishments which do not exonerate educational setting.
Management involves the act of running or controlling or skill of dealing with people or situations in any way (Adeyemo, 2012). Also, management is defined as a method where a group of people at the highest level of organization plan, organize, communicate, coordinate, control and direct the actions and activities of people who work for the organization toward the achievement of organizational objectives (Loomiz, 1989 in Adeyemo, 2012). Some people believe that education and management are incompatible; management is seen as process that happens in industry but not in education. The management role of a teacher therefore is not the same as that of an accountant or of a bank manager, but the management role is certainly an institution that has specific objectives and a school is not an exception. In order to achieve its aims, a school has to have objectives, and to achieve these objectives, the various people with responsibilities in the school especially in a classroom have to plan, organize and lead.
Classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by pupils. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behaviour. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experienced problems in this area cause some to leave teaching. Classroom management is a complex set of articulate behaviour which the teacher uses to establish and maintain conditions to enable learners achieve instructional objectives efficiently. Brown (1995) looked at classroom management as a process involving the organization of certain academic tasks which are essential for effective teaching and learning in a specific set up. Classroom management first became a popular topic in education during the 1970 and 1980 (Tavares, 1996 & Butchart, 1995). The focus in these early years was primarily on making the classroom safe and establishing behaviour management, used to control and shape pupils behaviour to conform to school rules by the classroom teacher. Classroom management using an authoritarian or punitive approach could repress disorderly behaviour, but it might not foster student‘s growth or allow the acquisition of more sophisticated modes of learning, such as critical thinking and reflection (Jones, 1995).
In the 1990s classroom management developed beyond a set of educational techniques to become a complex process in which an environment is constructed in an on-going reciprocal manner. This process included dialogue between teachers and pupils, reflection on past and present experiences, and looking at how one‘s behaviour affected others in the environment (Schneider, 1996). Research from Balmer, Brophy and Good in Adeyemo (2012) shows that the time teacher has to correct misbehaviour caused by poor classroom management skills result in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From the pupils‘ perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of behaviour and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning environment. Apparently, classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, reinforcement, reward, discipline and respect (Naong, 2007). There are instances of some situations in the classroom that has necessitated the application of adequate management techniques by the teacher, these among others include: Pupils undermining the teacher‘s authority; pupils leaving class too frequently, sometimes without permission; sitting and backing the teacher during lesson; reading other materials or doing other things like discussion or noise making during lesson; eating or chewing gum while the class is going on; and pupils sleeping in the class during the lesson. All these should be considered rude and should not be tolerated. Other issues faced in the classes are: refusal to participate or speak during lesson, pupils sometimes become naughty and refuse to participate in classroom activities, fighting in the class, telling lies, stealing, copying other pupils‘ work during test or examinations, lack of toilet training, for instance and the likes. All these types of behaviour are management problems which need adequate classroom management techniques to tackle them. In countries like the U.S. and Malaysia, there are media publications, where teachers have been charged with assault on learners; teachers have used sticks to hit the children (Naong, 2007).
A significant body of research also attests to the fact that classroom organization and behaviour management competencies significantly influence the persistence of new teachers in teaching career (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). New teachers typically express concerns about lacking effective means to handle the disruptive behaviour of pupils (Browers & Tomic, 2000). The ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behaviour of their pupils is critical of achieving positive educational outcomes. As Zeidner (1990) in Adeyemo (2012) stated that adequate classroom discipline is generally regarded to be one of the most essential aspects of education as well as an absolute prerequisite to achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding pupils‘ psychological, social and physical well-being. The objectives of classroom are for pupils to gain social and academic success in a structured environment that caters for tolerance, exemplary behaviour and learning.
