rug abuse is a matter of grave concern to educational stakeholders, medical practitioners, sociologists, religious leaders, counselors and parents. It is a national and international sensitive challenge that needs urgent attention due to the alarming rate of involvement of the youth. Adewuya (2005) noted that alcohol is most widely used among young people. West and Graham (2005) also agreed that students, as a subset of the youth population, consume large quantities of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Ajake, Isangedihi and Bisong (2009) posited that premarital sexual practices and drug abuse constitute social ills that have been age-long problems in the secondary school system.
Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010) equally confirmed that drug abuse has been identified as a serious constraint to effective teaching and learning process in the Nigerian educational system. Drug abuse, according to Ajayi and Ayodele (2002), is the wrong use or inappropriate use of chemical substances that are capable of changing functions of cells in the body. Bayer, as cited in Egbochuku and Akerele (2007), saw stimulants, which are substances that cause an increase in the activity of an organ in the body, as chemicals that excite certain activities of the central nervous system. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010) also saw drug abuse as over-dependence and misuse of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. They further identified dangerous drugs like cocaine, Indian hemp (marijuana) morphine, heroin, tobacco, ephedrine, valium five and Chinese capsules as few among the drugs commonly abused by youths.
Oshodi, Aina and Onajole (2010) reported that, despite worldwide concern and education about psychoactive substances, many adolescents have limited awareness of their adverse consequences. They further explained that curiosity, social pressure and peer group influence are noted to be primary reasons for substance misuse. Makanjuola, Daramola and Obembe (2007), Aina and Olorunsola (2008), and Buddy (2009) lamented that a substantial percentage of the national budgetary allocation is utilized for treatment and rehabilitation of people with substance use problems in Nigeria
In an attempt to control sleep or energise themselves, most adolescents and young ones start experimenting with tobacco, alcohol, ephedrine and other caffeinated substances such as Nescafe and red bull. Some of the reasons for the drug abuse, as identified by Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010), are to reduce pain, anxiety and tension, ignorance and misinformation, parental background, urge to commit crimes, peer group influence, isolation and loneliness.
Linhadt (2001) also noted that students see the use of stimulants in positive terms for relief from pain and problems, elevation of mood, wakefulness, increased confidence, feeling and psychomotor activities and athletics, and feeling of euphoria. McCrystal, Higgins and Percy (2007) confirmed that for many adolescents, drug abuse has now become a part of their lives and perhaps may have now contributed to their academic failure. Abianwu (2005) confirmed that cannabis is by far the most commonly used illicit drug with usage of 4% of the world population compared to 1% for all other drugs combined. Oshodi, Aina and Onajole (2010) also explained in their study that marijuana is the most commonly used substance followed by tobacco. They further stressed that in the United Kingdom, cross-sectional studies have shown that among students aged 15-16 years, at least 40% had used illicit drugs, mainly cannabis, at some time during their lives. Oshodi, Aina and Onajole (2010) also discovered that alcohol hypo-sedatives, tobacco and psycho stimulants were commonly abused substances with varying prevalence rates found for both overall and specific substance use. They further noted that the lifetime prevalence rates of substance use among secondary and university students were found to vary between 1.5% for tobacco and 47% for psycho stimulants in Ilorin, Kwara State of Nigeria.
Objectives of the study
The objectives of this study are to find out:-
- The effects of drug abuse on psychological behaviour in the following areas ; Cognitive, Emotion, Perception of drug
- The effects of drug abuse on social behavior in the following areas; Family related problems, Social isolation, Faulty life style of drug
- To determine the relationship between the gender on drug abuse