Effective classroom management means implementing techniques that create a safe, fair and rule based learning environment for pupils to flourish in. Emmor and Evertson in Osakwe (2013) stated that effective classroom management consists of teacher behaviour that produces high level of pupils‘ involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts of student‘s behaviour that interferes with the teacher‘s or other pupils‘ work, and efficient use of instructional time. Classroom management techniques are a critical part of teacher’s success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for pupils. The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place. Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply techniques that will allow and also help student to learn because without classroom management, teaching and learning process cannot be successful and effective. In view of this, Inusa (2004) opined that, a person who cannot maintain order and discipline among children is not fit to be a teacher. the issue of classroom management has some peculiar problems. One major issue is lack of interest in education at large. It has been discovered that schools have become less populated and even under populated in some cases because of lack of interest. The pupils that are even available in schools are hardly interested in education, but might be there by their parent’s desire, in essence, some of the learners display negative behaviour during lessons and when disciplinary action are taken against them it drives them out of school completely. How then do we manage our classroom adequately and keep such children in school. This study then was carried out to find Teachers classroom management techniques and primary schools pupils goal attainment
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. As student often exhibits some deviant behaviour in the classroom, which include; noise making, chewing gum, passing notes, using cell phones in class, cheating during examinations or test, copying or passing a different note during lesson, jesting, sleeping during lessons, stealing, eating during lessons, fighting, rudeness to teachers, breaking school rules, distracting others and the likes. All these and even more could constitute management problems that require effective management techniques to handle them so as to achieve educational objectives (Osakwe, 2014). Likewise, communication is a very important tool to help foster good classroom atmosphere and relations (Adeyemo, 2012). Pupils relate very well and openly with teachers they have formed a connection with through good communication. Hence, the teacher should not be seen as a dictator, because adolescents/teenagers easily rebel against such. A teacher should be someone reliable, trustworthy, approachable, open and respected. But these attributes are lacking in our teachers, which makes classroom management more difficult in Nigerian schools (Adeyemo, 2012). Good interpersonal relationship, will lead to easier classroom management and help achieve educational objectives at the long run.
Some parents show negative attention to their children’s education and this makes it difficult for teachers to do their work effectively. This is because some classroom management techniques are taken, some parents do not take it in good faith. Parents are rather concerned with their children learning a trade, farming or even sending them to bigger cities to get jobs. Another problem that informs this study is the issue of classroom arrangement. This has made classroom management very difficult. Furthermore many teachers find it difficult to effectively manage pupils, because teenagers are more difficult to manage. Thus to effectively manage classroom with teenagers, proper techniques are to be tactically used with necessary variety (Kimberly, 2001).
Another problem is bad infrastructure in schools. One of the conditions for effective classroom management in teaching and learning is a conducive environment, with good infrastructure. Hence, there are some schools in the zone without furniture, dilapidated buildings or falling ceiling. Managing learners under such conditions becomes difficult or very impossible. Educators will therefore have to discover and apply techniques that are suitable with such conditions. In this Local Government, environmental conditions has also affected the teaching and learning process and invariably affecting classroom management. A child that is not sitting comfortably cannot listen attentively.
Even though, punishment and other effective classroom management techniques are allowed, there is need to discover alternative techniques to use that could help the teachers in classroom management and match with the attainment of educational objectives. Therefore, this study surveyed the application of Classroom Management Techniques in Primary schools with the hope to discover alternative techniques to use for effective classroom management.
Objectives of the Study
This study was carried out with the objectives to:
- examine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of time management in Primary schools;
- investigate the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of reward in Primary schools
- explore the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of punishment in Primary schools;
- determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of discipline in Primary schools;
- find out the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on group participation in Primary schools;
- determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of classroom arranagement in Primary schools; and
- assess the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on application use of non-verbal communication in Primary schools
The following research questions were raised to guide the conduct of this study:
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of time management during classroom management in Primary schools?
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of reward during classroom management in Primary?
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of punishment during classroom management in Primary?
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of discipline in classroom management in Primary schools?
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on pupils group participation in classroom management in Primary schools?
- What are the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the classroom arrangement in Primary schools?
- What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on non-verbal communication in classroom management in Primary schools?